studying culture as an observer/outsider
Family over ind
Connectedness w/ family
Intimate discussions w/ others is unacceptable; stays in family
Concrete tangible life-view
God; luck; supernatural
Active and Directive; Family Therapy
Restructuring the family
opposite of cultural-competent
rejection from consciousness painful/shameful experiences
-aim of psychoanalysis is to bring conflicts out of repression
Corr or Quasi-exp. Generalizability
|Bowen's Maladaptive Behavior||
Multigenerational transmission process
|Unique issues working with African-American clients||
-practical vs. emotional probs
transferring emotion from orignial object to a safer one. ex. phobias displace fears onto other objects
occurs when a person psychologically swallows whole concepts (gestalt therapy)
|Important terms: Alfred Adler||
Individual PsychologyInferiority complexCompensatory patterns of behaviorStyle of Life
Rejection from consciousness of painful or shameful experiences. Prevents unacceptable impulses or desires from reaching consciousness. It is an unconscious process.
|Freud’s Oedipal complex occurs in the ______ psychosexual stage.||
|Behavioral FT Techinques||
1. Increase pleasureable interactions
2. Decrease neg exchanges
3. Teaching problem-solving and comm skills
4. Contingency contract
Emphasize power differentials and intrapsychic events in the context of social oppression.
1. Primary - immunization or prenatal nutrition
2. Secondary - early detection and intervention
3. Tertiary - reduce duration of disease
|Stages of Consultation||
feelings, thoughts, needs that cause anxiety are not acknowledged. (not necc. painful/shameful exp. like in repression)
symbolic acting-out in reverse of something unacceptable one has already done.
1. eliciting automatic thoughts
2. Decatastrophizing - "what if"
3. Reattribution - consider alt.
Every child experiences feelings of inferiority that supply motivation to grow & dominate
|Joining and mimesis are techniques used by the following psychologist:a. Gestaltb. Structuralc. Strategicd. Feminist||
|Important concepts: Neo-Freudians||
Importance of instinctual forces downplayedFocus on social and cultural determinants of personality
Transferring an emotion from the original idea or object to a more acceptable (i.e., safer) one. People with phobias displace their fears onto other objects.
|__________ is consistent with the transtheoretical model and was developed for clients ambivalent about change.||
2. Deny or distort reality
Matching increased sessions for Asian and AA, not outcome.
Viewing others as separate yet related
|self vs. self image||
-self: promotes actualization, growth, and awareness
-self image: imposes external standards on self and impairs self-actualization and growth
|stages of Rorschach administration||
|healthy cultural paranoia||
normal (nonpathological) response of minorities to oppression and racism
control of emotion and impulses by thinking about them rather than experiencing them.
|An emic approach:||
takes into consideration that each culture possesses unique characteristics and studies a culture on its own terms from its own perspective.
|Depressive symptoms that are often the result of long-term pain is called:||
Chronic Pain Syndrome
|Name the four boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy.||
Introjection, projection, retroflection, confluence.
|Extended Family Systems Therapy||
Murray BowenFamily dysfunction as part of an intergenerational process.Theoretical constructs: Differentiation of Self (vs. "fused" with other family members' emotions and problems), Triangulation, Nuclear Family Emotional System (mechanisms used to deal with tension and instability), Family Projective Process (projection of parental a family dysfunction onto children), Emotional Cutoff (methods used by children to remove themselves from emotional ties to parents), Multigenerational Transmission Process (escalation of dysfunction through the generations), Sibling Position (birth order), Societal Regression (impact of societal stress on family system)Goals and Techniques: differentiation of self, use of genograms, Triangulation (therapist as third family member)Tx typically with just husband and wife
|Key concepts: Object-relations Theory||
Klein, Fairbairn, Mahler, Kernberg, Kohut, Winnicott.Object introjects"Psychological birth" around age 2-3."Splitting" representations of others: all good or all bad.Type of "re-parenting"
|Strategic family therapy: Founder, Focus, Strategy||
FOCUS: communication and how it’s used to increase control
STRATEGY: think power, military talks with enemy, directives for troops, paradoxes to fool them, reframing for peace talks, ordeals in boot camp
**Haley’s comet was strategically sent around the universe by intelligent life forms.**
|Feminist Obj Rel||
Sexual division of labor & mother-child relationship
|Feminist Thearpy Goal||
Empowerment - helping women become more self-defining and self-determining.
|Gestalt View of Maladaptive Behavior||
A "growth disorder" abandoning the self for the self-image.
