Essentials of Sociology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Credentialing
Diplomas/Degrees
3 Religion Components1.Beliefs2.Practices3.CommunityWhat is Practices?
Rituals
Glass Escalator
Men rapidly succeed.
Reformative Social Movements
Reform society.
Feminine....
cleanliness, nurturing, emotional, weak, passive, limited partners, dependent    What girls do to prove they are suppose to fit in the box- dress up, wear makeup, diet
Social Control
Means of enforcing norms.
3 Sociological Perspectives: Symbolic Interactionist
Authority in marriage. 3 types. 1.Patriarchy2.Matriarchy3.EgalitarianWhat is Egalitarian?
Equal.
Gentrification
Movement of Middle-class people into rundown areas of a city.
Redemptive Social Movement
Goal is total change.
McDonaldization of Society
Efficiency
- Simple, highly routinized tasks
Quantification
- Time & Money
- Quanity over quality
- Tasks are carefully calculated
Predictability: Same
Control Over workers & Consumers
What is Race?
Physical Characteristics popularly associated with a group of people     Example: African American
symbolic interactionism
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Patriarchal View
1.War is O.K. 2.Resources 3.Hierarchy 4.More power 5.High Risk
Social Change
Shift in the characteristics of culture and society.
Working Class
Only a H.S. education.  Little hope.
Rising Expectations
Belief that better conditions would soon follow.
Conflict Perspective
Focuses on the relativity of deviance
- the power elite uses the legal system to keep themselves out of trouble and in power.
variables
a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary (or change) from one case to another
Activity Theory
Greater activity = a more satisfying life. Adjust to retiring with activity.
Transcendent or Religion Experience
Sudden supernatural, awareness contact of God, "Born Again"
Metaformative Social Movements
Change an entire civilization. Entire world.
Labeling Theory
Focuses on how labels help to funnel
people away OR into deviance.
Myth #1
A superior race.Example - Nazi Germany or White Supremacists.
Marx argued....
that there are just two classes- capitalists and workers- with a membership based solely on a person’s relationship to the means of production.
Gender: 4 points
Central organizing feature of our livesPowerful form of social control (informal and formal)Dichotomized ( nature vs. nurture)Socially constructed
random sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits.1.Cultural Transmission of Values.2.Social Integration.3.Mainstreaming4.GatekeepingWhat is Mainstreaming?
Inclusion of those with disabilities into regular school.


There are 3
explanations for deviance.
1.Genetic Predispositions,
2.Personality Disorder,
3.and Sociologist's View.
What is Sociologist's View?


Outside factors.  Deviance is learned by social influences such as
family, neighbors, prison, or freedom.
Behavior in Groups: Larger Groups
 
- Greater Diffusion of Responsibility
- Increase in Formaility
- Division into Small Groups
Status inconsistency
When a person ranks higher on one level of social class and low on another level
social interaction
what people do when they are in one another's presence
Megalopolis - Larger then Metropolis
Overlapping areas. Examples? Columbus/Circleville. Dayton/Cinniciatti.
Symbolic Interactionist: Control Theory
Two control systems work against our motivations to deviate:
1.) Our inner controls- conscience, morality, religious principles
-Fears punishment, feeling of integrity, desire to be a good person
and
2.) Outer Control: Attachements, commitments, involvements
- consist of people- who influence us not to deviate
3 Sociological Perspectives: Conflict
Analyzes how groups are pitted against one another, but they focus on how this arrangement benefits those with power.
     Prejudice is beneficial to the dominant group as it keeps minority groups oppressed
There are 3 recent trends that have been shifting within U.S. families.1.Postponing Marriage.2.Cohabitation.3.Unwed Mothers.What is Cohabitation?
Living together without marriage.
Theories of Prejudice has 2 perspectives, Psychological (Outside a person) and Sociological (Outside a person. What is the Sociological Perspective?
Functionalism. Look at benefits and costs from discrimination.
Theories of Prejudice: Frustration and Scapegoats (1939)
- John Dollard
 
People are unable to strike out are the real source of their frustration and look for someone to blame. They unfairly attribute their troubles to a scapegoat often a racial ethic or religious minority and this person or group becomes a target on which they vent their frustrations.
Conformity in Groups: Group think
The process by which members of a group support each other during decision making in order to preserve group harmony and unity.
- Collective tunnel vision
In the "Family Life Cycle", what is Romantic Love?
People being sexually attracted to each other.




When people give up on goals or use deviance to obtain goals,
 
There are 4 Deviant Paths:
1. Innovators,
2. Ritualism,
3.Retreatism,
4. and Rebellion.
 
In Rebellion what do they do?


