Urban Studies Midterm Flashcards

Central business district
Terms Definitions
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1870- 1930/40-Immigration and Migration- New Infrastructure (bridge, railroad, highway, new technology)
Stockholm
has taken impressive strides to increase energy efficiency and reduce waste a. grouping together city offices dealing with waste, water, and energy b. sewage sludge is used for fertilizer and to produce biogas to fuel city buses and a local power plant
PRWR Act of 1996
Personal Responsibility Work ReconcileTo encourage employment to the poor
Homelessness
a. 35,065 incidents of homelessness reported in 2007 b. 24,545 of these incidents were homeless families c. 16,332 of these incidents were children d. 5,389 of these incidents involved children under the age of 6 e. ~3,400 emergency shelter beds exist in the entire county f. 60% of the homeless go regularly without meals g. 81% feel severe hunger
Determinants of urban futures
population growth, environmental constraints, and new communications technologies
Sustainable development
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs- development that improves long-term health of human ecological systems
Mobile Communications
a. “...the mobile phone has lent itself to the pervasive state of absent presence, that continuous presence at hand of family, friends, and colleagues who are physically absent” b. “...we are witnessing the emergence of a ‘floating world’...it is a world of social exchange that escapes the control of government and military/police authority...we may imagine here that dwelling about us at all times are small communities that are unseen and unidentifiable”
Models of city centrality
1. Pseudo-central business district outside of historic center 2. Nodes of intense business activity emerging along “cyber routes” or “digital highways” 3. Transterritorial “centers” 4. Centrality in electronically generated spaces
Globalization- economic power,agglomeration economies
the growing of integration of economies and societies around the world 1. globalization is concentration and also dispersing activity at the global, national and metropolitan level 2. traditionally, businesses cluster in large cities because that is where other business are – lawyers, accountants, bankers, advertising firms, and other specialized service providers
The Welfare System
Funtions:A) To alleviate the pain of povertyB) To control social disorderSuggestions:1) Take a job with minimum wage around your salary with govmt subsidies2) Develop temporary public jobs
European cities and Sprawl
a fundamental part of European sustainable development practice is the way that European cities have limed sprawl and encouraged compact development
European cities and high density
European cities have achieved relatively high average densities mainly by restricting sprawl, building new areas adjacent to the existing city core at relatively high densities, and fostering urban development and industrial reuse.
Creativity capital theory
Regional economic growth is driven by the location choices of creative people – the holders of creative capital – who prefer places that are diverse, tolerant, and open to new ideas.
Work Place Inequalities
Middle Class Women - To help around the family budgetProfessional Women - self realizationLower Class Women - to surviveIn europe they receive advanced notice of plant shutdown from 1-6 months by law
Affordable housing
a. Considered by many to be a key housing issue in Orange County b. Lack of affordable housing may lead to homelessness
LA riots
1. Began April 29, 1992 2. LA jury acquitted four police officers accused in the videotaped beating of Rodney King
bus ridership and token reinforcement
(cash rewards) rather than people driving, the walkers ride the bus to get tokens too [token shaped behavior]
Habits for understanding cities
a. think about processes b. work inductively, reasoning from particulars to generals, rather than the reverse c. seek for “unaverage” clues involving small quantities, which reveal the way that larger more “average” quantities are operating.
Chicago School’s concentric zone model of urban disorder
Bourgeois developed in mid 1920s, Area sandwiched between the middle class and central business district, People who lived here were mostly poor --today known as “inner city”, Wealthier lived on the outskirts of the zone, Zones are not static – as central business district expands the other zones moves out and makes space for the transition
The worldwide digital networks
has become a “new form of urban infrastructure - one that will change the forms of our cities as dramatically as railroads, highways, electric power supply, and telephone networks did in the past.” – Mitchell
Two layers of the creative class
1. Super creative core: Scientists, engineers, poets, novelists, architects, Non-fiction writers, editors, and cultural figures 2. Creative professionals: Financial services, business managers, technicians (have to think for themselves at their jobs)
Personal Identity in the future
it is destined to become “an electronically metered commodity"
Characteristic of mega-urban regions in Asia
1. Populations range from less than 10 million to 26 million 2. These regions have spread outward into adjacent areas, enveloping villages, towns, and cities, and at times linking up with the urban field of other city-regions 3. These regions exert economic, social, cultural and political dominance on their national and regional hinterlands 4. These regions commonly follow a pattern of organizing economic and social space so that they all have a densely developed mega-city core and an extended metropolitan region
Urban culture represented through art
these forms of art emerge from urban communities everywhere and represent the conditions of modern urban life
Factors contributing to the decline of social capital
a. increasing participation of women in the labor force- weakens family ties and no time for bridging social capital b. higher divorce rates and reduced family size c. technological transformations of leisure – more interested in leisure time at home with TV, internet d. greater time spent commuting from home and work- eats up a lot of leisure time e. increasing diversification of the population- erodes social capital, people are likely to be more comfortable with people who they are alike with f. residential mobility and community transience- don’t engage civically don’t take the time to build social capital
Housing element - goal, state laws
a. goal: provide for safe and decent housing for all economic segments of the community b. State law requires: The housing element shall consist of an identification and analysis of existing and projected housing needs and a statement of goals, policies, and quantified objectives and scheduled programs for the preservation, improvement, and development of housing. The housing element shall identify adequate sites for housing, including rental housing, factory-built housing, and mobile homes, and shall make adequate provision for the existing and projected needs of all economic segments of the community.
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