Ethics Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
manifested
shown
Epicureans emphasized
pleasure
intrinscally good
good period
afront
intentional offence or insult
legal norms
non-moral norms: laws, statutes
Vinaya
the monastic code in Buddhism
What is a Safety Valve?
Excess
feminist
the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.
battery
the carrying out of physically threatening harm
the only permissible reasons for engaging in a just war are self-defense or the acquisition of vital resources by offensive war
false
Do-not-resuscitate order
Specifies the circumstances under which a person does not wish attempted resuscitation.
When did Japan Surrender?
August 10, 1945
features of punishment
1. unpleasent
2. deliberately imposed
3. for an offence
4. by an authorized agent
communitarian
a member of a communistic community.
puritan ethic
emphasizes hard work, abstaining from excessive pleasures and balancing success with humility
Morals
ideas about what is right & wrong
szasz maintains that the high degree of danger that a given thing has is reason enough to ban it
false
paternalism
making decisions on behalf of the client withouth that persons fuill consent or knowledge
________ is the process which recognition is granted individuals who meet certain requirements.a. Accreditationb. Licensurec. Certificationd. Registration
c. Certification
Who seeks to find "the criterion of right and wrong"?
Mill
(Kohlberg) a stage of moral development in which the individual considers universal moral principles which supersede the authority of the group
Post-conventional stage
Eudaemonism
A justification of Morality based on what promes the "Good Life"
imperfect duty to others
duty of being good
applied ethics
the application of moral norms to specific moral issues or cases, particularly in a profession such as medicine or law
burn out results in:
-depleted energy and emotional exhaustion
- lowered resistance to illness
-increased depersonalization in interpersonal relationships
- increased dissatisfaction and pessimism
- increased absenteeism and work inefficiency
Signs of Senior Abuse
- Missing personal belongings- Untreated medical conditions- No opportunity to speak for himself/herself or see others, without the presence of the caregiver
Ethical system
the source of moral beliefs. The underlying premises from which people make judgements and are beyond argument
Who was the second philosopher and founder of Russian anarchy?
Mikhail Bakunin
Assisted Suicide
Someone provides the patient with info or the necessary drugs that the patient administers to him/herself
ethical theories
lead to moral judgements which are universally applicable and allow us to place value on different acts.
Categorical imperatives” are
absolute commands of reason (treat people as ends, not as means and the intent is important, not the result)
Seppuku
a ritualized form of suicide in Japan. It involves making two crosswise slices across the gut while in a kneeling position, after which an assistant would behead the samurai with a sword.
community
a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.
Identifying Ethical Situations (5 steps)
A. Involves interests/values of othersB. Involves self interests/valuesC. Requires judgementD. Requires action/inactionE. Decision affects my life and others
Sources of Law
a)Common law – derived from judicial decisionsb)Statutory law – derived from federal and state legislatures
learning theory
we learn morals and values that take place through modeling or reinforcement
What does Virginia Held say?
That terrorism is sometimes right.
Foot Involuntary Euthanasia
Active= violation of people's right to non-violent interferencePassive= violation of people's right to non-treatmentIn Practice: Active/ Passive are impermissible
soft determinism
there are no uncaused events, but some causations originates with humans
pyre
when someone dies you burn the body on a pile of wood
Cost Benefit analysis
A decision method for choosing from among possible outcomes when investment parameters are fixed
punishment for practicing medicine without a license in VA
Class 6 felony
1-5 years in prison
$2,500 fine
Chp. 2Explain Moral Obligations
A. General ethical obligations -> Are those that apply 2 all members of that society; values applied 2 all of society B. Particularistic obligations -> are determined by membership w/in a specific group, profession, or occupation
In what ways has the media influenced us?
-Pedophilia-violence toward women-Teenage sex-Evil is glorified-Suicide
What did people believe would have to happen to end the war?
Invasion of Japan
Aristotle says virtue is ___
the golden mean (goldilocks) by compromising the good with the bad.
3 propositions of morality
1. actions from duty have moral worth2. An action from duty has moral worth not for purpose but for maxim in which it is decided upon. 3. duty necessary to show respect for law.
Health Care Quality Improvement Act (1986)
- Provide professional review bodies limited immunity from damages- Need to improve quality of medical care- Facilitate exchange of information among professionals conducting peer review
Name two people who were assasinated by anarchists?
-William McKinley in 1901-Tsar Alexander II (Russian)
Is Singer’s UNICEF argument valid and sound
Yes, all premises and conclusion are true
Most common casue of discipline regarding financial arrangments
Altering a diagnosis to maximize reimbursment
what does "x" mean
what u take yourself to be doing (means act-description)
Chp. 3 What is Moral Reasoning?
Is a SYSTEMATIC approach 2 making ethical decisions that can b defended
What did Thomas Hobbes discover?
When laws were broken it was pure chaos
___, a German in the 1700's, lived during the _____ and was called the _____
Kant.......“the big guy on ethics”
