Enlightenment The French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hobbes work
leviathan
Moderate Phase
1789- 1792
liberal
napoleon
named himself emperor napolen
Isaac Newton
english. "principia". discovered universal laws of nature to explain gravity, motion, light, etc.
middle class
bourgeoisie: special grievance- resented the special privileges and social prestige automatically given to one with an Aristocratic name
descartes saying
"I think therefore I am"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
swiss. "Emile". advocated separate roles for men and women in politics and education based on natural (biological) differences
Coalition
great powers of Europe: Austria, Prussia, Russia, and the Great Britain
11. Which Enlightenment philosopher believed people are naturally wicked and selfish?
Thomas Hobbes
rationalism
belief that human nature could be logically explained using reasons and the scientific method
Reign of terror
jacobins held political power, beheaded all those who didn't support the new republic
feudalism
A political system in which powerful nobles granted land to other nobles in return for loyalty, military assistance, and services
Mountian
Poor people that formed an alliance with the san-culottes
John Locke
Two Treatises on Government
did not write The Social Contract
natural rights: life, liberty, property
Estates General
hasn't been called in two centuries
napoleon 4
was defeated at the battle of waterloo
National Assembly
The third estate and some enlightened members of clergy. wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man
Jean-Jacues Rousseau
a french philosopher who believed that people are naturally good, but society corrupts them through environment, education, and laws. he thought people should control the government.
August 4th Decrees
the noble deputies announced their willingness to give up their tax exemptions and seigneurial dues, abolishment of "the feudal regime"
Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
challenged Rousseau's view on women
7. English Bill of Rights, American Declaration of Independence, US Constitution, US Bill of Rights were all influenced by what philosophical movement?
the Enlightenment
Maximilien de Robespierre
leader of jacobins. strong promoter of king's bloodshed (beheaded). instituted the reign of terror
Marie Antoinette
an Austrian princess who was sent to France to get married in order to strengthen ties between the France and Austrian. She was the target of the Women's March, but she was saved by the French National Guard. executed.
Revolutionary Wars
A war between the British and the colonists. The colonists wanted to be free of British rule.
Pauline Leon and Claire Lacombe
Society of Revolutionary Republican Women; sans culottes; wanted to be active members of the Jacobin party; sent to the guillotine
The Reign of Terror
Robespierre was the head of the Revolution. During this period, (many killed) Robespierre's men were known as the Committee of Public Safety. Comprised of the political alliance between the Mountain and the sans-culottes. This meant that his committee typically appealed to the urban poor. During this period, France employed a draft system to gain an army and to finish off the battles of the first coalition. If men were resistant, they were killed and anyone agreeing or helping them was jailed. The period ended when Robespierre and his men were executed by other men in the government that feared Robespierre becoming more powerful and more of a tyrant.
March on the Bastille
800 sans culotte storm the bastille for arms
17. What term refers to a king or queen who do not have to adhere to law or a constitution?
absolute monarch
March of the women to Versailles
7000 Parisian women demanding bread, the king and queen never see their palace at Versailles ever again and go to the Tuileries
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Ended Feudalism. All people are equal before the rights of man. Freedom of religion, speech, and the press. 1791 The French Constitution war written, it created a constitutional monarchy. King Louis is brought to trial and executed. Marie Antoinette was killed 8 months later.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
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