Enlightenment 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
copernicus
heliocentric universe
rousseau
French painter.
Peninsulares
European/all power (0.1%)
newton
universal laws of motion
Beccaria
accused have rightsno torture
galileo
telescope: moon, sun, jupiter's moons
Enlightment
Age of reason,New intellectual movement that stressed using reason to discover natural rights.
Voltaire
"Crush that infamous thing"--about Catholic church
wrote Candide
Deist
Voltaire*
Educated by Jesuits, Frenchman Voltaire believed in the distant deistic God - a clockmaker who built an orderly world and let in run under laws of science. He was imprisoned in the Bastille for 11 months in 1717 and then exiled to England for 3 years. There he came to admire Britain's system of government, praising the tolerant intellectual and religious climate of England while criticizing the abuses of French society and the Catholic Church.
He advocated freedom of thought and respect for all, intending to construct a more natural religion based on reason and natural law. He despised religious intolerance, arguing in his Treatise on Toleration that religion suppressed the human spirit and crafting his famous Candide against the evils of organized religion. In 1743, he lived in the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia where he supported Enlightened Despotism.
glorious revolution
the events of 1688–89 by which James II was expelled and the sovereignty conferred on William and Mary.
Salon
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
physiocrats
enlightenment thinkers who focus on economics reforms
France
High taxes because government broke; High prices of food; Enlightenment ideas stir people to revolt; Common people feeling oppressed; American revolution as a model
Joseph II
This Habsburgs ruled closely controlled the Catholic Church, granting religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, abolishing serfdom, and converting peasant labor into cash payments. To do this, he often traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of their troubles and absolve them, becoming known as "the peasant emperor." He was the co-regent with his mother Maria Theresa from 1765 until her death. The country plunged into turmoil at his death.
Candide
a humorous novel by Voltaire,1759, that slyly uses the tale to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.
Kepler
he continued brahe's work about planets. He studied them and discoverd that they all have a mathmatical force that they revolve around the sun
philosophe
any of the popular French intellectuals or social philosophers of the 18th century, as Diderot, Rousseau, or Voltaire.
Diderot
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France
Declaration of independence
2nd cont. congress declared independence from britain.based on ideas of locke and enlightment.
Madam DeChalallet
equal education for men and women
translated Principia to French
deism
In this religion of the Enlightenment (1700s), followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterward He left it to run by its own natural laws. They eenied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
John Wilkes
English reformer who published attacks on George III and supported the rights of the American colonists (1727-1797)
People are basically good ("noble savage") but become corrupted by society.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
social gatherings held by french women being hostesses. gathered to discuss ongoing events and new ideas.
baroque
Thomas Jefferson drew from which Enlightenment thinker's ideas when he wrote the Declaration of Independence?
John Locke
simon bolivar
Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
John Locke
english philosopher, believed that the job of the gov't is to protect natural rights of its citizens, believed that man was good
Montesquieu
the first to propose teh separation of powers within a government
Nicolaus Copernicus
A Polish astronomer who proved that the Ptolemaic system was inaccurate, he proposed the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system.
New skepticism
The great scientists of the 17th century such as: kepler, Galileo, and Newton had pursued their work in a spirit of exalting God, but not undermining Christianity. But as scientific knowledge spread, more and more educated men and women began to question religious truths and values.
enlightenment despots
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Edward Gibbon
(1737-1794) One of the most famous historians of all time, Gibbon is famous mainly for writing The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776), an anti-Christian historical work that was one of the first to cite primary sources and, more importantly, attempted to explain the past as a guide to the future.
oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
1)government reduced power of lords over the serfs.2)she hada administrative reforms that strengthened the royal bureaucracy
napoleon
a pastry consisting of thin layers of puff paste interlaid with a cream or custard filling.
Reasons for Napoleans defeat
Directory was to weak and corrupt.;wars to expand empire.
Treatise on toleration
In this he argued that religious toleration had created no problems for England and Holland and reminded governments that "all men are brother under God".
Bank of England*
(1694) The Bank of England received deposits and exchanged foreign currencies, but unlike other banks, it also made loans. They also provided "bank notes" that were a paper substitute for gold or silver currency. The Bank of England also issued government bonds payable at regular interest which led to a "national debt" separate from the monarch's personal debt.
Open-field system
common lands were open and strips of land for agriculture were not divided by fences or hedges
A government whose power is defined and limited by law is known as what?
a constitutional government
JJ Rousseau
has some really neat ideas, 'if the gov't doesn't do its job protecting the rights of people, we have the right to overthrow it!'