If a counselor has such rigid religious beliefs that disallow a client exploring their own religious/spiritual issues - what are their options
- refer- include in their informed consent that religious discussions are discouraged/limitations to discussion related to the counselor's personal religion
What are four economic reasons to legalize drugs?
1. Prison (costly)2. Tax it3. Create jobs4. "war on drugs"
WHere and when was the second atomic bomb dropped?
Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945
Character and Virtue: what is Integrity?
this is a central aspect of good character. integrity means wholeness or the sense that you have a clear conscience and can affirm who you are and what you have done.
If a patient suffering from an incurable disease requests that a medical treatment be stopped, is it better to simply allow that person to die or take steps to make them die more quickly and painlessly, according to Rachels? Why?
Rachels says we should take the steps because she is stopping treatment to die and she obviously wants to go in peace. allowing it to progress on only goes against her wishes and puts her in more agony.
According to Geach, what kind of adjective is "good"?
attributive- it is the function of the particular thing (there is a good for fish that is not a good for other things)
WHat are your options if a client cannot afford your fees?
Must help the client by providing a referral to counseling services he/she can afford, until another counselor can be found you must continue to see the client even if they can't pay if they are considered to be in a state of emergency - this wld constitute abandonment
T/F In tax practice, a CPA must be totally objective in resolving doubts and should not favor the client’s position over the government’s position
False-TX code: in tax can resolve doubt in favor of client as long as tax position complies with circular 230 and AICPA statement of standards for tax services
2.4A. Duties to Employers. If preparing to go into independent practice on your own time (keeping your day job), do you need ER verification?
NO. If you are not competing with your ER, no verification needed.
What is Prohibition?
Outlawing
Utilitarianism:
consequentialism the and hedonism
Relativism
Moral truths depends on individual
Frederick Nietzsche 
Switzerland 
1844-1900 
-highly controversial  
-forerunner of existentialism-individual existence,  freedom, and choice 
-principle works on morality 
Meta-Ethics
Metaethics explores as well the connection between values, reasons for action, and human motivation, asking how it is that moral standards might provide us with reasons to do or refrain from doing as it demands, and it addresses many of the issues commonly bound up with the nature of freedom and its significance (or not) for moral responsibility
Hume
Passion and emotions basis for ethicsReason and passion need each other, reason secondary
dignity
Mill’s notion of dignity: a person’s refusal to give up higher pleasures, even in lesser quantity, for lower pleasures Kant’s notion of dignity: the value a person has in virtue of her autonomy, in virtue of her capacity to act according to laws that she herself wills
Aristotle
All things aim at a good
What is the Epistemological Argument?
Knowledge>Belief
Belief> Concept
But
~Concept>~Belief
~Concept- No Concept
:.~Belief- Therefore No Belief
~Belief>~Knowledge- If no belief then no knowledge
~Belief- No Belief
~Knowledge- Therefore No Knowledge
What religion is the Soviet Union?
Atheistic
pragmatism
character or conduct that emphasizes practicality.
Ethical Relativism
There are no universal moral principles, they are relative to a cultureWhat is moral simply is what is considered normal
Kingdom of Ends
Moral Utopia, the perfect conceptualized and imagined moral world where all rational beings are treated with respect.
What is philosophy?
-general theory about how/why activities should be  done
-higher learning ex. PhD 
-discipline study
-umbrella of metaphysics, epistemology, logic,  aesthetics, and ethics
For Augustine, the greatest reward of heaven is finally understanding God’s plan for creation
True
Universalism:
there are moral rules and principles that apply to everyone
What is probably the most common objection to the belief in God?
Evil
Consequentialism
The most popular form of axiological theories
Who says Porn is right?
James A. Gould
deontological
ethics, esp. that branch dealing with duty, moral obligation, and right action.
Suicide Argument
Personal: When continuing to live will bring more pain than pleasure, I will kill myself from self-love.General: Whenever continuing to live will bring anyone more pain than pleasure, he will commit suicide out of self-love.1. General cannot be a law of nature2. If (1), then the agent can't will it to be a law of nature.3. General is right if the agent of it can consistently will that it be a law of nature4. Therefore, A is not right
Duty
“Duty is a thing which may be exacted from a person, as one exacts a debt. Unless we think that it may be exacted from him, we do not call it his duty.” p.47
A priori
from before experience, not based on experience of the world.
Karl Marx
Germany 
1818-1883
-ideas play significant role in modern communism and  socialism
-dialectical materialism- matter is the only reality, thought, will and feeling can only be explained in the sense of matter 
-Communist Manifesto - the class struggle and  problems with capitalism 
dialectic method
Determining knowledge by a series of questions and answers
Principal at utility:
that principle which approves or disproves of any action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to augment or diminish the happiness of the party was interest is in question
Who is Albert Camus?
Who is Albert Camus?
 
