us history final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Russian Czar.
To treat harshly
Love of one's country
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
peasant bound to the land
Important religious ceremonies that helped one reach salvation
Main good traded at fairs
Neil Armstrong
First man on the moon
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
year of the Edict of Worms
Volstead Act
1919; established prohibition beaurea within the Treasury Department; lacked financial stability and was ineffective
This country was not industrialized but had many men.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Great Migration
African-Americans move north for factory jobs • Creates instability in country • Tension between whites and blacks b/c whites used to having no blacks in North • Race riots across Midwest • Black's jobs taken away after WWI
guarenteed basic political rights to nobles. Was relucantly signed by King John.
domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
produced a book called "Optics" that revolutionized ideas about vision
Some claimed that states had this right to declare a federal law to be void.
in feudal Europe, a person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services
Robert Walpole
prime minister of england during George I reign; whig; runs government and protects king; solidifies non-royal government with George II
Great Awakening
A great religious revival, where ministers of the movement claimed that local ministers were not devoted enough to G-d.
The Peace Corps
a volunteer organization established in 1961 by the U.S government to provide humanitarian services to 3rd world countries
Mustafa Kemal
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)
Sargon of Akkad
Who first created an empire?
To many, Serb efforts at ethnic cleansing recalled the horrors of Nazi Germany and the ____________.
Branches of Government
Executive Branch, Legislative Branch, and Judicial Branch
greek historian who wrote about the persian war
a defensive missile designed to shoot down incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles
193. The first permanent English settlement in North America was ________. In what year
Jamestown; 1607
grew popular during and after WWI and available to all (even illiterate) so able to mobilize the masses for political purposes. Also used for propaganda
Philip II
Macedonian King who fought as a phalanx, improving on the Greek's strategies.
John J. Pershing
Head of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe
European civilization
formed by the Christians, church & legacy of Romans
total number of times King Henry VIII was married
intolerable acts
coercive acts- passed in reaction to the Boston tea party, they closed Boston harbor
site of cross border raids and plots by southern agents and anti british americans during the civil war
Glourious Revolution
In 1688 Parliament removed King James 2nd from the throne and asked William and Mary Netherland to rule
later Homo sapiens
a worldwide distribution, arriving in Australia around 60,000 years ago and in North and South America between 20,000 and 12,000 years ago
one of the earliest cities in sumer, it stood on the banks of the Euphrates river in what is now southern iraq
Name the German scientist who said planets travel in elliptical patterns.
Johann Kepler
15th Amendment
This amendment granted black men the right to vote.
A person who copies out documents for their job (keep records and laws etc)
Henry George
Author of the book Progress and Poverty which addressed the issues of how the people with land were showered with profits and people without land were forced into poverty.
indirect rule
The British, by contrast, relied on this system to govern their colonies. They used sultans, chiefs, or other local rulers and they encouraged the children of the local ruling class to get educated n Britain creating a new "westernized" generation of leaders in Africa.
the taming of animals for human use, such as work or as food
Sutters Mills
The Gold Rush started when gold was discovered at
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution.
this man is the major figure during the age of enlightenment
isaac newton
Green Backs
a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War
The Bank War
the name given to Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States during the early years of his presidency. Andrew Jackson viewed the Bank of the United States as a monopoly. The Bank of the United States was a private institution managed by a board of directors. Its president, Nicholas Biddle, exercised vast influence in the nation's financial affairs.
A type of government in which a King's land is ruled by Nobles in exchange for loyalty and taxes
panama cannel
In 1903, the US backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Columbia in order to gain control over land to build the ___________.
A new concept or idea that changes and entity & then spreads & changes others
This is the mass murder of a specific people
11. Magyars
A people who migrated from the Ural Mountains and Volga River valley into central Europe; ancestors of the Hungarians
Bay of Pigs
1961 CIA mounted an invasion by Cuban exiles and landed here but it failed to overthrow Castro and made his ambitions for Cuba even more radical and aligned with the Soviet Union
Barter economy
system in which one set of goods or services is exchanged for another
Crispus Attucks
was the first of five people killed in the Boston Massacre in Boston, Massachusetts. He has been frequently named as the first martyr of the American Revolution and is the only Boston Massacre victim whose name is commonly remembered
Popular Sovereignty
o In the Election of 1848 Lewis Cass came up with this idea--allow the citizens who live in the territories to decide whether or not they want slaves
Concordat of 1801
It kept the Church under state control but recognized religious freedom for Catholics
July 14, 1789
When did the storming of the Bastille take place?
Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States gained
New Mexico and Upper California
Barbary Pirates and Stephen Decatur
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute. United States naval officer remembered for his heroid deeds (1779-1820)
who was not associated with the Harlem Renaissance
Langston Hughes, Duke Wellington,James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay
Karl Marx, Marxist beliefs, & "the communist Manifesto"
"The Communist Manifesto" a book written by Karl Marx and Friederich Engels; they were appalled on the horrible conditions in factories and blamed the system of industrial capitalism for these conditions. They came up with the solution of a new social system "Marxist Socialism". He predicted that the struggle between the two groups would finally lead to an open revolution where the proletariat would violently overthrow the bourgeoisie.
The Nail that sticks up gets hammered down
expression that means that if you stick out people will try to make to normal
47. How could a pope use interdict to force a ruler to bend to the papal will?
because his people do not have to be loyal to the ruler after interdict, so he would loose all of his followers
dependent state
a military draft
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being the School of Athens.
French impressionist painter (20.4)
professional heavy infantry and cavalry
He bought the Louisiana Territory.
family relationship determined social structure
Mather Brady
Photographer who photographed the south after the war.
weekly day of worship and rest
year John Knox returns from Geneva
America supports the formation of Israel
number of military interventions in the carribbean and central america before 1933
A conservative prime minister of Prussia. He was an architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1870. He utilized liberal reforms to attracted support for conservative causes.
moderation in or abstinence form alcohol.
Role of Geography (Greece)
Mountains limit interaction/communication
terrain & soil hard to farm
Greeks became expert sailors
legislative branch
the law-making body of the government
a former republic in central Europe; divided into Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993, replaced long time Stalinist leader with Alexander Dubcek who wanted socialism with a human face (more liberal); Russia invaded;, Hitler demanded pro Nazi, German speaking Sudetenland be turned over; democratic government was opposed to this; Chamberlain appeased Nazis and forced them to turn over Sudetenland to Nazis to avoid dragging Soviets into war; Hitler occupied remainder by March 1939. only democtatic thing in ww2
fought the Romans for freedom and drove them out of Jerusalem
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Lay investiture
The appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles
local government
government on the county, parish, city, town, village or district level.
William Swain's wife. Didn't want her husband to travel for gold.
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Jose Marti
Cuban poet and journalist who organized a guerilla revolution against Spain in 1895 - "Cuba Libre" free Cuba was his battle cry-and sought US support and intervention
Name British scientist that found a vaccine to prevent small pox
Carthage is located on the continent of...
Program that provides health care for people over 65
manorial system
the economic system of medieval western Europe built around large estates called manors
Atomic Bomb
in 1945 U.S. President Harry Truman commanded an American plane to drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan and dropped a second on Nagasaki, causing Japan to surrender shortly after
The queen of Poland who married Duke Wladyslav Jagiello of Lithuania.
pastoral nomad
a person who domesticates animals for food and clothing and moves along regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for those animals.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom (after settling in the Netherlands, with full religious freedom, and then deciding that it was too sinful a place) and settled Massachusetts Bay.
George I
German prince who becomes King of England after Anne; not inclined to pay attention to Parliament; has Robert Walpole as prime minister
separation of powers
adopted from montesquieu, it called for three different branches of our government
Kentucky Long Rifle
weapon used in war of 1812
Arms Race
describes a competition between two or more parties for real or apparent military supremace. Cold war and the nuclear weapons between the US and soviet union.
Pueblo Peoples
Lived in the Southwest. Their culture was greatly influenced by the introduction of corn planting. The Pueblo's in the Rio Grande valley constructed intricate irrigation systems to water their cornfields. They lived in villiages of multistoried and terraced buildings. Pueblo means "village" in Spanish
Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of the Inidan National Congress who advocated passive resistance
Name the medieval monk who based learning on observation and experiment.
Roger Bacon
Tet Offense
Series of surprise attacks by the Vietcong
Edward VI
Tutor. Son of Henry VIII. Rules England from 1547-1553. The church begins to become more protestant. The "Book of Common Prayer" comes into usage. He is a sickly king.
Oregon Country
settlers poured into here between 1840 and 1860 for rich farmland
Home of the Globe Theater and center of British society during the Elizabethan Age.
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Olympic Games
the most famous contests played by the Greeks, every four years
A form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote.
Quemoy and Matsu
Islands off the coast of China. Nationalist forces used to stage raids on mainland China. U.S. U.S. pledged to defend Republic of China (Taiwan), led by Chiang Kai-Shek, from the Peoples Republic of China (mainland China), led by Mao Zedong. U.S. Almost used nuclear arms on the islands.
