The American Revolution 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
troops
soldiers
militia
volunteered army
British Issues
Cocky army
cavalry
troops on horseback
resolve
find a solution
1774
Quebec act, Continental congress
tariff
tax on imported goods
Mayhew-Apthorp Controversy
American Religious Non-Conformists, people who don't associate with the Anglican Church (Baptists, Quakers, Puritans). They know that the Church is the state Church and they are British. Not present, don't pay to support it, they're okay. Johnathan Mayhew lived in Massachusetts, wrote how in the past Bishops have been instruments of tyranny. As a Congregationalist minister, keeping Bishops out of Boston was a core value. Reverend East Apthorp is an Anglican minister arriving in 1760 with Gov. Francis Bernard. Almost immediately Apthorp marries a Hutchinson. He therefore quickly ingratiates himself into Mass politics. Mayhew starts to single out as the point of the spear in an effort to instill a bishop in North America. Sees a conspiracy afoot. Argues because Apthorp says "Harvard should introduce an Anglican service into its commencement." Generates an intense pamphlet war between the two men. Mayhew basically says this is not something about just the service at Harvard, this is about imposing the Anglican world into ours.
Privateer
privately owned merchant ships equipped with weapons.
rabble
a disorderly crowd of people
1770
The Boston Massacre takes place
Loyalists
colonists who supported the British monarch and laws
protested
publicy showed strong opinions agains something .
Jamestown
First colony establish in America. 100% dependent on England prior to 1650.
Benedict Arnold
Outstanding commander for the Americans until her turned traitor; tried to sell out West Point for $2000; moved to England and became a British commander
James Madison
(1751-1836) American politician and political philosopher; wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers
South
British win every battle. Nathaniel Greene battles and run. (Gorilla warfare) British follows, moves away from river (navy supply) and steal from town. Losing their citizens and joined the patroits. (Americans)
Hessians
German mercenaries who were fighting for British; the gave up with out a fight
thomas paine
American Revolutionary leader who wrote pamphlet called "common sense"
treason
The protestors the Stamp Act were considered committing ______ - going against the government.
allies
people or countries fighting on same side against common enemy
John Smith
he helped save Jamestown from starvation
Tensions over the Townshend Acts ending in the "_______" on March 5th, 1770
Boston Massacre
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778
George Washington
Patriot and general. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Yorktown
On September 5, 1781, French naval forces defeated the British Royal Navy at the Battle of the Chesapeake, cutting off Cornwallis's supplies and transport. Washington hurriedly moved his troops from New York, and a combined Franco-American force of 17,000 troops arrived on October 6, 1781. Cornwallis's position quickly became untenable, and, on October 19, his army surrendered. The war was all but over.
Minutemen
A member of the Massachusetts colony militia who could quickly be ready to fight the British.
The Quebec Act
designed to facilitate the incorporation of French Canadians and their land into Britain's colonial American empire
Lexington
Paul Revere signaled that the British were coming and 77 minutemen were ready to fight them
Quartering Act
forced the colonies to provide barracks for the brittish troops
Boston
Washington did drive the British out of Boston in 1776
Writer of the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson
Continental Congress
The revolutionary government made from delegates of colonies, which directd the war of independence, the first meeting was held at Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia on September 5, 1774
Samuel Adams
creater of the Sons of Liberty, patriot from Boston
Declaration of Independence
formal statement signed by colonial delegates explaining why the colonists wanted to be free of British rule
Battle of Yorktown
battle in which Washington's patriots defeated the largest British force on the continent
New Jersey Plan
small state plan. william patterson. unicameral congress, equal representation. less radical.