Contact Boundary - Interaction b/t self and environment.
|Nigrescence/Black Racial Identity Model (Cross)||
-process of becoming black
|Nigrescence/Black Racial Identity Model (Cross)||
Put Emphasis Immediately Into Committment
|White Racial Identity, Helms||
racism to non-racist identity
|White Racial Identity, Helms||
DR (see the Dr.)
Autonomy (see on own)
|Fromm - emphasized what?||
(neo-freudian) role of societal factors in personality dev. How societal demands prevent ind. from realizing true nature
|Change model, who & stages?||
Prochaska & DiClemente
|feminist vs. non-sexist therapy||
feminist therapy incorproates feminist values, more political, and views contributing to political change as therapy goal
|success vs. failure identity||
Glasser - Reality therapy
success identity: ind is able to meet basic needs responsibly
failure identity: ind meets needs in irresponsible manner
|Elevations on MMPI F Scale||
infrequently endorsed by normals
looking bad, admitting faults, cry for help
dual messages from one of the communicators, ie. multiple ego states
-basis of "games" where use adult transaction to criticize (what time is it? to someone who is late)
|Goal of Adlerian therapy||
help client replace "mistaken style of life" with healthier one
ex. Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) and STE-Teaching (STET)
stuck in a stage of development that has been attained successfully and returns to stag when problems too much to cope
is aimed at people who already have the disorder. it seeks to diminish the intensity and duration.
|According to Margaret Mahler's object relations theory, the development of a sense of self is the result of seperation-individuation process that begins at about ____ months of age:a. 2 to 3b. 4 to 5c. 8 to 10d. 12 to 14||
b. separation-individuation is triggered by the child's ability to seperate from his/her primary caregiver. The process begins at age 4 to 5 months of age when a child who being held by his/her caregiver is able to lean away to scan the environment.
|Several types of questions are ued by family therapists. The type of question that fosters reflection on the part of family members so that new options can be identified is referred to as:a. circularb. linealc. strategicd. reflexi||
|Key concepts: Feminist Therapy||
Assumption that social roles and socialization are important determinants of behavior.Social role conflicts: give rise to psychological conflicts.Focus on sexism and oppression of women.Goals: Empowerment; show clients alternative social roles and options. Therapist acts as model.Doctor-patient relationship is "demystified." Equalization of power.Non-Sexist Therapy: removing sexist biases from treatment. Less political than feminist therapy.Feminist Object-Relations Theory (e.g., Nancy Chodorow): incorporation of psychodynamic principles; focus on gender-related differences in mother-child relationship; men and women should be equally responsible for child-rearing.Self-in-Relation Theory: sense of self depends on connections with others; progression from infantile dependency to mature interdependency; relational self develops through internalization of caretaker's empathetic attitude; psychopathology considered inevitable outcome of disconnection with others; goal of therapy: increase interpersonal connections (particularly mother-daughter relationship)
|Key concepts: Erich Fromm||
Role of societal factors in personality development.Five character styles: receptive, exploitative, hoarding, marketing, productive.
|Jung’s main archetypes||
* Self (striving for unity of personality)
* Persona (public mask)
* Shadow (dark side)
* Anima (feminine aspects)
* Animus (masculine aspects)
|Gestalt therapy: Founder, Focus, Goal||
FOUNDER: Fritz Perls
FOCUS: self (creative part of personality) and self-image (imposes external standards)
GOAL: integrate self and self-image into unified whole; awareness of thoughts, feelings & actions in the present
|Communication/Interaction Family Therapy||
Result of Palo Alto Mental Research Institute
|Irv's Curative Factors||
Instillation of hope (best for low functioning)
Universality (High functioning)
Interpersonal learning (High functioning)
Self-understanding and insight
|Prototaxic Mode - Who and what?||
-infant cognitive experience in first mos of life
-experiences before language symbols used
-characterize experience of schizophrenics
|Hypnosis contraindicated in tx of what?||
psychotic disorders, paranoid, obsessive-compulsive personality traits, severely depressed and manic px
|What is EMG and what used for?||
-measure muscle tension (M)
-used treat tension headaches
|Goals of existential therapy||
eliminate neurotic anxiety and help client learn to tolerate the unavoidable existential anxiety of living.
