United States History to Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ratify
to give something offical approval
Constitution
Document which outlines a framework for our government based upon popular sovereignty and representative democracy
executive branch
the law-enforcing body of the government
Mexican American War
Manifest Destiny in action.Texas annexaton by US outraged Mexico.US sent troups to areas in dispute. At end US gained Texas, New Mexico, California, Utah, Arizona, parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Ended 1848
impeach
the process of accusing a public offical of wrong-doing
judical branch
the law-interpreting body of the government
spoils system
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
isolationism
not creating or joining alliances - American foreign policy
federalism
the balance of power between the national and state governments
Cotton gin
allowed for faster processing of American grown cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, INCREASED use of slavery to grow cotton
Appalachian Mountains
The western geographical boundary of the colonies before 1763
the cabinet
Advisors to the president. the original: secretary of state, secretary of treasury, secretary of defense, attorney general. now includes 18 members, newest is homeland security.
principles of the constitution
popular sovereignty, republicanism, federalism, separation of powers and checks and balances, limited government, individual rights.
representation
having someone in government speak for you
enumerated powers
powers listed in the Constitution given to the national government
Roger Williams
English theologian with unique beliefs in colonial America. He was an advocate for the separation of church and state and Native American rights. He is also the founder of Providence, Rhode Island and the first Baptist church in America.
Bleeding Kansas
Conflict over the expansion of slavery into the Kansas Territory during its transition to statehood. Free-Staters battled slavery supporters with violence.
Shay's Rebellion
a violent uprising of about 1500 debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers - governments inability to control rebellion highlighted problems with Articles of Confederation
Supreme Court
the highest federal court in the United States
strict interpretation
A way of INTERPRETING the Constitution that allows the Federal Gov't to ONLY do those things SPECIFICALLY mentioned in the Constitution
loose construction
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
George Washington
the commander of the continental army, the first president of the US, and one of the members of the committee that drafted the US constitution, considered the founder of our nation.
powers of congress
collect taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce with other nations, coin money, declare war, control armed forces, make necessary laws (elastic clause)
popular sovereignty
The concept that a state's citizens should vote whether to be a slave state or free
reserved powers
powers held only by state governments includes powers to conduct elections, establish schools, regulate businesses, establish local governments, regulate marriage, and assume the powers not given to the national government or denied the states.
Manifest Destiny
This was the concept of U.S. territorial expansion westward to the Pacific Ocean seen as a divine right.
Missouri Compromise
This was a congressional agreement of 1820 which included the admission of one free and one slave state to maintain the balance of free and slave states in the Union.
House Of Burgesses
This was the first representative government in North America located in Virginia, but the Virginia Company had to approve any laws it passed.
American Revolution
This was the first successful colonial independence movement against a European power, 1775-1783.
Andrew Jackson
.As president he opposed the Bank of US, did not allow individual states to nullify federal laws, was responsible for the Indian Removal Act, the "Trail of Tears". Created Spoils System
the Great compromise
t Compromise in which the larger states were provided representation by population in the House of Representatives, and the smaller states were appeased by the equal representation in the Senate.
pocket veto
when a bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourned,
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves and for those who helped them
Annexation of Texas
Texas seceded from Mexico and declared independence in response to Mexican abolition of slavery. US adopts/annexes Texas because Southern states support Texas slavery. The North fearded expansion of slavery and war with Mexico (see Mexican American War)
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court - appointed in 1801, created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many decisions that expanded the power of the federal government and the Supreme Court
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Plan to make US financially healthy. US governments took over state government debts, created a national bank and raised tariffs to promote US industry
Articles of Confederation
first government of the United States. Failed primarily because the federal government lacked the power to enforce laws, collect taxes, and regulate trade. States held most power
Compromise Of 1850
This was an agreement that California would be admitted to the Union, the slave trade in the District of Columbia would be restricted, and the Fugitive Slave Law would be enforced.
Bacon's Rebellion
This was a 1676 uprising in the Virginia Colony led by frontiersmen against government corruption and oppression.
War Hawks
This is a term originally used to describe a member of Congress who advocated going to war with Great Britain in 1812.
Oregon Trail
This was a major U.S. route from Missouri to the Northwest in the 19th century.
Navigation Acts
Series of laws passed by England in 1651 stating that English trade must be transported on English ships.
Intolerable Acts
These were series of laws passed in response to the Boston Tea Party by the British Parliament in 1774. Those laws included the Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Boston Port Act, and the Quartering Act. These acts are considered a significant cause of the American Revolutionary War.
Virginia House of Burgesses
the form of self-government in English colonies
McCulloch v. Maryland
Congress had the power to charter the bank because federal laws have supremecy over state laws - Necessary and Proper
Bill of Rights
the first ten ammendments to the US constitution, added in 1791, to protect the rights of individual citizens and limit the right of the government. Added to satisfy the concerns of the Anti-federalists. .
Ulysses S. Grant
This Union General made a name for himself at the siege at Vicksburg, though he later defeated Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia to end the Civil War.
Dred Scott Decision
This was a 1857 Supreme Court decision that a slave, because he was not a citizen, could not sue for his freedom.
Battle Of Gettysburg
This was one of the bloodiest battles during the American Civil War. Set in Pennsylvania, it is also credited as a major turning point for the Union in the war against the Confederacy.
Tariff Of 1832
This import tax was meant to replace the earlier "Tariff of Abominations", but it was widely disliked by southern merchants. South Carolina event talked about having the right to ignore Federal law, starting what would become known as the "Nullification Crisis."
XYZ Affair
This name was given to a period of diplomatic tension between the U.S. and France in 1797. France demanded the U.S. pay 'tribute' to French diplomats before negotiations between the nations to begin.
Committee Of Correspondence
This was a local government body in the American colonies that coordinated written communication outside of the colony. They were important to the revolution effort.
Rice, Tobacco, and Indigo
The three major Cash crops of the South during colonial times
exclusive senate powers
they have the sole power to try all impeachments, advise president to make treaties and appoint ambassadors.
Proclamation Of 1763
This was issued by King George III at the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Year's War to organize Britain's new North American empire. It regulated trade, settlement and land purchases with the Native Americans. It gave Britain a monopoly on land purchased west of the Appalachians.
Judicial Review
This is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or for the violation of basic principles of justice.
Treaty Of Paris Of 1763
This was a document which formally ended the American Revolutionary W
Declaration Of Independence
This was an act passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 declaring the thirteen American Colonies independent of British rule.
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