The Endocrine System 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Posterior Pituitary
quick; oxytocin
adrenal glands
sugar, sweetness
luteinizing hormone
Adrenal Cortex
ACTH regulates
Radioactive Iodine Uptake
-oxytocin-stimulates uterine contractions in childbirth-posterior pituitary lobe hormone
How are hormones transported?
secretes parathyroid hormone
chief cells
Intertitial Cell Stimulating Hormonefound: pituitary gland, anterior lobe
pertaining to the cortex
PTH raises
plasma Ca2+ concentration
Thyroid Gland Hormones
-Thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine)(T4)-Triiodothyronine(T3)-Calcitonin
endoplasmic reticulum
Ca2+ comes from where?
excess glucose in the blood
steroids produced by adrenal cortex
a molecule that when low signals mitosis and allows liver tissue to regenerate.
chalone levels drop when liver tissues dies 
maintaining a normal level of this will keep you healthy
tumor of Parafolicular cells
medullary carcinoma???
Glucose (sugar) in the urine.
Ductless glandsSecrete directly into blood flow (1 answer)
Peptides with carbohydrate group

Ex. Anterior pituitary hormones, erthroprotein
-aka thyrotoxicosis-increase in the secretions of the thyroid-weightloss, nervousness, sweating
a crystalline amino acid, HOC6H4CH2CH(NH2)COOH, abundant in ripe cheese, that acts as a precursor of norepinephrine and dopamine.
adipose cells
What converts glucose to fat?
NURSING: -Low Fowler's, -No bending, -Check urine output, -Hormone replacement for life; TREANSPHENOIDAL APPROACH: -Observe for CSF leak (glucose), -Administer antibiotics to prevent meningitis, -No teeth brushing until sutures removed
pituitary gland
-hypophysis-pea-size gland located in a depression of the sphenoid bone-located under the hypothalamus by the infundibulum-anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)-posterior pituitary(neurohypophysis)
Produce ova; release estrogens and progesterone.
Gonadtropic Hormones
anterior pituitary gland; regulate hormonal activity of testes and ovaries; includes follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
filter 1 liter of blood/minute
most just passes through, and is returned to blood-very little is excreted.
acts as blood filter
Pertaining to or resembling a cortex.
chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland
production of an insufficient amount of secretion
________ are derived from the precursor arachidonic acid.
5'--monodeiodase is found primarily here
peripheral tissues
- increases blood sugar
- increase rate of sugar break down and production by liver
surgical remove of the pineal gland
gland controlled by neuronsmedulla of adrenal gland
Signaling from the target organ back to the source of the hormone
thyroid-stimulating hormone
stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine
cushing syndrome
condition caused by the hypersecretion of the glucocoriticoids from the adrenal cortex
combines with thyroglobulin to form t3 and t4
Parafolliular cells
secrete the hormone calcitonin in response to an elevated level of blood calcium
calcitonin acts to reduce the blood calcium level and encourage deposition of calcium into the bone
Hormonal Stimuli
other hormones stimulate the release of other hormones
makes up 90% of liver
paranchyma of liver--does pretty much all function
loaded with mitochondria
has exocrine and endocrine fx. within one cell
produce bile
hardly any con. tissue-heavy drinkers have more
Any disease of the adrenal glands. Also called adrenalopathy.
Parathyroid Glands
Four small bodies lying directly behind the thyroid. Parathormone (PTH), the hormone produced by the glands, helps maintain the level of calcium in the blood.
when are epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted?
fight or flight
Hormones are transported to their target cells __________________.
blood plasma
this promotes bone and muscle growth
growth hormone
Calcium (Electrolyte Imbalance)
Hypercalcemia: Increase threshold of voltage-gated channels. Decrease rate of action potentials.

Hypocalcemia: Decrease threshold. Increase rate of action potentials.
What are lipid soluble hormones made from?
reduced secretion due to partial or complete loss of function of the anterior pituitary lobe
The mRNA molecule moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and binds to a ribosome where it directs the synthesis of specific proteins. A) True B) False
anterior pituitary
part of the pituitary gland, secretes: growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin.
which area of the brain regulates the endocrine system?
what is the hormone-receptor relationship insures specificity?
the hormone-receptor relationship insures specificity, meaning that there is a specific hormone for each receptor.
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol.
Growth Hormone
1. Target: all body cells, but especially the bone and muscle cells.2. Function: Stimulate growth; lengthen bones in childhood
What is Tetany?
-Hyposecretion of PTH of the Parathyroid-Causes spontanious nerve impulses
Acute Complications of Hyperglycemia can be life threataning...  What are they?
Acute Complications:
The two most important acute complications are (both are treated elsewhere as separate disease states):

