The Scientific Revolution Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bacon
Scientific method
Lavoisier
Father of modern chemistry.
voltaire
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Copernicus
believed in heleocentric universe
On Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
Who wrote the Pensees?
Blaise Pascal
"CHRONOLOGY"
another new 'historical science' - dealing with the age of the world. New 17th century fascination with numbers. BUT very difficult to combine the dating systems of different cultures. Even the Christian calendar can be off. It is now thought that Christ was actually born
four years early.
William Gilbert
(Geologist) English court physician noted for his studies of terrestrial magnetism
Brahe
Observed night sky and rejected Ptolemaic system, but couldn't accept the fact that the eath moved. Kepler became his assistant.
Galen
greek physician- never dissected the body of a human being- studied th anatomy of pigs
Francis Bacon
English philospher who believed that scientists should oveserve the world and gather information about it.
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
galileo galilei
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
formulated three laws of planetary motion
Johannes Kepler
Aristotle
motionless earth @ center of universe and around earth 10 crystal spheres moved. beyond the spheres was heaven. he also distiguished btwn celestial and sublunar worlds.
♦ accepted for 200 yrs b/c it fit with Catholic church theology
Nicolaus Copernicus
polish guy. posits the heliocentric theory. shatters traditional beliefs and church teachings.
Cardinal Bellarmine
A skilled mathematician and Jesuit who cautioned Galileo for going too far with his new discoveries.
NOVUM ORGANUM
A volume from Instauratio Magna that was published in 1620. Translates to New Method of Acquiring Knowledge . In Sir Francis Bacon insisted on use of the inductive method. Should proceed from the particular/specific to the general, from the concrete to the abstract.
Rene Descartes
He introduced the Deductive method. He wrote Discourse on Method in 1637, and coined the term "Cogito Ergo Sum" (I think, therefore I am). He founded analytical geometry.
*Newton*
17th-18th c. - Creates three laws of motion, Law of Universal gravitation using Kepler's elliptical orbits, explained everything mathematically --> leads people to see these laws as unchanging and applying to all things in the universe, invented calculus, became a hero and celebrity in England, deist, disagreed with Descartes and supported universal laws and experimentation and not deduction alone in gaining knowledge, in awe of God's creation of scientific world (e.g. calculus), wrote Principia Mathematica and Opticks.
Reformation and Religious Conflicts
The printing press increased communication and the standardization of knowledge. Religious conflicts led to an increase in toleration. There was skepticism toward religion, thus, an atmosphere where ideas could be more freely explored.
Open field system
system of farming that divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips-fields open and not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges-large field as community-same pattern of plowing, sowing, and harvesting
Heliocentric System
a description of the solar system in which all of the planets revolve around the sun; Copernicus believed in this
Joseph Priestley
separated one pure gas for air in 1774
Law of universal gravitation
Newton's law that all objects are attracted to one another and that the force attraction is proportional to the object's quantity of matter and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Contributed to debates about Descartes's mind-body dualism
Anne Conway, Mary Astell, Margaret Cavendish
Causes of the Revolution
1) Renaissance 2) Reformation 3) Age of Exploration
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Orbs/Spheres
Published in 1543 this was Copernicus' work which outlined the heliocentric theory.
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