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
common law
laws that were common to the whole kingdom --- this began to replace law codes that varied from place to place
Name the monk who based learning on observation and experience
Roger Bacon
Continental army
regular or pro. army authorized by the 2nd cont. congress and commanded by Gen. George Washington during the Rev. war
Agricultural Adjustment Act
1933, government paid farmers not to farm in order to remove surplus and raise value of crops
Tokyo School of Fine Arts
established to promote traditional Japanese art (22.3)
War on Iraq
US/ Britian invasion of Iraq in an effort to make Iraq allow UN weapons inspectors back into Iraq
Restore the Union
Abe Lincoln's main goal when the Civil War begain
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Bishop Desmond Tutu
Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town and a Nobel Peace Laureate. Was also a major leader in the fight for majority rule, outspoken leader for ending apartheid, came up with truth and reconciliation meetings
Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi
the first emperor of China, unified China
Effects of the slave trade
turned Africans against Africans 10-15 million Africans brought to the Americas/ Trading Slaves for guns ruined family structure
indentured servants
A person who has agreed to work for an individual for a specified period of time in order to repay a debt. In colonial times, it was fairly common for a person to indenture his or her self for payment of passage on a ship to America.
Mohenjo-Daro / Harappa
the two main cities of india, know as twin capitals and both 3 miles in circumference
Was there a new south?
Two opinions:
1) Yes... at the end of slavery, the south changed their interaction with blacks OR
2) No.. there was NOT a new south because social hierarchy does not change after the civil war; De Jure discrimination and Jim Crow laws developed which was a way to continue the fight vs. blacks
Battle of Ayacucho (Peru) December 9, 1824
last major battle in war of independence; Spanish colonies won their freedom
The free ownership of land that their ancestors had worked without compensation
Recently freed black in the South believed that the key to freedom was
Women's Army Corps
Who settled Delaware?
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
Frances Perkins
First women cabinent member
swiss brethren; opposed infant baptism; separation of church and state; believed in pacifism
far west 1870-1890s
great population growth
How many amendments were made?
head of the redheads, outstanding military leader, became a religious tyrant and a was only 14 years of age. Took name of Persian leader shah or king.
His technique allowed for inexpensive, high-quality steel
gentlemen's agreement
californians repealed offensive school order, japanese stopped flow of laborers to u.s.
Thinker who developed approaches to organizing information that are now part of modern science
Name some medieval Colleges
Oxford and Cambridge
the permanent capital established by Charlemagne
Jeamette Rankin
Congresswoman who spoke out against the war
a wise and trusted leader of Athens
Machine used to behead people during the revolution
Old Stone Age, preceding the Neolithic period in dates.
Missouri Compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss (1484-1531) who started the reformation in Zurich. Often preached the Bible.
The Association
Effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods
Augusto Sandino
leader of the sandinistas in Nicaragua; led a resistence movement against U.S. occupation until he was assassinated in 1934
a large group of people, usually angry
Name the world's most prolific inventor.
Thomas Edison
res noviae
"new stuff", break w/ tradition; refusal to follow traditions of the past
Czechoslovakia was given to the Nazis at this conference
These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
Trickle-Down Theory
Tax cuts resulting in people keeping more of their mone to spend (same as Raganonomics and oppisite of Keysian)
Leon Trotsky
Lead the Bolsheviks of Russian along side Lenin. revolutionary orator and independent racial Marxist, Bolshevik seizure of power by convincing the Petrograd Soviet to form a special military-revolutionary committee and make him its leader. His soldiers joined with the Bolsheviks to overtake members of the provisional government and win the vote of the Congress of soviets. He was also leader of the Red Army in the civil war.
Hispanic-American Alliance
An organization formed in 1894 by Mexicanos (Americans who became Americans when the US took territory from Mexico). Its goal was "to protect and fight for the rights of Spanish Americans" by political action.
"White Man's Burden"
When Europe invaded Africa, they thought they were superior and when they invaded the tried to teach the Africans about Christianity and other subjects. They considered this a burden
country that did not take control of other countries' territory during the 1930's
Joseph Smith
Founded the Mormon religion and wrote the book of Mormon.
Howard Taft
- president once
- republican who was put on the election ticket; endorsed by TR
Credibility Gap
a public distrust of statements made by the government
6th century BCE ruler who led the foundation of polis democracy
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Popular Front
Was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
prohibiting the killing of daughters
Islam helped women by
Wounded Knee
In south Dakota, US soldiery had killed 350+ Sioux
movement of people from one country to another
a tready formed in Paris, France signed by Germany and the Allies
Tready of Versailles
shining path
a terrorist group formed in Peru in the late 1960s as a splinter group from the communist party of Peru. is among the most ruthless guerilla organizations in the world; seeks to destroy Peruvian institutions and replace them with a Maoist peasant regime;
Tiananmen Square
Square in Bejing, China where at a 1989 protest against the government students were killed and wounded
Charles G. Finney
An avid reformer who started the Second Great Awakening
john wilkes booth
fanatical actor whose act of violence harmed the south
Yellow Journalism Trend
- these were biased, often untrue stories published for reasons other than being newsworthy
- William Randolph Hearst: New York Journal
- Joseph Pulitzer: New York World
1876-77 Sioux war
gold discovered in sioux black hills- led to stampede of 1875
Who is the famous functional American architect we studied?