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Nonketotic Hyperosmolar State(NKHS)
One of two hormones secreted by the ovaries
T4, secreted by thyroid, sets BMR by regulating cell respiration,increase metabolic heat
tyrosine goes through iodination to form
T4 and T3
Describe Amino acid derivatives.
-small molecules structurally related to amino acids
-synthesized from the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan
HIGH Blood Sugar
1. sugar faster to cells
2. use more sugar and ATP
3. glucose to glycogen
4. more A.A. absorption
5. more fat synthesis
Endocrine Glands functions
Release hormones which travel through blood to target cells.Ductless
There are two classifications of hormones based on chemical structure. What are they?
Lipid soluable hormones
Glucocorticoids act upon _____ tissues; what are the functions of this sympathetic nervous system agent?
increased protein and fat breakdown
increased glucose production
inhibition of immune response
decreased inflammation
Region of the brain; the floor of the third ventricle that helps maintain homeostasis.
What are the 2 types of hormones?
Non-steroid (protein)
Steroid (lipid)
luteinizing hormone (LH).
LH causes the secretion of sex hormones—estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone—in men and women, and stimulates the process of ovulation
negative feedback system of thyroxine
metabolic rate goes down, hypothalamous secretes TRH
 TRH stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete TSH
TSH stimulates thyroid to release thyroxinr
neg feedback shuts off TRH until metabolic rate decreases 
Promote the release of lipids by adipose tissue
epinephrine and norepinephrine
What are the adrenal hormones?
The adrenal gland secretes:
1) mineralocorticoids - which regulate electrolyte balance and help maintain blood pressure
2) glucocorticoids - concerned with metabolism and stress response
3) gonadocorticoids -
Nervous System vs. Endocrine System
Neurons release neurotransmitters into a synapse, affecting postsynaptic cells. - Sympathetic "fight or flight"vs. Glands release hormones into the bloodstream, only target cells of hormone respond.Hormones bind to proteins on cell, called receptors.Very quick reaction vs. short to long reaction
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine gland that is located in the neck and regulates body metabolism
Name four hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland?
There are two kinds of glands, the _____________ and ___________ glands.
exocrine and endocrine
what is the blood supply to the the thyroid?
Superior Thyroid arteryies --- external carotid
Inferior thyroid arteries  --- thyrocervical trunk off of subclavian
Thyroid ima artery --- the right subclavian carotid trunk
Type II Diabetes Mellitus
90% of all diabetesdue to insulin resistance (insensitivity)leads to hyperglycemiaInsulin Independent
The affects of epinephrine and norepinephrine are known as
the fight or flight response
What hormones does the thyroid secrete?
The thyroid secretes three hormones:
1) thyroxine
2) triiodothyronine
3) calcitonin
response to a hormone depends on both the ____ and the ____
hormone; target cell
Nonsteriod hormones serves as ________ ___________ providing communication between _________ and ___________ _________. Another molecule such as ________ ______ then acts as the _________ _______ providing _____________ within a hormone's ________ _______
Nonsteroid hormones serves as First Messenger providing communication between endocrine and target organs. Another molecule as cylic AMP then acts as the second messenger providing communication within a hormone's target cells.
Type 2 diabetes/non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
accounts for 90% of the cases of diabetes mellitus and is most frequently seen in adults 35 years of age and older. More than 70% of individuals in whom Type 2 diabetes develops are obese. unresponsiveness or resistance to insulin, causes of which include hormone receptor defects or too few receptors on the surface of target cell membranes. As a consequence, the insulin that is produced is not effective.
Microscopic structure of the thyroid gland
cubodial cells, follicles : store hormone
What are the uses for androgens
replacment therapy, breast cancer in women, tumors, refractory anemias, AIDS
What are the differences between the Endocrine System and the Nervous System
Endocrine: long term/ metablolic activity, acts slower, released into blood
Nervous: short term, acts quickly, confined to snynapse
The zana glomerulosa regulates the levels of
sodium and potassium ions in the blood, so it regulates salt
why is pancreas both endo and exocrine gland?
exocrine - digestive
endocrine - producing insulin and glucagon 
What are some common second messengers (and derivatives)?
-cyclic AMP (cAMP; derivatives of ATP)
-cyclic GMP (cGMP; derivatives of GTP)
-calcium ions
Gigantism is a disorder of what endocrine gland?
anterior pituitary (usually caused by a pituitary adenoma)
stress induces a nonspecific response called general adaptation syndrome (GAS)causes ACTH and cortisol releaseoften affects physiology negatively
what is the effect of stress on glucocorticoid secretion?
what's the location of the thymus gland?
lines in the thoacic cavity behind the sternum.secretes hormones called thymosins, which play a role in the immune system.
Name the three factors on which target cell activation by the hormone-receptor interaction is contingent.
The extent of target cell activation depends on:
1) blood hormone levels
2) the number of receptors for the hormone on/in target cells
3) the affinity between hormone and receptor.
What are some effects of aging on the parathyroid gland?
It is difficult to detect because of decreased calcium intake and circulating vitamin D, as well as blunted response accompanying aging.
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