The Well Being of the EMT Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Patient-Assisted Medications

Contrindications for nitro:
Systolic BP less than 100 mm KG Nitro may have harmful effects as it lowers the BP
Used with Viagra (w/in the past 24 hrs.) - can be fatal
Foreign substance
skeletal muscle
Person Pertective Equipment
Protects EMS worker from infection and or exposure to the dangers
The hand bones.
referring to stones
actually doing good
-Lanoxin (tm)-inotrope-give 0.25-0.5mg slow IV push
movement away from midline
Onset, Provocation, Quality, Radiation, Severity, Time
Used to clot blood
being held legally responsible
Condition of bending, stretched, inflated or larger than normal
Away from the central structure.
Medial bone of the forearm 
Microogranisms capable of causing disease.
Stress of a negative effect
Designated Officer

Person charges with the responsibility of managing exposure and control issues within 48 hours of the time the hospital identifies the patient's disease
In the event of exposure follow the protocol
I should be screen and given information
Medical follow-up

(Above Normal)
Signs & Symptoms
Diabetic Coma

Kussmaul Respiration (fast & shallow)
Dehydration - dry warm skin, sunken eyes
Sweet or fruity breath (ketones in the blood)
Rapid Pulse
Normal or slightly low BP
Varying degrees of unresponsiveness
Small flesh bulb immediately anterior to ear canal, superficial temporal artery can be felt just anterior to this.
devices that continuously administer a vaporized medication, as opposed to the inhaler that provides a one-time dose
Specific signs or circumstances under which it is not appropriate and may be harmful to administer a drug to a patient.
Sudden change in sensation, behavior, or movement that can, in its most severe form, produce convulsions 
body positions
supine, prone, lateral recumbent position (recovery), Fowler's position (45-60 degrees), semi-Fowler's position (less than 45 degrees), Trendelenburg (supine with legs above head), shock (legs elevated 12 inches).
pertaining to the anus and rectum
power lift
recommended technique for lifting. Feet are apart, knees bent, back and abdominal muscles tightened, back as straight as possible, lifting force driven through heels and arches, upper body rising before hips.
deals with crime and punishment
Criminal Law
Medical Director
Physician who assumes ultimate responsibilty for the patient care aspects of the EMS system
5 Common Hazards of Fire

Oxygen Deficiency
High ambient temperatures
Toxic Gases
Building collapse


Assess Breathing


Fowler's Postion (if no spinal injury concerns) - sitting up at about 90o
Oxygen should be delivered using a non-rebreathing mask at 15L/min
glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
-monoclonal antibody for IIb/IIIa receptors-blocks platelet aggregation and thrombus formation-Abciximab, Eptifibatide, Tirofiban
a permanent surgical opening in the neck through which a patient breathes
Cerebral Embolism
Obstruction of a cerebral artery caused by a clot that was formed elsewhere and traveled to the brain.
Transverse plane
An imaginary plane that passes throught the body and divides it into upper and lower sections.
pre hospital care report- filled out; details what care is given en route to hospital
Permission from the patient to treat him or her
Zygomatic bone
bones that are the cheeck bones
hypoxia, causes
Inadequate amount of oxygen being delivered to the cells; many causes including shock, inadequate breathing, occluded airway, drug overdose, stroke, inhalation of toxic gases, lung and airway diseases
What are common pain relievers called opioid analgesics?
the insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells that results form inadequate circulation of blood. Also called shock.
the two lower chambers of the heart.
defined as a deviation from accepted standards of care recognized by law for the protection of others against the unreasonable risk of harm.
an imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose & the umbilius (naval) to the floor
Medical Direction
Oversight of the patient-care aspects of an EMS system by the Medical Director

Proper glove removal

Use the still-gloved fingers of the 1st hand to pinch the wrist of the second glove and begin to pull it off, rolling it inside-out toward the fingertips, as you did with the 1st glove.