Frank Lloyd Wright
How did Czar Alexander I defeat Napoleon?
Scorched Earth Policy.
Booker T. Washington
This African American was a firm believer in the blacks need to gain economic independence. He felt there was no need for the blacks to try to gain social inequality becuse of the racism of the South.
Pope Gregory VII
pope whose assertion of church power to appoint bishops led him into conflict with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who claimed the powers for himself, excommunicated Henry
Spinning Jenny
A machine that allows a worker to spin many threads at once.
Spanish-American Treaty
1. Give up all claims to Cuba
2. Give Puerto Rico and Guam to the US
3. Give up control of Philippines in return for the US paying them $20 million
What 2 utopian movements rose out of the ashes of WWI?
Communisim and Naziism
Allowed Germans to pull troops from the eastern front and put them on the western front
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
What was Nixon's plan in Vietnam?
1-military front 2-diplomatic front 3-political/psychological front 4-vietnamization
battle of the coral sea
May 1942; Amer. and Australia stopped Japan's advance ; Allies intercepted the Japanese fleet as it attempted to take more territory; fought entirely by carrier-based planes
Duke William
E. Duke of Normandy at 7 years old who claimed the throne after Edward, eventually got it in 1066, became William the Conqueror and kept control as king,
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
Was sent to south Vietnam to overthrow the leaders
To reduce tension during cold war. Things were getting too heated and people feared a war.
What was the purpose of detente?
What was the one way Ghana's king maintained his power?
The king maintained a large army.
4th condition of Treaty of Paris
each side would repay debts it owed to the other
a holy image
The Crusades increased...
term limits of senate
A split in the church
an agreement to stop fighting
The Egyptian alphabet is called
the movement to end slavery
realistic view on politics according to the needs of the state
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
General Howe
Commander-in-Chief of British forces during Revolutionary War, Capture of Quebec in 1759 (French-Indian War)
In his autobiography and speeches, Frederick Douglass insisted that full social, political, and _______________equality for blacks was required
Arthur Balfour
British foreign secretary who supported Zionism.
The emperor that appointed his favorite horse as consul
Great Britain
Who throws the first response?
Non-agression Pact
A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them and resolve their disputes through peaceful negotiations.
flying buttresses
exterior supports for cathedrals and other large buildings
Rowlatt Acts
laws that allowed British government to arrest protesters without trial for as long as two years
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society
benevolent assimilation
mckinley's plan to improve roads, sanitation, and public health in the philippines
cultural conservatism
many Muslims being oblivious to European technological developments (scientific instruments and printing presses) and cultural developments (Enlightenment ideas)
new type of bureaucrat trained in engineering or economics that came to fore in government offices
Any movement of a population sharing common national and/or ethnic identity. This happened to the Jews after the Romans removed them from the area they were inhabiting.
Name an English philosopher who believed in a society where leaders have absolute power.
Thomas Hobbes
A coined termed by President Theodore Roosevelt to criticize the authors publicizing the worst in American life.
This Admiral planned the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor
Ottoman Empire
a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of Brittan (tried to get America to join)
the process by which an area turns into a desert
Giuseppe Garibaldi
he recruited an army of 1,100 solddiers, they were called Red Shirts; with this army he invaded and took Sicily, he then crossed to the mainland and seized Naples, the capital city; he became a national and international hero
the epic story of the king, Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality. This is a Sumerian legend and is believed to be the first story
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
gave the US complete and unending sovereignty over a 10 mile wide Canal zone
Golda Meir
Israeli prime minister during the Yom Kippur War
Upton Sinclairs The Jungle led to
nasty food industry
Nov 11 1918
When did the war officially end?
Truman Doctrine
A US policy announced by President Harry Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents.
historical name for the area of modern Iraq
Christian Pilgrims
After the third crusade, Muslims would retain control of Jerusalem but unarmed ________________ could visit holy sites.
First Five-Year Plan
emphasized the maximum production of capital goods and armaments by quadrupling the production of heavy machinery and doubling oil production
purpose was to push the Vietcong from particular regions and then pacify those regions by winning the hearts and minds of the people. This strategy eventually gave way to one of massive relocation of civilians.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
European Art in the 1600 - 1700 was dominated by this grand, ornate style (Think of the Palace of Versailles)
decline of Maya
may have been caused by internal revolt, invasion and reduced crop yields (overused land)
"The world turned upside down"
Song sung by the British
Worcester v Georgia
Marshall wrote that the "laws of Georgia can have no force" in Cherokee territory.
