The Bedford Reader Useful Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Audience
A writer's readers.
Hyperbole
A conscious exaggeration/
Simile
States the comparison directly, usually connecting the two things using like, as or than.
Jargon
Strictly speaking, the special vocabulary of a trade or profession. The term has also come to mean inflated, vague, meaningless language of any kind.
Sarcasm
Irony delivered contemptuously with an intent to hurt.
Person
A grammatical distinction made between the speaker, the one spoken to, and the one spoken about. In the first person(I. we), the subject is speaking. In the second person(you), the subject is being spoken to. In the third person(he, she, it), the subject is being spoken about.
Claim
The proposition that an argument demonstrates. Stephen Toulmin favors this term in his system of reasoning.
syllogism
deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises
sentimentality
falsely emotional in a maudlin way
Emphasis
The stress or special importance given to a certain point or element to make it stand out.
Euphemism
The use of inoffensive language in place of language that readers or listeners may find hurtful, distasteful, frightening, or otherwise objectionable---for instance, a police officer's announcing that someone passed on rather than died, or a politician's calling for revenue enhancement rather than taxation.
Persuasion
A mode of writing intended to influence people's actions by engaging their beliefs and feelings.
Dialect
A variety of English based on differences in geography, education, or social background.
Appeals
Resources writers draw on to connect with and persuade readers.
Data
The name for evidence favored by logician Stephen Toulmin in his system of reasoning.
Definition
A statement of the literal and specific meaning or meanings of a word, or a method of developing an essay. In the later, the writer usually explains the nature of a word, thing, or a phenomenon.
warrant
the name in Stephen Toulmin's system of reasoning for the thinking, or assumption, that links data and claim
Narration
The mode of writing that tells a story.
Narrator
The teller of a story, usually either in the first person or in the third.
Technical terms
Words and phrases that form the vocabulary of a particular discipline(monocotyledon from botany), occupation(drawplate from diemaking0, avocation(interval training from running).
Rational appeal
Asks readers to use their intellects and their powers of reasoning. It relies on established conventions of logic and evidence.
Flashback
A technique of narrative in which the sequence of events is interrupted to recall an earlier period.
Description
A mode of writing that conveys the evidence of the senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell.
Figures of speech
Expressions that depart from the literal meanings of words for the sake of emphasis or vividness.
Chronological order
The arrangement of events as they occurred or occur in time, first to last. Most narratives and process analysis use chronological order.
Journal
A record of one's thoughts, kept daily or at least regularly.
Coherence
The clear connection of the parts in effective writing so that the reader can easily follow the flow of ideas between sentences, paragraphs, and larger divisions, and how they relate successively to one another.
Dead metaphor
A word or phrase that, originally a figure a speech, has come to be literal through common usage: "the hands of a clock."
Deductive reasoning, deduction
The method of reasoning from the general to the particular: From information about what we already know, we deduce what we need or want to know.
Image
A word or word sequence that evokes a sensory experience.
Objective and subjective
Kinds of writing that differ in emphasis. In objective writing, the emphasis falls on the topic; in subjective writing, it falls on the writer's view of the topic.
Inductive reasoning, induction
The process of reasoning to a conclusion about an entire class by examining some of its members.
Loose sentence
A sentence in which the main point precedes less important details.
Ethical appeal
Asks readers to look favorably on the writer. It stresses the writer's intelligence, competence, fairness, morality, and other qualities desirable in trust worthy debater or teacher.
Cause and effect
A method of development in which a writer analyzes reasons for an action, event, or decision, or analyzes its consequences.
Active voice
The form of the verb when the sentence subject is the actor. Trees [subjects] shed [active verb] their leaves in autumn.
Passive voice
The form of the verb when the sentence subject is acted upon: The report(subject) was published(passive verb) anonymously.
Dominant impression
The main idea a writer conveys about a subject through description---that an elephant is gigantic, for example, or an experience scary.
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