The Scientific Revolution and the emergence of modern science Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ptolemy
Classical geographer that established the geo-centric view of the universe that would later be adopted by the medieval church.
Newton
His "principia" was his ground breaking work of physics; his natural law of motion and gravitation proved the helio-centric theory.
Galen
Roman doctor responsible for many beliefs of medieval medicine and accepted as a pillar of truth previous to the scientific revolution.
Descartes
Wrote "Discourse on Method." Believed in rationalism and deductive reasoning. Established Cartesian Dualism.
Inquisition
Forced Galileo to recant because the catholic church opposed the scientific revolution
Scientific Societies
English Royal Societies and French Academy
Johannes Kepler
The astronomer who explained planetary motion
Nocholas Copernius
a Renaissance astronomer, priest and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology
Maria Winkelmann
A German astronomer. The data collected by she and her husband was used to produce calendars and almanacs and was also very useful in navigation.
Kepler
His 3 laws of planetary motion proved the helio-centric theory mathematically; he theorized the planets revolved in ellipses.
Heliocentric theory
Sun is center of universe with imperfect planetary bodies surrounding it.
Vesalius
His "on the fabric of the human body" identified major flaws of Galen's work. He proved that the liver was not the center of the circulatory system.
Scientific Revolution
a period when new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of doctrines that had prevailed starting in Ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation of modern science.[
Rene Descartes
French philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and writer who has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy"
Hooke
He discovered cells by studying cork.
Spinoza
Wrote "Ethics demonstrated in a geometric manner" and rejected Cartesian Dualism. Established Pantheism and believed that religion was not opposed to science.
Pascal
In his "Pensees" he illustrated his christian apologetics; he identified christianity as rational and acceptable within the scientific advances of the age.
Copernicus
His "on the revolutions of the heavenly spheres" questioned the geo-centric theory by developing the helio-centric theory.
World-Machine
The Clockwork Universe Theory is a theory, established by Isaac Newton, as to the origins of the universe. God made the earth and then stood back to watch it.
Pensees
represented a defense of the Christian religion by Blaise Pascal, the renowned 17th century philosopher and mathematician. Literally meaning "thoughts"
Empiricism
a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge arises from evidence gathered via sense experience
Francis Bacon
Wrote "Novum Organum" and "The Great Instauration." Called the father of the modern scientific method and believed that the goal of science was to conquer nature. Inductive reasoning.
Galileo
His "dialogues on the 2 chief world systems" had him condemned by the Inquisition since his work identified the weaknesses of the geo-centric theory as well as the proof for the helio-centric theory.
Geocentric conception
superseded that the Earth is the center of the universe and other objects orbit around it.
Isaac Newton
invention of the basic design behind all large telescopes used today; the invention calculus; the elucidation of the three laws of motion; and the development of the law of universal gravitation
Scientific Method
a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
William Harvey
English physician who was the first Western European to describe correctly and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart.
Harvey
His "on the motion of the heart and blood" identified the heart as the center of the circulatory system, shattering the traditional beliefs.
The Starry Messenger
Book by Galileo that contains and explains recent observations made with the aid of a new spyglass concerning the surface of the moon, the Milky Way, nebulous stars, and innumerable fixed stars,
as well as four planets never before seen.
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