What organization was created during WWI to encourage mass-production techniques
War Industries Board (WIB)
francis marie arouet
the real name of the philosopher Voltaire
What crops did George Washington Carver make more profitable?
Peanuts, sweet potato, soybeans
Ben Franklin
all around genius, went to England a lot, diplomat
the use of land for growing crops and raising animals; farming
Mississippi River System
the largest in North America, it includes the two longest rivers in the United States, the Mississippi and Missouri.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
treaty that the Bolsheviks signed with Germany; Russia gave up 1/4 of its european territory to Germany alone with many mines and factories
Patrick Henry
1st and 6th governor of VA. "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech, Founding Father, Anti-Federalist
King Mongkut
The first of two rulers to help keep Thailand an independent S.E. Asia state by promoting Western culture and keeping relations with Britain/ France
How slavery evolved the nation..?
the regions, especially north and south, fought over free v. non free slave states
Alliance for Progress
(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
Treaty of Versailles results
Russia was determined to get back the territory it had lost
Committee to Reelect the President
an organization formed to run Nixon's 1972 reelection campaign, which was linked to the Watergate scandal.
Stephen of Cloyes
12 year old who led 30,000 children to jerusalem. Many died on the way
2 reasons why French explorers ca me to the New World
fur trade, convert Native Americans
Voting Rights Act of 1965
law that made it easier for A.A. to register to vote by eliminating discriminatory literary tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the local level.
ways that Hinduism and Buddhism are different
Hinduism has many gods- Buddhism has a goal to achieve rather than a god, Hinduism: Achieve "Moksha" and Buddhism: achieve "Nirvana"
United Brethern
May 4th Movement
Vice Prez
Joe Biden
hard money
Gold or silver.
holy book of islam
A Muslim house of worship
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Separate but equal.
relating to the civilization, language, art, science, and literature, of the greek world from the reign of alexander the great to the late second century bc.
rembrandt harmenszoon van rijn
Dutch painter.
Napolean Bonaparte
1769-1821. French military and political leader. General during French Revolution, Ruler of France as First Consul of French Republic, King of Italy, Mediator of Swiss Confederation, and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine.
- Famous playwright
- "Oedipus the King"
- "Antigone"
- Reveals nature of Gods
Chinese political philosphy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order
the National Association of Colored Women – a social service organization founded in 1896
who calls the natives "los indios"
women who emancipated themselves from former female housewife roles; pushed the mores of society
sixth-most lopsided presidential election in the history of the United States. President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier upon the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy, and Johnson had successfully associated hims
Election of 1964
origin of the iliad and the odyssey
David Lloyd George
British Prime MInister during WWI
The head of the Eastern Orthodox Church orginally appointed by the Byzantine Empire.
effort in god's service--taken on as another duty by muslims
_____________ was the baseball home run king in the 1920s.
Babe Ruth
Theodore Herzl
Founder of Zionism. Austrian Journalist
Nicolo Machiavelli
Wrote handbook for politicians, called The Prince
Prejudice towards the Jewish people in France.
Mass Culture
Products became readily available to general public, produced in greater quantity, media, world starts connecting more
Herbert Hoover
31st President. which held that government and the economy were riddled with inefficiency and waste, and could be improved by experts who could identify the problems and solve them. Great Depression!!!
leader of the green mtn boys
ethan Allen
what was the drinving motivation for the explorers to reach the indies?
spice trade
why- privateers
to help their army win the war
horace mann
tried to reform public education and make it more structured
Big House
A plantation often consisted of a family mansion. It was called the ___ _____.
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia
"lightening war"- a form of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast-moving airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry forces.
Investiture Controversy
who- Popes and German Emperorswhat- a dispute that began in 1076 between Popes and German Emperors over the right to invest bishops into their officeswhere- Romewhen- 1076sig.- led to the excommunication of King Henry
The movement in Scandinavia at the turn of the century that was a genuine attempt to interpret the indigenous tradition of each of the respective countries is referred to as?
National Romantic
What role did marketing play in the growth of the automobile industry?
_____________ was the man who was the leader of the Russian Revolution.
The London Blitz
-German bombers bombed the British coast daily for a month

-Changed their target to major cities (eg London) and shelled them for 57 days

-was meant to destroy the Brits, but instead strenghtened their resolve
Citizen Genet Affair
French minister, ambassador of France, opportunist, wants to keep his position in society. Conspiracy, stays in American and becomes a farmer
Sitting Bull
leader of Hunkpapa Sioux; never signed treaty
Greco-Roman art
Romas were influenced by Greek art, therefore some of their art was considered " Greco-Roman"
Cyrus McCormick
in 1831 he invented the reaper which was horse drawn - increasing farming production
operation desert storm
buildup of UN troops in saudi arabia/iraq to try to dislodge iraq from kuwait
Oil and Steel
What 2 industries were most important in the growth of the Industrial Revolution?