Reject goals and replace the old goals with new ones.
(Revolutionaries, Protestors)
Nuclear
Husband, wife, children.
Ageism
Discrimination based on age.
Zero-Population Growth
Replace self only.
Leadership styles
Authoritarian: Gives orders
Democratic: Voting
Laissez- Faire: Highly Permissive
Cosmology
Unified picture of the world.
Cyclical
Civilization are like organisms. Birth, youth, maturity, death.
Majority Group
Dominant group with most....PowerPrivilegesHight social status- Possessing political power and unified by shared physical and cultural traits the dominant group uses its position to discriminate against those with different- and supposedly inferior- traits.
Life Span
Maximum length of life possible.
Urbanization
masses of people moving to cities
Reactive Social Movement
React to resist change.
Internal Colonialism
Dominant group exploits minority groups for economic advantage. (slavery)
Demographics of Poverty: Least likely to live in poverty?
Elderly
experiment
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variable to test causation
The Conflict Perspective
Struggle for power and money?
Propaganda
Information that is one-sized and it distorts reality.
Recidivism
Percentage of former prisoners who are re-arrested.
Segregation
Separation of racial or ethnic groups (Vega Model)
The Functionalist Perspective: Deviance
Deviance:
- Clarifies moral boundaries
- Promotes conformity
- Solidifies social bonds
- Promotes social change
Secondary Sex characteristics
Physical distinctions between males and females that are not directly connected with reproduction- become apparent during puberty (males grow lots of muscles, lower voices, gain more body hair and height, while female develop breasts and form more fatty tissue and broader hips.
Feminism
The view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong.
Credential Societies
Use diplomas and degrees to determine job eligibility.- (need a degree to be successful or advance)- (18% of jobs are obtainable by high-school or less)
Transnational Social Movements
Seek to change conditinos throughout the world.
Why have "norms"?
Makes social life possible by making behavior predictable.
Migration is one of two ways that minority is determined. In migration people move in two ways. What is voluntary?
Slaves.
Positive Sanctions
Used to award people for conforming with the norms
- smiles
-Formal awards
- Getting a raise
 
Gender Inequality: Perception
Gender Inequality is pervasive among Muslims    Examples- A 2005 Gallup Poll of U.S. households found that “gender inequality” was among the top responses American women gave to the open-ended question, “ What do you admire least about the Muslim or Islamic world?”
control group
the group of subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable
Strain Theory

People who can't succeed "normally".
Meaning that can't succeed by:
1. Institutional Means,
2. Cultural Goals,
3. and Anomie.

What is Institutional Means?

Legitimate ways of achieving success.
 
The small world Phenomenon
coined by Milgram
 
-six degrees of separation
- On average, everyone in the United States is separated by just six individuals.
What is Meitocracy?
Social mobility is achieved and is based on an individual’s merit, effort, ability and talent rather than on ascribed traits or social connections
social integration
the degree to which members of a group bonds; also known as social cohesion
The Functionalist Perspective: Strain theory
People who experience strain are likely to feel anomie, a sense of normlessness. Because mainstream norms don't seem to be getting them anywhere, people who experience strain find it difficult to identify with these norms therefore are more likely than others to take the deviante path.
Theories of Prejudice: The Authoritarian Personality
Theodor Adorno
-Wondered if there is a type of person who is more likely to fall for the racist spewing of people like Hitler, Mussolini, and those in the KKK. -He tested 2000 people ranging from college professors to prison inmates to measure their ethnocentrism, anti-semitism (biased against Jews), and support for strong authoritarian leaders. He found that people who scored well on one of the tests also scored well on the other two. -He concluded that highly prejudiced people are insecure conformists and have deep respect for authority and are submissive to superiors.
What is a Family Dysfunction?
Incest taboo - No marriage w/in family.
Population Transfer there is Indirect and Direct. What is Direct Population Transfer?
Dominant Groups, expel the minority. (Native Americans)
Minority Groups
Defined by Louis Wirth
-People who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.-Minority group can be racial or ethnic-Minority group not necessarily numerical minority-There physical or cultural traits are held in low esteem by the dominant group, which treats them unfairly and they tend to marry within their own group.
Internalization of the Norms of the Dominant Group
Gradual acceptance of dominant norms by the minority group.
How people construct their racial- ethic identity:
-Ethic work: the way people construct their ethic identity.
  For people who have a strong ethnic identity this term refers to how they enchance and maintain their groups distinctions from clothing, food... language.
    For people who have a weak ethnic identity this term refers to their attempts to recover their ethnic heritage such as tracing family lines....
Why do people want to live in suburbs?
1.Alienation in the city - Too large.2.Can't afford to live in the city, move to suburbs but fight traffic or cost of commuting.
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