Albert Camus, a philosopher who said that C.P. says an eye for an eye, which is abused.
Who advocated The Moral Argument?
Kant and C.S. Lewis
Euthyphro's Dilemma:
If pious actions are pious because they are loved by the gods then....
Where did Osama bin Laden grow up?
Saudi Arabia
Rusting-Talents Example
People may not want to develop their talents out of laziness and idleness
involuntary action
an action in which the agent acts under compulsion or as a result of ignorance for which he is not responsible.
Right and Duties 
-terms used to talk about rules-"What is not prohibited is  permitted." 
-Right-there are rules that permit them to do it, rules that permit  them to have it 
-privilege- right for special people 
-Duty- what rules make you do EX. obligations, contracts 
Rationalism
A belief in reason and rational && All reality is controlled by mind, physical objects conform to the mind
Extraordinary means (heroic means):
involve excessive burdens on the patient that do not offer reasonable hope of benefit
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com13.) What are two types of rationality
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13.) What are two types of rationality

Theoretical rationality


Practical rationality
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com29.) Egoism falls under the philosophical category of- ethics of _____.
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29.) Egoism falls under the philosophical category of- ethics of _____.

 Conduct
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10.) Define command ethics.
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10.) Define command ethics.
 Command ethics is a philisophical theory that states something is right/wrong if God/Bible says so.
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com4.) Aristotle's Golden mean is also known as ______ ______
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4.) Aristotle's Golden mean is also known as ______ ______

 Virtue Ethics
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7.) Define consequentalist.
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7.) Define consequentalist.
 Consequentialist category is concerned with the effects: the end results determine whether an actions is right or wrong.
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com26.) Elaborate on the inborn problem
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26.) Elaborate on the inborn problem

 Don't you think to some degree we're born good and compassionate.
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com10.) True or false, happy = pleasure
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10.) True or false, happy = pleasure

 FalseHappy ≠ pleasure (maybe it equals 20%)
What did Kant observe?
Kant observed that moral obligation that is conditional (X is good under condition Y) is relative, which leads to situation ethics
Conclusion of Smith's Example:

4. Neither does it matter that it be money_____ rather than money you _______.

**Example?***
...coming to you... already have...

(It doesn't matter whether you're forgoing the opportunity to make money or losing money that you already have. You should still save the person, regardless.)
Objection to the Abraham argument
"God is all-good and loving
What is pornography?
1. Sexually explicit
2. Intent is to create arousal
3. Product that is bought and sold
4. Uses some form of the media
cosmological argument
an argument for the existence of God, asserting that the contingency of each entity, and of the universe composed wholly of such entities, demands the admission of an adequate external cause, which is God.
what is moral virtue
there are 5 parts: a purposive disposition, lying in a mean, relative to the agent, determined by a rational argument, which means by the argument or rationale that a prudent man would use.
Duties of perfect obligation
those duties which have a correlative right attached to them.
Four potential contemporary threats to the environment
1. Acid rain2.Accumulation of trash/garbage3.Deforestation4.Global Warming
3 Types of Life (According to Aristotle)
1. Pleasure Seeking2. Political/Community focused3. Contemplative
What does every ethical dilemma involve?
A choice between two alternatives
Assuming that the death of the fetus is not a great moral evil begs the question against which position?
The Anti-Abortion Position
What are two types of euthanasia?
1. Voluntary euthanasia
2. Directed euthanasia
If a revolution took place, what would the proletariat take over?
1. Businesses
2. Government
acting in ignorance
an act where the agent ought to have been aware of the relevant particulars, but is not due to a state or disposition which she herself has caused. IS BLAMEWORTHY
What is the biocentric alternative offered by Francis Assisi
We should be citizens of nature
What is the Roper vs. Simmons case?
What is the Roper vs. Simmons case?
 
