Tour through the Cell Flashcards

outer doublet microtubules
Terms Definitions
Digestion, recycling
Lysosomes, food vacuoles.
lysosome
Digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed. Contains an acidic environment good for its enzymes.
Glycoproteins
Proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
Movement
Cilia and flagella (microtubules), microfilaments (actin) in muscles and pseudopodia - uses cytoplasmic streaming to follow amoeba.
Nucleolus
The non-membranous organelle involved in production of ribosomes; one or more are present in any nucleus.
anti-codon
the complementary nucleotide sequence on transfer RNA that is physically positioned across from each codon on mRNA
fibronectin
Glycoprotein that attaches the extracellular matrix to the cell
cilium
a short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inter singular microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane
Stroma
the fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water
Chloroplast
The photosynthetic organelle in plant cells that converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
Chromosome
Chromatin fibers that coiled up, becoming thick enough to be discerned as separate structures; occurs when cell prepares to divide
Flagellum
A long whip-like cellular appendage that moves cells.
Peroxisomes
contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen. The intermediate product of this process is hydrogen peroxide which later turns to water; break fatty acids down to smaller molecules and also detoxifies
Dynein
A large contractile protein forming the side-arms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella.
peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
cytoskeleton
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm; organizes structures and activities within the cell; has three main components: microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments
cilia
a short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed fom a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane
plasmodesmata
Channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
desmosomes
a cellular junction that fastens cells together into strong sheets
centrosome
material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the micotubule organizing center
Basal Body
A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9+0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium of flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole
Riosomes
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning at the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits
mitochondrial matrix
the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle
Microtubules
The largest of the cytoskeleton fibers that shapes and supports the cell and serves as tracks for motor proteins; also separates chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
cortex
Outer cytoplasmic layer of a cell networked by microfilaments
Basel body
a structure resembling a centriole that produces a cilium or flagellum and anchors this structure within the plasma membrane
Tight Junctions
Connection between animal cells that creates impermeable layer.
cell wall
protects the cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water. Th basic design consists of microfibrils of cellulose embedded in a matrix of proteins
Autophagy
The process by which the cell's organic material is recycled by lysosomes.
Granum
A stack of thylakoids within a chloroplast
plasma membrane
Selectively permeable barrier around a cell
central vacuoles
vacuoles that develop from the culmination of smaller vacuoles originating from the ER and the Golgi apparatus; an integral part of plant cells because it selects transporting solutes (can take up to 90% of cell's volume); holds plants' proteins, inorganic ions, disposes dangerous metabolic by-products, contains color pigments, enables growth, protects from poison
triplet
a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for an amino acid
EUKARYOTIC CELLSCHLORPLASTS
FOUNDS IN PLANTSCONVERT LIGHT TO ENERGY (PHOTOSYNTHESIS) AND SUGAR
glycoprotein
A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate
Batesian
the type of mimicry in which an organism appears to be more dangerous than it actually is; the mimic is harmless while the model is dangerous
tight junction
a type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells
Chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope
centriole
a structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubue triplets arranged in a 9+0 pattern; an animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles involved in cell division
cell motility
Encompassing term for changes in cell location and movements within a cell
Intermediate filaments (medium size)
Supercoiled KERATIN FIBERS. Reinforces cell shape and anchors nucleus.
chromosomes
when the cell prepares to divide, the chromatin fibers coil up to be seen as these separate structures
Eukaryotic Cell
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.
nuclear matrix
a network of fibers that extends throughout the nuclear interior; adds extra support
vesicle
A sac made of membrane inside of cells
free ribosomes
ribosomes that float in the cytosol to make the proteins that are used there
electron microscope (EM)
a microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousand fold greater than that of a light microscope. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cells surfaces
nucleoid
a dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
Prokaryotic cell
Cell w/ no true nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles, has circular chromosomes; only found in the domains: Archae and Bacteria
Endomembrane system
The system of membranes within a cell that includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
pseudopodia
the part of a cell that is responsible for the conversion of cytoplasm from fluidy sol to a gel; this part functions due to localized contractions through actin and myosin movement
What organisms are composed of prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic?
prokaryotic: bacteria onlyeukaryotic: all others
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography.
transmission electron microscope
a microscope that is used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells; aims an electron beam through a thin section of specimen that is coated with atoms of heavy metals, allowing open space to result in an image of transmitted electrons; lenses are electromagnets
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