Triangular Trade
Brought enslaved persons for Africa to the southern colonies to meet the growing needs of the farming communities and Items traded include: molasses, rum, and slaves
Battle of Saratoga
the british general burgoyne fought his way to saragoata trough the hudson river.the militia men were directed by thaddeus kosciusko made a trap at the top of the hudson river america has won
Sunshine patriot
in "The Crisis", Thomas Paine called the soldiers this when they quit when the going got tough
Treaty of Paris
a document stating peace between Britin and The Patriots
Stamp Act
direct tax, passed and repealed by British
declatory act followed
Profiteers
sold foods and supplies to the highest bidders (British)
General Johnny Burgoyne
This incompetent British general led the northern British army down the Hudson River Valley, expecting to meet up with Howe who had moved his troops to attack Philadelphia instead, and took Fort Ticonderoga, but was slow in movement allowing Benedict Arnold to reenforce General Gates at Oriskany and later Ticonderoga, where this man surrendered his entire army of over 7000 men
Boston Massacre
The British troops shot 5 unarmed colonists on 3/5/1770 because they were being mocked and annoyed.
Declaratory Act
professed the right to tax the colonists with out challencge, even as it repealed the stamp Act
Federal System
Power is divided between national and state governments
Representation
To have someone speak ir act for you.
rhetoric
Art or skill of speaking or writing effectively.
Camden
one of the worst defeats for the Patriots came at the Battle of ____________
The First Conitential Congress
Started on September 1774. Representatives from each colony came except for Georgia. They encouraged the colonists to stalk up on ammuntion. They also began to train to colonists as soldiers to take action against the British.
quarter
to provide someone with a place to sleep and eat, especially soldiers
Freidrich Von Steuben
German general who helped train the Continental Army
blockade
shutting down of a port to keep people or supplies from moving inor out
Nonimportation Agreement
a pledge by merchants not to buy imported goods from a particular source
Proclamation of 1763
Colonists were not allowed to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
Boycott
To refuse to buy or use goods or services.
Revenue Act
tax on lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea
Stamp Act 1765
Parliament's first direct tax on the Colonies; taxed newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, dice and playing cards
Difficulties facing British military
did not know terrain, underestimated the power of the army, did not anticipate the colonists alliance with France
Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended the American Revolution; US independent nation
When was the Treaty of Paris ratified
January 14, 1783
boston tea party
1773, when boston's sons of liberty disguised themselves as mohawks and went to the pier and tossed 342 chests of tea inot the harbor in order to protest the tea tax.
Paul Revere/William Dawes
American silversmith who became a hero after his famous ride to warn of the British advance on Lexington and Concord.
revolution
a time when people change a ruler or political system
Sons of Liberty
Most famously in Boston, but also in urban areas all over the colony. First in NYC in 1765. Best thought of as being both local organization that are politically active as a result of the revolutionary environment as well as a kind of loose affiliation of different patriot groups in different places that do communicate with each other. Some historians argue that the Sons of Liberty show the first evidence of inter-colonial collaboration. Many members are not simply roguish, unemployed individuals. Often times merchants, shop keepers, middle class, doctors etc. History is best told by events of 1765. With the Declaratory Acts they hibernate, pop up for Townshend Duties, hibernate, pop up again.
In Boston, they have their origin in a number of different mobs that are mobs as you might think of them today (gangs). 2 really big gangs in Boston, north-end and south-end mob. Most often in evidence on November 5th, every year, Guy Fawks Day. Annual festive occasion In the British empire that celebrates the failure of Guy Fawks to blow up Parliament. Celebrated by beating up / damaging Catholics. Boston was a hot bed of anti-Catholicism. North-end mob and South-end mob celebrate their hatred of Catholics by beating each other up. Then they'd get drunk and sing songs. Members of both mobs come together as the incipient Sons of Liberty under Ebenezer Macintosh. Get together on August 14th and go after Andrew Oliver, the appointee of stamp act distributions for Boston. Learned about it in the press before receiving the commission. Beat his effigy and set on fire, destroy warehouse, then ask him to resign. August 26th there's another riot, gathers itself together starts sloganeering "liberty and property" which gov. Andrew Bernard calls the usual reason a mob will "plunder and pull down a house." Head over to Paxton's house, discover he's renting. Mob negotiates with the owner of the residence who offers them a barrel of punch (rum mixed with rum and wine). Move to Story's house, vice admiral of registry, destroyed possessions and official records. Finally they gather at Thomas Hutchinson's house, controversial figure. Brother-in-law of Andrew Oliver, associated with crown interests. Hutchinson's house is ripped to the ground brick by brick. Everything removed, consumed, etc. Next day, people wake up and go home. Done.