Client-therapist relationhip important (egalitarian)
|Stages of the Minority Identity Development Model||
3. Resistance and Immersion
5. Synergistic Articulation and Awareness
|Stages of the Minority Identity Development Model||
don't CONFORM to DIS, RESIST IMMediately this INTROduction to SYN.
|Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Developement Model Stage IV: Introspection||
uncertainty about the rigidity of beliefs held in stage 3 and conflicts bewteen loyalty and responsibility toward one's group --prefers therapist in own group but open to outsiders that share similar world view.
|Key concepts: Rational Emotive Therapy||
Albert Ellis"ABC" theory of human disturbance: A - experience of undesirable events, B - rational and irrational beliefs about these events, and C - creation of appropriate consequences with rational beliefs, or creation of inappropriate and dysfunctional consequences with irrational beliefs.Goal: modify irrational beliefs about life eventsIrrational beliefs stems from "musts".Direct confrontation of irrational beliefs, contingency contracting, in-vivo desensitization, response prevention, psychoeducational methods.
|What is Adler’s teleological approach?||
View that behavior is largely motivated by future goals (goal-directed and purposeful) rather than determined by past events
|3 main assumptions of Communication/Interaction Family Therapy||
1. People are always communicating (verbal/nonverbal)
2. Functions --> report (content/info) & command (nonverbal, reflects relationship). Problem when don’t match.
3. Communication patterns --> symmetrical (equality but may become competitive) & complementary (inequality, maximize differences)
|Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente)||
Resulted from an analysis of leading therapeutic approaches. Id basic elements for change (consciousness-raising, contingency management, helping relationships)
|Group Thearpy & Irv's 3 Formative Stages||
1. Orientation, Hesitant Participation, Search for Meaning, and Dependency
2. Conflict, Dominance, Rebellion
3. Deveopment of Cohesiveness
|brief psychotherapy vs. crisis intervention||
brief psychotherapy is similar to crisis intervention but includes encouragement of insight
|Erickson's model of hypnotherapy||
-finding strategy necessary to get px to give up symptom
-ex. paradoxical directive
|Major difference between freudian and neo-freudian therapists?||
neo-freudians emphasize social and cultural, as opposed to intrapsychic, determinants of personality
|Extended family therapy, who & what?||
-included extended family in system
-family dysfunction part of "intergenerational process"
|Define stage 3 of Cross' Black Racial Identity Development Model||
Immersion/Emersion: transition stage that involves struggle between old and emerging ideas about race. The individual initially idealizes AA, immerses self in AA culture, and denigrates whites. Toward the end of this stage, the person is less emotionally immersed and begins to move toward internalization of a new identity.
|in their reformaulation of the learned helplessness model of depression, Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy:a. de-emphasize the role of punishment and emphasize the role of reinforcementb. deemphasize the role of helplessness and emphasize the rol||
c. deemphasize the role of attributions and emphasize the role of hopelessness: one type of depression is due primarily to feelings of hopelessness. For this type of depression, attributions are relevant only to the degreee that they contribute to feelings of hopelessness.
|Restlessness, psychomotor agitation, flushed face, diuresis, rampling speech, and muscle twitching are most suggestive of:a. alcohol withdrawalb. caffeine intoxicationc. cocaine intoxicationd. hyperthyroidism||
b. CORRECT The symptoms listed in the question are characteristic of Caffeine Intoxication.
|Research on complex clinical decision-making has confirmed that:a. statistical prediction is more accurate than clinical judgementb. clinical judgment is more accurate than statistical predictionc. clinical judgment is more accurate tha||
a. actuarial prediction alone is most accurate, then a combination of actuarial and clinical judgment, then clinical judgment alone.
|In working with an African-American cleint exhibiting "healthy cultural paranoia," an Anglo therapist would be best advised to:a. refer the client to an African-American therapistb. use a culturally-sensative approach that ameliorat||
c. Ridley recommends that therapists confront the meaning of the client's cultural paranoia by bringing his/her feelings into conscious awareness and help the client clarify when it is appropriate or inappropriate to self-disclose.
|Key concepts of Adler’s individual psychology||
* Inferiority feelings --> develop in childhood from real or perceived bio/psycho/social weaknesses
* Striving for superiority--> inherent tendency toward “perfect completion”
* Style of life --> ways person compensates for inferiority and achieves superiority
* Social interest --> goals for healthy or unhealthy (mistaken) style of life
|2 common characteristics of defense mechanisms||
2. Deny, distort or falsify reality
|How is consultation different from supervision?||
Supervision usually has person from same profession, who has responsiblity for and power over supervisee.