Case that determined killing young people was unlawful.
What is Egoistic Hedonism?
The view that the criterion by which an action should be judged as right or wrong is its ability to produce happiness (etc.) for the individual contemplating the action
Simple Bodily Rights Argument
A woman has an unconditional right to an abortion because everyone has a right to control her own body.
Give an example of circumstantial variation
"Tribes that expect the old members of society to walk off into the forrest to their deaths.
WHy is euthanasia wrong?
1. It goes against human nature
2. God says it's wrong
3. The medical profession is not perfect
4. Knowing that we can choose to die takes away our will to survive
5. If euthanasia is allowed, doctors and nurses might not do everything possible to save the patient
6. If euthanasia is allowed, where will it end?
Why are Mecca and Medina considered to be the oly cities in Islam?
It's where Mohommed lived
What are laws of freedom/ moral philosophy/ laws of morality?
those laws according to which everything ought to happen.
What is a “cost-benefit analysis”
says that in a society there are limited resources so whenever you devote your attention to one kind of good, you do so by limiting the attention of another type of resource.
What is The Resurrection of Christ argument?
Jesus’ resurrection is a historical fact
If Resurrection then Teachings are true
If teachings are true then God exists
Therefore if the resurrection then God exists
Why do some say that VIABILITY FAILS to mark the beginning of one's life?
Technological advances can determine and change when viability is possible however technological advances DO NOT change the time at which a person's life truly begins.
If an action does not treat others at all:
The action is permissible
Why is Capitalism wrong?
1. The people who work the most get paid the least
2. The people wo work the least get paid the most
responsible if person lacks wisdom?
no; because if you are yought you are not required to have wisdom yet; however if you are old enough to have some wisdome then you are held responsible for it
Augustine spent his youtha. leading a good Christian life, like his mother Monicab. committing major crimes, and thoroughly enjoying it.c. wretched and tormented by his sinful natured. accumulating a fortune by growing pears.
c. wretched and tormented by his sinful nature
4.) Philosophy can be broken into three questions which are...
4.) Philosophy can be broken into three questions which are...
What questions and answers does philosophy deal with?
What branches/areas does philosophy investigate?
What do philosophers do?
What did Ayn Rand react to and what how did she promote her ideas?
Reacted against socialism, defended the rights of the individual-objectivism
Popularized her philosophy in fictional works such as Atlas Shrugged
The People Seed Example seems only to work in what types of cases?
Cases in which precautions were taken
In what case did the supreme court rule that Bakke was a victim of reverse discrimination?
Regents of the Universtiy of California v. Bakke
what is the relation between friendship and justice
justice is at the core of ethics and friendship is at the core of justice. therefore justice is rooted in friendship
Why does An Na'im believe Shari'a might fail the principle of reciprocity for non islamic religions?
If you leave the islamic faith they can confiscate your property, or even execute you
What is true if you accept Anselm's definition of God?
If you accept Anselm’s definition of God then it is implicit that God exists
What type of argument is the Positive Argument intended to respond to?
Those used to REPLACE the Naiive Argument against abortion rights that are based on the right to life of the fetus.
What is a common misperception taken from Normal Ethical Absolutism (NEA)?
We ourselves know what the best moral theory is, therefore we are justified in spreading our moral theories and eliminating other cultures' moralities
How are the people of Ireland divided politically?
1. Northern Ireland, governed by the British
2. Republic of Ireland, independant
How does White say our judeo-christian culture has perpetuated the anthropocentric view of a progressive view of time
Sees the world with a beginning and an end, where one time will never repeat itself and change is inevitable
What do people do with the Ontological Argument?
They argue about it and wrestle over it
If:

The death of the fetus were a great moral evil

and

Prohibition were to decrease the number of abortions

Then...??
The Serious harms to the woman would have to be weighed against the certainty of the great moral evil of the death of the fetus
Why did Southern whites say literacy tests were right?
1. If ou can't read, you can't be informed on the issues
2. Uninformed voters could make bad political decisions
3. Potentially, everyone can be harmed by these bad political decisions
Why does the UN declaration have a "dilemma of legitimacy" and how has it been resolved
the charter wasn't signed by a lot of nations. Many islamic countries are not UN charter signees, so there isn't a contractual relationship. Many f these nations have been liberated and have signed on to the agreement
If the maxim on one's action is stated very specifically
It will be easy to universalize maxims that seem to allow wrong actions
What is the Point of Contention of The Teleological Argument?
The idea that there is design in the universe
Some people think that everything just looks random and there is not design
Randomness could be part of the design
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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