Johannes Kepler (1571 to 1630)
1571 to 1630
German mathematician
elliptical orbits
proved mathematically what Copernicus speculated
a large estate with its own crops and herd, became familiar in contryside of Spanish territory.  
Triple Entente
attempt to make the German navy equal to the might of the Bristish fleet: Great Britain formed an entente with France; in 1907, Britain made another entente, with both France and Russia; the Triple Entente did not bind Britain to fight with France and Russsa, however, it did almost certainly ensure that Britain would not fight against them
The Atlantic Charter
a secreet meeting btwn Churchill and FDR where they drafted goals for the war and for all future wars and post-war goals

plan revolved around the destruction of the Nazis
A washington lawyer who watched the all-night battle at Fort McHenry and showed his pride by writing what became the national anthem
Francis Scott Key
divine right
the doctrine that the right of rule derives directly from God, not from the consent of the people.
National Defense Education Act
act that approved millions of dollars to improve education in science, mathematics, and foreign languages
Lincoln Steffens
He became a reporter on The New York Evening Post, later became associated with the style of investigate journalism that became known as muckraking.
Franco-Prussian War
1870-1871 Used by Bismarck as a way to unify the South German states with the confederation of North German states Prussia already controlledAltered a telegram regarding a conversation between King William (Prussia) and a French ambassador which made it seem as if they had insulted each other. Enrages French and German public, and as planned, South Germany comes to the aid of Prussia in the fight against France. Commanding victory over France, Prussia was awarded the Alsace Lorraine territory and large settlement from France. Created a new, powerful German empire in central Europe led by Prussia. This upsets the balance of power, creating fear, tension, and rivalries which would culminate into the First World War.
Charles Bonaparte
In 1914 he put forth a women's minimum wage bill as Governor of Maryland; it was rejected by women because it implied that women needed special care, protection and privilege.
Examine Japan’s objectives in its aggressive expansion in Asia. / Mukden Incident
•To sustain industrial growth Japan needed larger markets for its products and more raw materials for its factories.
•Growing population, needed land
•Used the war to increase its influence in China
•Japanese troops invaded and occupied mineral-rich Manchuria in northeastern China.
•Railroad in Manchuria was dynamited
•Accused Chinese
•Invasion of Manchuria happened
Bank of the United States
The idea Alexander Hamilton had for his financial plan
what does holocaust refer to?
massacre of more than 6 million jews
The King and Queen.
Who was the head of the Anglican church?
why did we fail in vietnam?
lack of support at home, guerilla warefare tactics, lack of support by the south vietnamese
"Royal throne is not a throne of man, but of God himself"
Bishop Bossuet
Supported idea of royal monarchy, divine right, etc.
Rights of People Accused of Crime, Right to be Protected from Double Jeopardy, Right to Remain Silent, Right of not being denied Life, Liberty, or Property without Due Process of the Law, and Right to Avoid Eminent Domain
The 5 Rights Protected by the 5th Amendment
What did the gold scheme result in?
sentthe price of gold to a low that threatened banks to close
citizen soldiers
modest; unpretentious.
jewish spanish christians
going against the church
24th amendment
abolish poll tax
making and selling illegal alcohol
type of Christian religion
not Lutheran or Catholic- leads to more fighting in Germany
Daniel Boorstin
Emphasizes consensus and frontier Says we are all action-oriented people (doers not thinkers) Frontier made us action-centered as Americans
occured during carter admin. Stagflation was persistent inflation combined with stagnant consumer demand and relatively high unemployment.
German mercenary soldiers; Defeated at Trenton
a business association that is associated with a particular trade or craft; evolved in twelfth century and played a leading role in economic life of medieval cities
Demonstration in which protesters sit down in a location and refuse to leave
Concerning the branch of government that enforces laws. Made up of the president and vice president.
Popular type of poetry in Japan?
United Nations (UN)
international organization established after WWII with the goal of maintaining peace and cooperation in the international community
Clara Barton
school teacher, volunteered during civil war; organized the American Red Cross
Relief Program
Programs to help the needy.
Economic growth in Europe
contact with other civilizations
the irish and germans supported this political party
Innocent III
most powerful pope of Medieval Ages
Francis Bacon
believed in inductive reasoning, no preconceived notions, created the scientific method
Who became this leader in 719?