They went after Hutchinson, Oliver, Vice Admiralty of Court, Registry of Court, etc. Destroy official stuff and go home. Mob activity is very focused and well planned out. Associated with a specific set of British policies. What is clear is that these actions even more so than the House of Burgesses is scaring Stamp Act distributors and causing them to resign. Violence is something that is problematic as far as the British are concerned. They are well suited to deal with political debate, factions, etc. For people in the Colonies to write petitions, that's not a big deal. Violence is, non-importation agreements is.
Checks and Balances
The system that keeps any one branch from gaining too much power. Because of the separation of powers, each branch had roles that could check, or limit, the other branches.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who became a general in the Continental Army.
The Boston Tea Party
protest against british taxes in which the sons of liberty boarded british ships and dumped tea into boston harbor in 1773
Battle of Camden
big British victory in August of 1780 where General Cornwallis was placed in charge of the South
tea act of 1773
gave the east india company exclusive rights to sell tea directly to the americans without paying the british import tax. this cut out business for colonial sea captains and merchants
First Act to raise money in the Colonies?
The Sugar Act
Sugar Act of 1764
Marked the start of a new British policy designed to raise income from the colonies. It cut the duty on foreign molasses in half. The act would encourage Americans to buy imported molasses and pay the tax rather than risk smuggling in molasses as they had been doing. The result would be increased tax collections. This act was strictly enforced.
The Battle of Concord
was a brrief battle that forced the British to retreat to Boston.
Intolerable Acts
King got mad and set up a new law called the ___________________.
7.What is a blockade?
the shutting out of food water and any inport and export
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
pamphlets, editorials and plays that criticized the British government's actions.
How did the colonists respond to the Townshend Acts?
Who will defend soldiers in court? Does he help them? Why does he defend them?
John Adams will help the soldiers because he believes everyone has the right to a fair trial. He gets many of the soldiers acquitted or short sentences.
How do the colonists dress for the Boston Tea Party?
They dress with feathers, coal dust, and hatchets as Mohawk Indians.
banned
forbidden
redcoats
British soldiers
Document
a written paper.
tories
all thye loyalists
Loyalist
Colonist who supported England
Paul Revere
"The British are coming!"
who wrote the declaration?
Thomas Jefferson
James Otis
"No taxation without representation", he argued since colonists had no representatives in Parliament, they could not be taxed for the purpose of raising money.
thomas jefferson
wrote the declaration of independence
Trenton
On Christmas night, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack the drunken Hessians who were sleeping. The Americans killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives and 6 Hessian cannons.
1781
Lord Cornwallis surrenders his british army; american and french forces trapped him
3 Branches of Government
Executive, Judicial, Legislative.
martyr
someone who dies for their beliefs
Hessian
Mercenary that came from the German state of Hesse
The Navigation Laws
trade policies that controlled colonial trade so that all resources could only ship to england. Trades to other countries had to first stop in England. Law of 1696 allowed British to use Writs of Assistance to check for smuggled goods.
ambush
lying in wait to attack by surprise
Grievance
a complaint about a (real or imaginary) wrong that causes resentment and is grounds for action
?
The colonists were fighting for what cause?
Eaton Affair
dispute over treatment of AJ's secretary of state's wife, she was called a whore by everyoneespecially JCC) defended by AJ
who won the battle of princeton?
the colonial
Constitution
A set of basic principles that determines the powers and duties of a government
neutral
colonist who took neither side during the war
Concord
Where British troops marched to seize stockpiles of firearms and gunpowder
Who created the Sons of Liberty?
Sam Adams
constitional convention
conventional congress that met in philidelpha in 1887 and drafted the comstition of the united states
rebel
to refuse to obey those in charge because of different ideas about what is right and wrong
Surrender
To give up; yield; as to an enemy
Battle of Trenton
The Americans surprised the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner; the Americans won.
