The Civil War and Reconstruction 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
amnesty
government pardon
Border States
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland
land mines
new kind of weaponry
fire eaters
southern extremists ...northerners said they would eat fire in defense of slavery
Thanksgiving
declared a holiday by President Lincoln to give thanks for blessings during the war
Compromise of 1877
Hayes-Tilden Deal: abandoned commitment to racial equality/removed all military out of South (if do this South will vote for Hayes)
Violence
KKK committed arson, murder, torture -night ride of terroism ->intimidation =effective
KKK goal: restore white supremacy (very effective/successful)
A horseman in the Sky
Ambrose Bierce
Henry Grady
-editor of the Atlanta Constitution
-advocated the South becoming more industrial and progressive
impeachment
a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
Carpetbaggers
What term did Southerners use to describe Northerners who tried to make money at the expense of the defeated south?
reconstruction
rebuilding of the south after the civil war
Law
Lincoln taught himself ?, passed bar exam, opened up his own practice, and went into politics
What were the social implications of Reconstruction?
...
disease (soldiers)
because of bad conditions, many soldiers in the war died of disease
Carpetbagger
Northerner who moved to the South after the Civil War
2nd Confiscation Act
-influenced by the raidcals
-slaves of anyone who supported the Confederacy army were free
-black ppl could be employed as soldiers
Robert E. Lee
Commander of the Confederate Army
Benjamin Wade
radical republican and a senator of Ohio wanted to abolish slavery completely, was the chair of the committee on the conduct of the war
Elisha Pease
Tried to stay neutral during the war
Blockage of Sea
- increasingly effective (not at first)
-1862: Merrimack (Virginia) vs. Monitor (1st iron clad / end of wood warships)
Confederacy
The south states in the Civil War. They were for slavery.
Gettysburg Address
Speech given by Lincoln in November, 1863 at Gettysburg, Pa. to honor dead and reaffirm Declaration of Independence Ideals
describe outcome of Antideum
Lee's Northward push was stopped=>great victory for union army
-Link heard news & thinks its going to be over
-but lee's army was able to escape back across Patomic (North general failed to take advantage of this victory)
outcome=> link was depressed
Successful conclusion
Lincoln saw the war to a ??
Monitor
In response, the North builds its own ironclad called the ?.
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Harriet Tubman
This person was perhaps the most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad, saving over 300 lives in the process
Horace Greeley
-newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party.
-New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870.
-Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
13th Amendment Passed
This amendment stated that neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude could exist in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln
President of the United States of America during the Civil War
martial law
the body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)
Tweed Ring
(USG) , the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly "Boss" Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper's Weekly
Johnson vs. Congress
- Civil Rights Bill 1866 (vetoed)
-becomes 14th Amendment:
-- guaranteed civil rights + equal protection
-- reduced state representation in Congress if it denied blacks the vote
-- barred Confederates from federal and states office if they had held office before
-- repudiated all Confederate debts
-- "men" used 1st time in Constitution
Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities.
Schools, hospitals, cemeteries.
What places did Jim Crow laws segregate?
1st land battle of civil war
Battle of Bull Run
Labor system
North says slavery will NOT be the future ?? in America
Mexican War
The second issue with this battle is the equipment they were using was left over from what war?
Unpopular, War, North
Another Lincoln weakness was that he was ?. Only won 1 election before Pres. Reelected but probably only because it was in the middle of a ? and the election was only in the ?.
oh captain my captain
Walt Whitmen taking abotu the assasintion of Abraham Lincoln.
Fugitive Slave Law
an 1850 law to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves
William T. Sherman
-Union general who began total warfare against the South
-march to sea caused total destruction burning supplies, whole towns, and ruthless killing
Bull Run
Also known as the First Battle of Manassas. It was the first major land battle of the American Civil War.
Missouri Compromise
declared that any state that was above the 36-30 parallel was a free state; admitted Maine as a free state.
Fifteenth Amendment
No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage
describe the racial compositon of state gov
12yrs reconstruction, 11 men
none=black state governers
state govereners= white, wealthy, planters
House of Reps, Loved
Lincoln ran for ? first and immediately won. Served 1 term and did NOT seek reelection. Looks like another failure, but he ? it!
What were the economical implications of Reconstruction?
The economical implications of Reconstruction was sharecropping, which was renting out land to blacks to farm on, and getting the pay back from their crops.
First Civil Rights Act
-1866 in response to the Southern Black Codes
-said that Blacks were citizcens of the United States
Compromise of 1850
Five bills that was passed by Congress in 1850 that settled a dispute between slave and free states
What battle was the South's last hope of winning English help? Who were the opposing generals? Who won the battle?
Gettysburg; Meade, Lee; Union
Sherman's March to the Sea
Using the concept of total war, General William T. Sherman led some 60000 troops on a march 300 miles south across Georgia; burning cities and destroying everything in his path that the South could use to continue fighting.
Describe the Battle of ANTIDEUM
Confed. Comander: Rob E. Lee -made decision to carry war out of south and into north
-one day battle in late sept 1862
=the single deadliset battle (5,000 soldiers die; 20,000 wounded and most will eventually die)
Orator, Spoken word
Lincoln is also the greatest ? we have ever produced as a people. Defined American ideals more beautifully than any man before or since with the ??
Second Battle of Bull Run
Conflict between Lee and General John Pope in August 1862, ending in a decisive victory by Lee that led to increased confidence and an attempt to convince Maryland to secede
Dred v. Stanford
As a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves.
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware
What were the four border states at the start of the Civil War?
describe how the civil war marks a transition in warfare
traditional warfare-> modern warfare (aka: total war)
traditional: ememies=other men in uniform
modern: enemies= everyone (fought war totally)
Battle of Bull Run, Land
This occurred in summer 1861, first ? battle of Civil War. About 30 mi west of D.C.
How did Radical Republicans gain power in Congress?
They proposed the 14th Amendment, which convinced many moderate republians to join their side.
The Union planned to blocked seaports, control the Mississippi River, and attack from east and west at once.
What was the Union's plan for achieving victory?
describe how the south committed political suicide with civil war
there was a fear that southerners had committed treason in the past and moght do it agian -> couldn't be leaders
Save the nation. Nationalism was a great achievement, fighting to maintain it
Lincoln was NOT fighting to free slaves, he was fighting to ???.
Why did some Southerners support Republicans?
They had not wanted to secede, they agreed with helping freedmen
how did Hayes end recontruction
recall 5 Fed armies out of south -> w/ this withdrawl the full wieght of white supremacy fell on the black man's shoulders
[187men/yr lynched to maintain white supremacy (documented, reality: there were more)
=>clearly south was not reconstructed [reconst ended early]
What were the advantages for the North and South?
The North had more people, more supplies, and the government, while the South had more military expertise.
Slavery (in context of causes of civil war)
often BELIEVED to be cause of civil war
but it was NOT fought to free slaves (except abolitionist who were a tiny, vocal minority)
reality: fought to SAVE NATION
Why did many freedmen and porr whites become freedem and why were they in the cycle of poverty?
There was no land to be owned and the plantation owners needed workers. They sunk deeper into debt becasue many of them couldn't pay back the items they took on credit.
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