Charles Martel
explorer looking for sources of Arkansas and Red Rivers, explorers area known today as Colorado
Zebulon Pike
4 themes carried over from the 1800's?
industrializationliberalismsocialism=total warnationalism
founder of the failed settlement at Fort St. Louis
Great social problem that faced the country in 1800
Germany first violated the Treaty of Versailles by marching into what region?
-procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office
a creek flowing from S Pennsylvania through NW Maryland into the Potomac: Civil War battle fought near here at Sharpsburg, Maryland, in 1862.
Bottom of society?
Africans. 93% were slaves. shocker.
2nd lowest were the rural poor. they werent successful farmers and existed by hunting and fishing, gardening, less than 10% of WHITE pop.
homo habilis
an extinct species of upright East African hominid having some advanced humanlike characteristics, dated as being from about 1.5 million to more than 2 million years old and proposed as an early form of Homo leading to modern humans.
Bimetallism ?
Inflation to increase prices of gold and silver and for people to have increase money
Four freedoms
freedom of speech and expression, of worship, from want, and from fear
The new writers of this period differed from the past
Middle class
Lech Walesa
Led the Solidarity union (Polish trade union) and was a national hero. Was elected president after Polish government found out Communism wasn't effective and didn't improve the economy fast enough so he wasn't re-elected.
Frederick the Great
tight control over subjects; "first servant of the state"-work for common good; admire voltaire; made prussian
An American industrialist who sent a "peace ship" to Europe to end the war.
Henry Ford
Joseph Smith, Jr.
farm boy, experienced revelations and wrote The Book of Mormon
Oliver Hill
An African American attorney who was instrumental in the civil rights struggles of the 1950s and 1960s.
Man who believed Ahura Mazda told him to start a new religion
Roger WIlliams (MASS)
Disagreed with church and state; Minister; Providence, Rhode Island; Popery; sin of unjust userpation-stealing land
a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
Korean War
conflict over the future of the Korean Peninsula, fought between 1950 and 1953 and ended in a tie.
treaty of aix-la-chapelle
ended King George's war and gave louisburg back to france in exchange for land in india
Medici Family
A very wealthy family in Italy, who had enough money to win control of Florence's government during the renaissance, Cosimo de Medici was the richest European of his time, and Lorenzo de Medici (his son), ruled as a dictator but kept the appearance of an elected government.
James McCord
Who was in charge of the watergate scandal?
Samuel J. Tilden
democratic candidate, known as the man who bagged Boss Tweed, actually won the election of 1876, but lost b/c of the Compromise of 1877
powder river war
war that broke indian resistance on the northern planes. this war created a treaty between the souix indian. we got black hills south dakota
Chiang Kai Sheik/Chairman Mao
Chiang Kai Sheik (Nationalists) versus Mao Tse-Tung (Communists)-Victory of Mao in 1949 and mainland China became known as the People’s Republic of China and the nationalists established the Republic of China on the island of Formosa (now known as Taiwan)
reject-pres can do this to any act of congress
What were Jamestown's most serious problems during its first year?
Hunger and bad attitudes.
Trail of Tears
The long and dangerous walk for the Cherokees when they were kicked out of their homeland by the US in 1838; a genocidal removal
Han Dynasty
(206 BC-220 AD) a golden age in China, Wu-Ti ruled by Confucianism, Silk road, lots of inventions
Selective Service Act of 1917
The law establishing the military draft for World War I.
Ft. Sumter
1st shots of vivil war shot here - Lincoln wouldn't give SC it so he sent supplies to the fort which SC shot at and eventually shot the fort starting the war.
joint stock company
a company in which investors buy stock in the company in return for a share of its future profits.
Panic of 1837
caused by the bank war and happens on an international scale - Bank of England wants to have their loans re-payed in gold and not American paper money, which was not all that possible at the time - leads to the first big depression in the U.S. and allows the whig party to begin to catch on
National Research Council
- organized in 1916 in response to the increased need for scientific and technical services caused by World War I. Recommended that US scientists be brought together to work on these problems George Ellery Hale
List three accomplishments/changes Trajan is remembered for
1. Granted state funds to help poorer classes raise (educate and support) their children
2. Built new forum
3. Expands Roman rule even further East, into Mesopotamia
who is Sir Walter Raleigh?
Tried and failed twice to establish a successful colony, but he gained land and called it virgina
U.S. law authorizing the creation of Kansas and Nebraska, stating that the inhabitants of the territories should decide for themselves the legality of slaveholding. Led to Bleeding Kansas.
The Kansas and Nebraska Act (1854).
Name three choices non Muslims faced
1. become a muslim2. pay heavy taxes (were allowed to follow own religion, did not have as many rights as Muslims)3. Die
Discuss John Hay's "Open Door" policy in China.
