The Great Depression / New Deal Flashcards

Terms Definitions
21st Amendment
...
10/29 known as...
Black Tuesday
Bull Market
describes a good market
Depression
High unemployment, low prices, slowdown in business.
Speculation
the practice of making high-risk investments in the hopes of getting a high gain.
PWA
provided jobs building ports, aircraft carriers, schools; Relief
New Deal
Franklin Roosevelt's economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression
joseph kennedy
this individual was appointed chairman of the securities and exchange commission. this commission was the "police force" of wall street—new regulations for trading stocks
francisco franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death1892-1975)
NRA
: established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices
social security act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
John Maynard Keynes
British economist whose theories helped justify New Deal deficit spending
Tennessee Valley Authority..
Poverty And Under-Developement of Tennessee River Valley.. Lack of Electricity && Constructions..
Great Depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
Election of 1932
Hoover vs. FDR; two competing ideologies - laissez faire vs. government intervention
Agricultural Adjustment Act
"helped" farmers by establishing "set" prices and controlled production
trough
the lowest point of decline in the business cycle
foreclosure
when a lender takes over ownership of a property from an owner who has failed to make loan payments
Bank Holiday
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Assist industry, labor, and unemployment. Focused on all three Rs (Relief, Reform, Recovery). Industry: Work out "fair competition." Hours/person down, employment up. Labor: Collective bargaining with chosen representatives. Yellow-dog antiunion contracts forbidden. Child labor restricted. Needed self-sacrifice not received renders ineffective. Criticized as "National Run Around" and "Nuts Running America." Shut down in 1935 in "sick chicken" decision, because Congress can't "delegate legislative powers" to executive and control of interstate commerce doesn't apply to local business.
bailiff
An officer of court having custody of prisoners under arraignment.
Rugged individualism
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
100 Days
popular term for the special session of Congress in early 1933 that passed vast quantities of Roosevelt-initiated legislation
Hoovervilles
this is the name for shanty towns that sprung up around major cities during the Great Depression
William Lenke
agrarian, AAA was a failure and wanted more change for the farmers
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
National Recovery Act
created 1933 to help industry, labor, and the unemployed; labor unios allowed to choose representative; symbol "Blue Eagle; declared unconstitutional
Margaret Mitchell
author of "Gone with the Wind" (1936) which is actually set during the Civil War in the South but still discusses the determination needed to overcome disasters
T.V.A. (Tenn. Valley Authority)
relief, recovery and reform. Built more than 20 dams on the tennessee river, which help with flood control and provide electricity to poor areas of the south, which helps economic growth
Wagner Act
protected the right of workers to form unions and utilize collective bargaining.
securities and exchange commission (SEC)
an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors
Minority Groups during the Depression
faced discrimination and often lost their job or an available job to white laborers
Federal Home Loan Bank Act
lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers to refinance their farm loans and avoid foreclosure
First Hundred Days..
Time Period When a Series of Laws Where Passed to Represent the New Deal..
Federal Emergency Relief Act
A relief effort for the unemployeed with immediate relief goals
Emergency Banking Relief Act (ERBA)
Gave emergency loans to failing banks so that they could pay off the people and give them their money back.
Gone With the Wind
a romantic drama and the only novel written by Margaret Mitchell. The story is set in Jonesboro and Atlanta, Georgia during the American Civil War and Reconstruction and follows the life of Scarlett O'Hara, the daughter of an Irish immigrant plantation owner.
Schechter v. United States
In 1935, the Supreme Court ruled in (known as the "sick chicken case") that the NIRA was unconstitutional. The court ruled that the NIRA gave too much legislative power to the executive branch and code authorities.
Social security act (SSA)
set up a system of pensions for the elderly, unemployed and people with disabilities
New Deal farm programs like the AAA
succeeded in raising farm prices but met strong opposition from many conservatives
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