Patrick Henry
He persauded the burgesses to take action against the Stamp Act He also wrote "Give me Liberty or give me death!"
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Francis Marion
Nicknamed the Swamp Fox and used guerrilla warfare
Bernardo de Galvez
Louisiana governor; began helping the Americans, because the Spanish hated the British
Native Resistance
The Natives weren't happy with the outcome of the 7 year's war. They knew that the British would not be good to their way of life. France urged their friends to revolt because they wanted control of trading once more. Chief Pontiac tried to unite all of the Native tribes to fight the British but he couldn't win military support from the French which he needed in order to win. Powerful British forces crushed Pontiac and his Warriors.
John Jay
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
committee of correspondence
(def.) groups of prominent citizens who wrote back and forth between colonies and helped each other with problems. (sig.) Sam Adams started all of this
Taxation without Representation
taxing people without checking with state officals
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792)
Friedrich von Steuben
trained Washington's troops to march and drill
Congress
a meeting where a chosen or elected group of people discuss ideas, make decisions and make the laws.
the Proclamation
1763; protects the Native lands in the Ohio Valley (settlers are not allowed to buy land there)
Stamp Act Congress
The group that caused Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act
Lord Dunmore's Proclamation
British promised freedom to any slave who fought for them and Most American Indians supported the British or remained neutral-Cherokee led by Attakullakulla
Battle of Bunker Hill
Breed's Hill; British army was fortified in norhern Boston; Washington fortified troops on Breed's Hill to counter; General Gage tried three times before he took Breed; heavy losses on British side and a realization that it wouldn't be a "quick war"
monopoly
control of a product or service by one company
Farming
What was the most common way for women to help the patriot cause?
Townshend Act
A series of laws passed by Parliament in 1767 that suspended New York's assembly and put taxes on goods brought into the British Colonies.
Organized event to protest the Tea Act
Boston Tea Party
Committees of Correspondence
a network of towns that shared news and propaganda that would make the colonists angry at the british
Battle of Guilford Courthouse
british win, but are badly weakened about 1/4 of the british troops were dead or badly wounded
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
Samuel de Champlain
- Was a soldier and explorer with energy and leadership earned him the title of "Father of France"
- Was known for establishing a positive relationship between the French and the Huron indians
turning point battle
The Battle of Saratoga was called the "____________ _________ __________" of the American Revolution
Battle of Lexington
April 19, 1775, was the "shot heard round the world", 70 minutemen against a much larger british force
Howe's march on Philadelphia
Howe captured Philadelphia and won at Germantown and Brandywine
James Otis/ "No taxation without representation"
In many colonial cities, pamphlets soon circulated condemning the Sugar Act. One pamphlet, written by James Otis, argued that because the colonists had no representatives in Parliament, they could not be taxed for the purpose of raising money. Parliment had the right to control trade, but taxing Americans to pay for British programs was different, Otis's arguments gave rise to the popular expression "No texation without representation".
Boston massacre 1770 march 5
riot of the colonists toward the british troops i the city troops fired seven killed colonists
Battle of Brooklyn Heights
another name for the Battle of Long Island
Declaration of the Causes & Necessities for Taking Up Arms
A document issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 6, 1775, to explain why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what had become the American Revolutionary War. The final draft of the Declaration was written by John Dickinson, who incorporated language from an earlier draft by Thomas Jefferson.
What do the Declaratory Acts say?
Parliament has the authority to make laws that apply to the colonists in all cases whatsoever.
Battle of Lexington/Concord April 1775
What was the first battle of the Am. Rev? and its date
They thought that the Frech Canadians wanted to be free of British rule.
Why did Montgomery and Arnold meet in Quebec?
What did the Declaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms call for?
an American army to be organized and led by George Washington; an American navy to be created to disrupt British shipping; a military expedition to be led by Benedict Arnold to wrest Canada from the British Empire
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