The Renaissance and REformation Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Renaissance
1300-1600
annul
To cancel
Patron
a regular customer
Arkan-ul-Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
What religion was followed
Catholicism
Osman
Most successful warrior and ''founder'' of Ottomans
Theocracy
government run by religious leaders
rebirth of greco- roman ideas
renaissance
Michelangelo Buonarrotti
Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect; sculpted David
Secular
Worldly, not overtly or specifically religious.
federalism
sharing of power between local governments & a strong central government
John Calvin
Protestant reformer who preached predestination
inquisition
non religious, no more sacraments made
Indulgences
certificates that take away the punishment due to sin
Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus also known as the Jesuits
Humanism
the philiosophical belief in human fulfillment, inquiry, and reason that generally rejects the importance of god
Byzantine Empire
conquered by the Ottomans; primarily greek Orthodox
Jesuits
Founded by Ignatius de Loyola (1534), they were a religious order that spread Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation.
John Wycliffe
scholar at Oxford university who criticized Church wealth, corruption of clergy, and the pope's claim to absolute authority. Claimed that the Bible was the sole authority for religious truth. Translated the Bible from Latin into England so people could read it. Followers were called Lollards.
Indulgence
something granted as a favor or privilege.
carvings into metal, used to make designs
Engravings
Causes of Renaissance
thriving cities, wealthy merchant class, heritage or Greece and Rome
Petrarch
The man who began the humanism movement and he believed that he was living the start of new era; named the Renaissance
Rome
1. Replaced Florence as leading city
2. Church officials made up the wealthy and upper class
3. Rebuilt the city
chiaroscuro
use of contrasts between light and dark that helped create 3D images, new innovation in Renaissance fine arts
also known as the Counter-Reformation; an effort by the Catholic Church to reform itself
Catholic Reformation
Flanders
a region that included parts of present day northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands; was an important industrial and financial center of northern Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Huldrych Zwingli
Swiss priest who led the protestant movement in Switzerland
Artemisia Gentileschi
A painter.
First woman to be elected to florentine academy of design.
Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic sense and paintings of strong women.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Machiavelli
He held a number of positions in government. He was also a writer. His most famous book was "The Prince."
Galileo Galilei
built a telescope and confirmed the heliocentric model. Caused an uproar and was tried before the Inquisition. Forced to recant his teachings.
feudal system
a medieval social and political system based on land ownership, taxes, loyalty and military service
Desiderius Erasmus
Wrote Praise of Folly; believed that everybody should study the Bible
How to be "saved"?
What religious question provoked Luther and the Reformation?
95 Thesis
list of grievances posted by Martin Luther in 1517 to show questionable Church practices. Instead of reforming the Catholic church, the Protestant Reformation occurred.
Individualism
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence
frasmus
author of the praise of folly, "laid the egg which would be hatched by luther.
Lorenzo de Medici
The Magnificent. He and his grandfather, Cosimo successfully became dominant over Florence when it became center of Renaissance, through courting of political allies.
Counter Reformation
The movement within the Roman Catholic church that followed the Protestant Reformation in which the goal was to increase the faith of church members
Vocation
A calling from God to take up certain work.
Sir Thomas More
wrote "Utopia" and coined the word; beheaded for opposing King Henry VII as the head of the Church of England
The Catholic Reformation was begun by _________, who called a council of bishops to meet in 1545.
Pope Paul III
Ferdiand Magellan
He was a Spanish explorer who had arrived in the Phillipines and claimed the land
Martin Luther
Luther was troubled by a monk named Tetzel, who sold indulgences (forgiveness for sin). He challenged the church by posting his '95 Theses' on the door of the castle church. His actions began the Reformation.
He went beyond criticizing indulgences and made various teachings challenging the church.
1. People saved by faith alone and not good deeds.
2. Bible can be interpreted by individuals and not priest.
3. Priests should be allowed to marry.
4. Forgiveness is earned and not for sale.
He was seen as a threat by the church and was soon excommunicated. Soon Luther and his followers had become a separate religious groups, called Lutherans.
Luther translated the Bible into German.
He created Protestantism; a branch of Christianity for Christians who belonged to non-catholic churches.
catherine
widow of arthur and 1st wife of henry VIII, failed to produce male heir
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for Don Quixote.
Treaty of Augsburg, 1555
Stopped the fighting between Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) and the Protestant princes, allowing them to choose which religion would be in their kingdom.
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and his excommunication 1538, leading to the start of the Reformation in England
Philip II
son of Charles V that was dedicated to making Spain the leading power in Europe.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
What conditions made the Protestant Reformation possible?
Changes in intellectual thought and corruption within the Roman Chatholic Church
What is a perspective?
A way of showing depth and distance on a flat surface
Books were more affordable and available
The efffect of movable type for books allowed ideas to spread more quickly.
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