Consultation may not involve person from same profession and don't have same responsiblity/power.
|Adler's View of Maladaptive Behavior||
A mistaken style of life w/ maladaptive attempts to compensate for feelings of inferioriaty, a preoccupation with ach personal power and a lack of social interest.
|According to Sullivan, what causes neurotic behavior?||
parataxic distortions - relating to others as if they were significant persons from early life
|Hypnosis most effective when?||
-client high level of ability to be hypnotized
-goal is to build sense of control over emotional/behavioral exp
|disagreement between co-therapists in group, when okay/not okay||
not during first few meetings, when cohesive enough to tolerate
|Compared to young depressed adults, older depressed adults are least likely to:a. be anxiousb. have memory problemsc. express feelings of hopelessnessd. express feelings of sadness||
d. express feelings of sadness: older adults are less likely than younger ones to complain of depression or feelings of sadness. However, they are more likely to say they feel anxious and hopeless and to have memory problems.
|A 33-year-old male client presents with hallucinations and bizarre delusions. His parents report no psychological stressors and say that he has been sich and out of work for about five weeks. Your tentative diagnosis would be:a. Schizophrenia||
b. CORRECT - Schiophrenia requres the presence of psychotic symptoms for at least six months. When symptoms are present for less than 6 months, Schizophreniform Disorder is applicable. Brief psychotic disorder would not apply because the symptoms have lasted for more than one month and there is typically an acute onset.
|Stage Two - Group Therapy is characterized by:||
members attempting to establish his or her preferred amount of initiative and power.
|What factors has research found to be most important in group therapy? What are the ones of least value?||
MOST IMPORTANT: interpersonal input, catharsis, self-understanding, cohesiveness.
LEAST VALUE: family re-enactment, guidance, identification
|Mahler’s phases of development for creating an identity||
1. Normal autism (1 mo.) --> oblivious to external environment
2. Normal symbiosis (2-3 mo.) --> fused with mother, cannot differentiate
3. Separation-individuation (4 mo.- 3 yrs.) --> separation through exploring environment; conflict between independence & dependence; develop permanent sense of self and object (object constancy)
|Structual (drive) Theory||
1. Id - Dev first; Pleasure
2. Ego - Dev second; Reality Principle
3. Superego - age 4/5
|What variables best predict therapy outcome?||
client variables > therapist or tx variables
|Howard's three phase model of psychotherapy effectiveness||
1. remoralization - improvement in px hopelessness
2. remediation - symptomatic relief
3. rehabilitation - improvement in functioning
|the best tx for a functional paranoiac is one that:||
is most effective for the client's parhtology and should be based on the competence of the therapist and not on the therapist's race.
|Polly Panthos is seeing Dr. Genial for her depressive symptoms. As a practitioner of interpersonal therapy, Dr. Genial will:a. help Polly gain insight into how interpersonal experiences during childhood are contributing to Polly's problems in the p||
b. the focus of interpersonal therapy is on the link between current interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms.
|What are 2 main strategies used in community psychology?||
1. Education--> reduce incidence by increasing preventative actions, improve care and educate public. Perceived peer norms can be better predictor of risk than just knowledge.
2. Preventative health care--> Health Belief Model (health behaviors can be modified by targeting knowledge and/or motivation to act), Health Locus of Control Model (can enhance pt's health behaviors by promoting sense of personal responsibility & control)
|Irv's Veiew of Concurrent Ind Therapy||
Group member should work things out in group rather than seek ind therapy.
|It has been suggested that women stay with abusive partners because they fear the consequences of leaving. Based on your knowledge of the research in this area, you can conclude that:a. this fear has been supported by the finding that incidents of||
a. rist for abuse increases following seperation.
|___% to ___% of group members drop out of therapy during the first ___ to ___ sessions.||
10% - 35%
12 - 20 sessions
|A psychologist is hired to develop a community program for seniors that will focus on maintaining social contacts and reducing the risk of social isolation. This program is an example of:a. milestone preventionb. primary preventionc. se||
b. since this program is aimed at a group, it is a primary prevention.It is not secondary prevention because it does not involve some type of screening process to identify a high-risk group and tertiary involves persons who have already engaged in the behavior/disorder. Milestone programs are aimed at people experiencing a transition (e.g., retirement).