Napoleon's Biggest Mistakes
Napoleon's army were not used to the climate in Russia & were outnumbered
Bank of England
created in 1694 to ensure a stable money supply and to lay the foundation for a network of lending institutions
open field system*
In this farming system, the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village was divided into several large fields which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips. The fields were open and unenclosed into small plots by fences or hedges. The large field was owned and utilized by everyone in the community in equal degrees. This system was often used in the New England colonies. The town as a whole decided what crops to plant, rotating there 3+ crops and practicing subsistence farming. They sold the surplus and left one field to fallow to restore nutrients. After the population boom, this system became inefficient.
Because of Voltaire's outspoken attacks on the abuses of his day, he suffered what consequences?
he was imprisoned and forced into exile.
Who lived from 1724-1804 and represents the German Enlightenment?hint: he was aginst empiricism(a view set forth in his 1781..book)
Immanuel Kant shows how far the Enlightenment spread. In his Critique of Pure Reason (1781) he put himself against empiricism. in his opinion the mind shaped the world thru ITS experiences. he also inspired the Romantics by saying that there were possibly hidden layers of knowledge that could not be achieved with reason
What kind of liberty was Locke talking abt if he was ok with having a king? was he insane?
Locke considered liberty as the right to make choices; to live in one area or to move to a better one, religion etc. All of this could be restricted by the government. But the natural rights of man could not be denied at whim
What book (published in 1762 also) can be said to have influenced the Romantics?
Rouseau helped set the stage for the Romantic movement w/ his novel Emilie (1762). It's abt a young man who receives an education that encourages emo over reason. To achieve this he has to explore nature in order to heighten his emotional sensibility. He also emphasized the developmental differences between kids& adults
aggregate
gather; accumulate
infernal
relating to hell
constitutional monarchy
limited monarchy.
tycho brahe
data on planetary positions
philosophes
enlightenment thinkers who believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law and society
Principia
Newton's book
start of the enlightenment
1687
Persian Letters
Letters written by Montesquieu."Letters" created by Persian disowning ever aspect of the Catholic faith.
robespierre
French lawyer and revolutionary leader.
salons
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Emile
This is the enlightenments most important works on education. It is writeen in the form of a novel.
cameralism
mercantilism designed to increase a ruler's power
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Which of the following statements about Britain in the 1600s and 1700s is true?a. Britain had a weak navy.b. Britain's island location weakened is control over trade.c. Britain gained control of the slave trade in Spanish America.
c.
enlightenment
18th century movement, stressed the use of logic and reasoning in answering societal questions, outgrowth of the scientific revolution, led to many revolutions (political) around the world
Hobbs
Enlightenment - all men were brutish, bad, and all people had to give up personal freedoms so they could have a strong ruler who could maintain peace and order.
natural laws
laws that govern the human nature
mercantilism
This was an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought. The policy was flawed though as mercantilism easily led to inflation.
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Rene Descartes
also contributed to the scientific method.believed old ways needed to be trashed. loved math and linked geometry to science
Often called Britain's first prime minister.
Robert Walpole
aristocracy
a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, esp. the hereditary nobility.
apologist
a person who makes an argument in support of someone or something
skepticism
This is doubt about the truth of something, or the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge and that nothing can be known for certain.
"Invisible Hand"
Adam Smith coined this phrase to describe the process that turns self-directed gain into social and economic benefits for all or self-regulated nature of the marketplace.
Triangle trade
a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa
British economist who argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. Strong supporter of laissez faire.
Adam Smith
enlightened despot
Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change
Monarchy
a country or region ruled by the royal family
dictatorship
a group or a person who rules a country by force
Jean Jacques Rousseau*
A major influence of the Romantic Movement of the nineteenth century, he was committed to individual freedom. He thought that man was born good but that thought, rationalism, and civilization corrupt man, so man needs protection from society. His book The Social Contract tells how social inequalities develop when people sign a social contract agreeing to surrender to the general will in order to be free. This creates a government as a necessary evil to carry out general will. If general will fails, people can replace it. This has justified actions in the French revolution and in Hitler's regime. He also wrote Emile that attacked society and proposed a new theory of education. He called for focus on logical thinking, reason, love, tenderness, and understanding toward children. He wanted children to be raised naturally and spontaneously in order to raise their emotional awareness.
Voltaire was known to be the most famous and in many ways, the most representative, philosophe during the Enlightenment. He was labeled as a _______________ and not a _____________.
Reformer; Revolutionary
natural right
any right that exists by virtue of natural law.
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Age of Enlightenment
(1600-1800) Also known as the Age of Reasoning, this intellectual and scientific movement of 18th century Europe was characterized by a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues. People investigated human nature, sought to explain reality through rationalism, and use their reasoning to improve life. This period formed the basis of modern science.
This age was aided by the ever-present Greek and Renaissance texts that provided many of the ideas, the dissension during centuries of religious wars (Protestantism and the Reformation), and the bitterness towards feudalism.