Focused Physical Exam
Posterior Body
Step 7

Feel the back for tenderness, deformity, and open wounds
Carefully palpate the spine from the neck to the pelvis for tenderness or deformity
Look under the clothes for obvious injuries, including bruising and bleeding
Angina Pectoris
Demand for O2 and glucose exceeds bodies supply resulting in increased CO2, and lactic acid. Increased production irritates nerves causing pain. Pain may be felt in jaw and arm
Without perfusion, how long before the brain and spinal cord are injured?
4-6 minutes
Gastric Lavage
also commonly called Stomach pump or Gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach.  Such devices are normally used on a person who has ingested a poison or overdosed on a drug
A swelling caused by the collection of blood under the skin or in damaged tissues as a result of an injured or broken blood vessel; in a head injury, a collection of blood within the skull or brain.
Sagittal Plane
An imaginary plane parallel to the median plane. It passes through the body from front to back and divides the body into right and left sections.
rapid heartbeat that is more than 100 beats per minute
A valve that indicates the flow of oxygen in L/M
distant, or far from the point of reference. Opposite of proximal.
body mechanics
application of the study of muscles and body movement (kinesiology) to the use of the body and to the prevention and correction of problems related posture and lifting.
3 types of connective tissue:
proper CT,
fluid CT,
supporting CT
the collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum & medial to the scapula
Hazardous-material incident
the release of a harmful substance into the environment
Body Substance Isolation
Assuming that all body fluids are potentially infected
Ongoing Assessment Steps
Every 15 minutes for Stable patients
Every 5 minutes for Unstable patients

Performed while in transit
To answer the following questions:
Is treatment improving the patient's condition?
Has an already identified problem gotten better or worse?
What is the nature of any newly identified problems?

Allergic Reaction
Insect Bites & Stings

Inject venom - envenomation
Honey Bee, Wasp, Ant, Yellow Jacket, Hornet:
Reaction may be local or systemic
More than 100,000 bees, etc.
Deaths from these far outnumber deaths from snake bites
Stinger from Honey Bee - barbed - dies after flying away
Wasps and Hornets can sting repeatedly
Often difficult to determine which species was responsible
head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver
a method of correcting airway blockage by the tongue. The head is tilted back and chin lifted. NOT for use for trauma patient or anytime spinal injury is suspected
metered-dose inhaler
device that patients use to breathe in medication
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)
a battery-powered mechanical pump implanted in the body to assist a failing left ventricle in pumping blood to the body.
Abdominal Quadrants 
Four divisions of the abdomen of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of pain 
generalized tonic-clonic seizure
The most common type of epileptic seizure that produces unresponsiveness and convulsion; grand mal seizure
serous fluid
fluid that acts as a lubricant to reduce the friction between the parietal and visceral pleura.
5 Blood components
1. Red Blood Cells
2. Plasma
3. White Blood Cells
4. Platelets
5. Vessels
Trendelenburg's position
the position in which the body is supine w/ the head lower than the feet
Advance directive
a written order given by the physician based upon the decision by a patient prior to his demise (51)
Maintaining the Airway
Recovery Position

Used to help maintain a clear airway in a patient who is not injured and is breathing on his/her own with a normal rate and adequate Tidal Volume
To prevent the aspiration of vomitus
Not appropriate for patients with suspected spinal injury or unconscious patients who require ventilation
5 Categories of Stimuli that may provoke Allergic Reaction

Insect Bites & Stings
Duty to act
an obligation to provide care to a patient.
Jaw Thrust Maneuver
A means of correcting blockage of the airway by moving the jaw forward without tilting the head or neck.
the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
mastoid process
a prominent bony mass @ the base of the skill behind the ear
Recognizing Adequate Breathing

Normal Rate (12 - 20 Adult, 15 -30 children, 25 - 50 infants))
Regular pattern of inhalation and exhalation
Clear and equal lung sounds on both sides of the chest
Regular and equal rise and fall of the chest
Adequate depth (Tidal Volume)
Signs and Symptoms of Internal Bleeding
-pain (most common)-swelling in the area of bleeding-distention (intra-abdominal)-bleeding from ANY body opening-hematemesis (blood that is vomited)-melena (blood black poop)-hemoptysis (blood that is coughed up)-broken ribs, bruises or a rigid, distended abdomen.
red blood cells
part of the blood that gives it its color, carries oxygen to body cells, and carries carbon dioxide away from body cells.


The Role of Glucose & Insulin


As Ketones accumulate in blood and tissue - some produce a dangerous condition - Acidosis
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) - an accumulation of certain acids occur when insulin is not available
Types of calls with high potential stress for EMS personnel are....
MCIs, infant and children, severe injuries, abuse and neglect, death of a coworker
In order for a patient to refuse care or transport, these four conditions must be fulfilled...
The patient must be competent and oriented, the patient must be fully informed, the patient must sign a release form, the patients must be of legal age or an emancipated minor.
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