No European nation should carve out a sphere of influence in China & exclude others from trading; Despite American claims to the contrary, other countries did not accept it; Policy opened the potential for later conflict with powers in Pacific
Missouri Compromise
trade and business
Black Panther Party
Lifetime of Buddha
563-483 BCE
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
 This meant that people would not panic; which meant extra money in the bank for loans. They would take care up to 2,500 dollars. Roosevelt is getting more trust for the federal government.
Plan for Saint Peter's
1546-1564 Michelangelo
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
depression of 1873
increased grange membership
What is the roman census?
an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors
Magna Carta
1st document of English freedom
John Marshall
Federalist, Supreme Court CHIEF justice suring jefferson's administration.
○ He destroyed Jerusalem ○ The coliseum was built during his rule ○ MT. Vesuvius Erupted and destroyed pompeii
Punic Wars
Rome versus Carthage (North Africa)
iron curtain
represented Europe's division into democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe
Scipio Africanus
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
Fredrick Douglas
Former slave who became a politician
the national grange was founded by this individual in 1867
Japanese leader who led the Pear Harbor attacks
A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites.
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Shoshone Indian woman who helped Lewis and Clark on their expedition.
The first African-American to play major league baseball in 1947 was
Jackie Robinson
Social Market Economy
Germany's economic miracle was considerably aided by adoption of this type of economy(defined earlier). This mixture of market capitalism along with broad social services kept the German population secure and willing participants in the economic growth.
China (20th C)
-Manchu Dynasty in trouble-Made concessions to Europe-China produced tea and traded for opium-Opium Wars: England won-England gets Hong Kong Port
related to thinking or to the mind
an object made by someone in the past
Sir Arthur Evans
Discovered the Palace at Knossos, Crete - people named Minoan; predates any major cities of Greek mainland; thrived in the bronze age
Eleanor Roosevelt
A social reformer who combined her deep humanitarian impulses with great political skills.
Taika Reforms
645 AD, Prince Shotuku's ideas became laws
hunted fish and game - inhabited the woodlands of the northeast.
October 29, 1929
Black Tuesday; Day American stock market crashed
Black Shirts
A secret army, basically, owned by Mussolini that pushed the socialists out of city governments in Northern Italy.
Santa Fe Trail
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Sante Fe, Mexico, used by traders in the early and mid 1800s
Payment for damages or costs caused by a war
plan to heal schism, limit papacy with councils, called in pisa in 1409 elected a new on and so forth
Alexander Hamilton
Aid to George Washington during the RevolutionFirst Secretary of the Treasury
Louis Pasteur
french scientist who proposed the germ theory of disease
adolf hitler
Nazi dictator of Germany, born in Austria: Chancellor 1933–45; dictator 1934–45.
(6) The bull moose party candidate in 1912 was?
Teddy Roosevelt
Office of War Mobilization
federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during WWII
Proclamation of Neutrality
George Washington issued this when he made it clear he gave no support to a French Alliance
The New Deal
Roosevelt's main plan to combat the Great Depression, wanted to just keep trying ideas until one of them worked
The person who is credited with developing the indigo crop in Carolina.
Eliza Lucas Pinckney
Russel Means
Sioux member from South Dakota who was prominent in American Indian Movement
a person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants
Black Bear Ranch
one of hte isolated communities that is mentioned in sleeping where i fell. Here 30 or so people would brave the winter together.
Ponce De Leon
He discovered Florida while he was searching for the fountain of youth
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
series of popes in the 1400's to the early 1500's that focused on worldly interests instead of the needs of the church
renaissance popes
social gospel movement
In the 1880s and 1890s, urban churches started this movement to treat problems like drinking and gambling. It used gospel teachings of Jesus to fix society.
The Constatution reached a __________ and decided that the goal for the Texas Revolution was to restore the __________ of 1824.
_________ = compromise___________ = Constitution
Vertical Integration
when the company owns all the parts of a process(ys steel-Carnige)
Macon's Bill No. 2
opens trade with GB and France and says that if either nation repeals its restrictions on neutral shipping, the US will halt trade with the other; doesn't work
The first declaration of war involved ______?
Austria-Hungary declaring war against Serbia
Name the powers fo the Executive Branch.
make treaties, appoint cabinet, appoint Sup. Ct. Justices; appoint ambassadors, request laws, veto, head of political party, appoint cabinet, pardon prisoners for Fed. crimes, Commander in Chief of Army and Navy, issue executive orders
What are the names of otwo highly respected men who were Federalists?
George Washinton and Benjamin Franklin
in march 1861 what was going on in fort sumter that ahd the men stationed there concerned?
running out of supplies.
hamilton's plan for strengthening the economy
1) pay off nation's debt2) honor war bonds3) make a national bank4) take over state debts
What is the Battles of Lexington and Concord
The first engagements of the American Revolutionary War
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