Nowadays encyclopedias are common...So what was the big deal about the Encyclopedia that Denis Diderot(1713-1784) come up with?
The encyclopedia was written by the Republic of Letters (international intellectual community that communicated in French). It represents the Enlightenment belief that all knowledge could be organized and represented in a scientific manner.It was vital in spreading Enlightenment ideals beyond France. It also taught ppl to think critically
impact of travel literature and cultural relativism
Skepticism about both Christianity and European culture was nourished by travel reports
Traders, missionaries, medical practitioner, and explorers began to publish travel books on many different cultures.
For some intellectuals, the existence of exotic peoples, such as the native of Tahiti, presented an image of a "natural man" who is far happier than Europeans.
Cultural relativism: is when the travel literature of the 17th and 18th centuries led to the realization that there were highly developed civilizations with different customs in other parts of the world. And some European intellectuals began to evaluate their own civilizations relative to others.
The intellectuals were popular. This meant literacy rates improved and with it education. the results of this were?5)answers
1)most classes taught in vernacular of the country2)spelling and grammar became more standardized. Dictionaries appear3) publishing of texts in vernacular increased.4)almanacs appeared5)specialized interest areas were made available
joint stock company
This is a company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Declaration of rights of a man and citizen
men are=,are born=.remain free&= in rights."liberty,property,security,resistence to oppression.'' Guaranted citizens =justice,freedom of speech &religion. "liberty,equality,freedom"
Rousseau argued what point in his writings about the natural human state?
he believed that people were basically good and had a natural innocence.
how did courtly art in the 1700s differ from the art in the 1600s?
it followed the grand, complex style of baroque.
Thomas Hobbes (book)
"Leviathan"
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
Pantheist
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
French philosopher/mathematician
Music during the Enlightenment
Mozart, Hayden
Descartes
French philosopher and mathematician. "I think therefore I am."
The Encyclopedie banned by?
Catholic church
"The Meditations" about
Mind has spirit
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (work)
"The Social Contract"
Thomas Paine
American revolutionary leader; capitalizes on Scottish enlightenment; atheist; wrote Common Sense
French Enlightenment
the most well-known enlightenment
"Leviathan" attacked?
Concepts of divine right
Two types of atheism
Practical and Speculative
Substance
Philosophical term for that which exists
Edmund Burke
conservative English leader; thought the American Revolution was justified, but believed that the French Revolution was not the same
diverse
the Enlightenment thinkers were very ________
John Locke's "Tabula rasa" =
Blank slate
Social Contract
Rousseau's most influential work; argues that there is a social contract in which individuals turn in their liberties and turn it into a collective "thing"
Decartes
introduced skepticism by having a doubt of everything; focused on the used of reason to focus on science and get to truths
Candide (1759)
Voltaire's most famous work; reactionary book to attack a German enlightenment thinker
Most of Europe ruled by?
Absolute monarch
Antoine Nollet
held public science lectures, "jumping monks" brought enlightemnent to lower classes.
Madame De Pompadour
Had the best salon around
Voltaire wrote?
Plays, essays, poetry, philosophy and books
Theodicee (1710)
written by Gottfried von Leibniz; argued that evil in this world did not conflict with the idea of God
Baron de Montesquieu wrote?
"Spirit of the Laws"
Thomas Hobbes
Natural law is absolutism. Man is nasty and brutish. Man cannot self-govern. Wrote Leviathan.
Materialism
theory of only body, no soul. Matter does not need an outside force to act on it. living Matter is active.
Denis diderot
Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
Thomas Hobbes believed?
Humans were basically driven by passions and needed to be kept in check
enlightened despots
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Frederick II "the Great"
philosophe-king of Prussia; describes himself as the "first servant of the state"; created and shaped the greatest army; probably the smartest of the enlightened despots
17th C. substance meant?
Material and/or material and spiritual
Woman & The Enlightenment
Changing views, role of education, equality
The Scientific Revolution
acted as the root of the Enlightenment
Bill of Rights
the first addition to the U.S. Constitution; consisted of 10 amendments
equality before the law; religious toleration; freedom of speech and press; foster arts and sciences in education
characteristics of enlightened despots
Deism (morality achieved by)
Following reason rahter than the teachings of church
six big characteristics of Enlightenment
1. social criticsm 2. international movement 3. public sphere 4. optimistic movement (humans can better conditions) 5. emphasis on reason/rationality 6. reforming movement with radical implications
"the ideology of reason"
the foundational idea of the French Enlightenment
Two Treatises of Government
written by John Locke; argued for a government that protected the rights of its individuals and did no more than that
The Wealth of Nations (1776)
written by Adam Smith; argued that free market trade was the best economic system; offered that laws of supply and demand will automatically take place, and market forces will help balance these out
"Spirited mind" (thought) is always right if...
Not deceived by the "physical body" (passion)
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