Environmental Biology Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sphenophyta
Horsetails.
Abiotic
Nonliving.
Shiner
Small fish.
Meanders
Winding streams.
Vaccinium sp.
Blueberry.
Nekton
turtles, fish, whales
Chlorophyta
Green, photosynthetic algae.
Kalmia latifolia
Mountain laurel.
K strategists
fewer offspring,stable population,predator type organisms
Echinodermata
Starfish, urchins, sea cucumbers.
Meroplankton
Larva plankton, adult not.
Bituminous
Lower quality than anthracite.
Lignite
Lower quality than bituminous.
R strategists
many offspring,prey type organisms
Nitrogen Fixation
N2 --> Biological molecule
Epifauna
Live on ocean floor substrate.
Nuphar microphylla
Spatterdock/Yellow Water Lily, floating plants, benthic rhizomes.
Absorption Spectrum
Wavelengths of light absorbed.
Stenothermal
Tolerates narrow range of temperatures.
Producers
A photosynthetic green plant or chemosynthetic bacterium, constituting the first trophic level in a food chain; an autotrophic organism
mesotrophic
one of three lentic (standing) freshwater middle diversity and nutrients
Disphotic zone
twilight zone of aqautic life
eutrophic
one of three lentic (standing) freshwater most diverse
symbiosis
close physical interaction between 2 individuals of different species.
Zygotic Meiosis
Single haploid gamete, diploid zygote.
Tannins
Bitter astringent to deter animals from consuming plants.
Nitrogen Cycle
N2 --> NH4+ / NO3-
Interception
Catching of precipitation before it reaches ground (e.g. trees).
Myriophyllum sp.
Water millfoil, submerged plant, problems species in lakes.
Cuticle
Waxy layer on epidermis of leaf.
Evolution
the major driving force of adaptation in environmental changes/ changes in a population's makeup through successive generations
Necessities for Macroevolution
geographic isolation and reproductive isolation
polar-covalent bond
protons and electrons are notshared evenly
Profundal Zone
Bottom of lake, very low light.
Calyptogena sp.
Giant clam in hydrothermal vent community.
Nitrobacter
Bacteria that use the remaining energy in nitrite ion and oxidize it to nitrate. Second step in nitrification.
Action Spectrum
Wavelengths of light at which processes occur.
Carbon cycle
carbon from biomass and lithosphere is transferred into the atmosphere through photosynthesis decomposition and respiration then returned through diffusion
ecology
the study of how organisms affect and interact with each other and their environment
anthropocentric philosophy
human issues are central to the approach and outweigh the environmental benefits.
Energy Efficiency
The amount of useful work obtained from a unit amount of available energy.
Nitrosomonas
Use ammonia in soil as sole energy source. First step in nitrification.
Bundle-sheath Cells
Where Calvin Cycle occurs in C4 plants.
Realized niche
the part of the fundamental niche that a species actually occupies
2nd law of thermodynamics
with each energy transfer or transformation in a system, less energy is available to do work. (energy is lost as it is used)
Net Primary Production
Gross primary production - energy used for organism's maintenance.
Invasive species
Species that are not native to a given ecosystem and whose introduction to that ecosystem caues or is likely to casue economic or environmental harm or harm to human health
biocentric philosophy
all forms of life on earth have equal values/ rights. Centered on nature rather than humans.
Why can't natural selection fashion a perfect organism?
organisms are locked into historical constraintshas to be in gene pooladaptations are often compromisednot all evolution is adaptiveselection can only edit existing variations
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