Ethics Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
utility
usefulness
marxist
proletariat morality
friedrich nietzsche
German philosopher.
what are extralegal factors?
agesexracecooperativeness
self-esteem
confidence and satisfaction in oneself
deductive
move from general to specific
ethical evaluations
descriptive (empirical) beliefs. prescriptive (moral) value judgements
euthanasia
directly or indirectly bringing about the death of another person, for the sake of that person.
altruism
unselfish regard, devotion to others, moral obligation to help, exclude one's own self-interest
Morals
behavioral practices of right and wrong
minimal supervision
supervising OT has face-to-face contact with the oTA at least once every 30-calendar days while on the premises
prominant feminist psychologist who advocates a shift to care-based perspective, or ethics of caring
Carol Gilligan
Institutionism
The belief that ethical properties cannot be reduced to any other type of property, and that ethical properties have a unique kind of existence that cannot be grasped through the five senses and explained by science.
equivocation
a type of fallacy: assigning 2 different meanings to the same term in an argument
circulator
member of the surgical team who supplies the needs of the scrubbed team members, coordinates room activities and attends to patient needs
Stare Decisis
"let the decision stand"- Another lawsuit involving an identical or substantially similar situation is resolved in the same manner as the first lawsuit
Chp. 6Define Confidentiality
Means trusted w/ private matters
Distributive justice
How society decides to distribute health care
Subpoena vs. Court-Order
SUBPOENAS: usually issued by attorneys and can be a subpoena alone (requiring therapist to appear) or a subpoena duces tecum (requiring therapist to appear with records)--in latter case, therapist should contact pt and seek permission to release records, w/o permission, appear at designated location and assert privilege on pt's behalf; COURT-ORDER: signed by judge, therapist must comply or be held in contempt of court
primary goal of state licensure/certification laws?
protect public welfare
T/F Under the rules of professional conduct, the term "Financial Statements" includes accompanying notes
True
Record Keeping
records of psych services must include, at min, identifying data, dates of services, types of services, fees, assessment reports and intervention plans, and releases of information. As far as record retention, refer to local regulations, APA recommends complete records for 3 years after final client contact, and records or summary, are maintained for an additional 12 years (3 plus 12 years)
social darwinism
a 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions and in accord with which a position of laissez-faire is advocated.
Moral Minimum
The minimum degree of ethical behavior expected of a business firm, which is usually defined as compliance with the law. Legal compliance is regarded as this.
Non-Consequential Theories
Virtue-Ethics / Natural Law / Natural Rights / Kants Theory / Contractarianism theories base morality on factors other than the results or outcomes of actions. These other factors can include duties, obligations, rights, laws of nature, or social contracts
Recognizing Emotions in others
- Without self-awareness “other awareness” is difficult- Required for empathy and ability to connect with other people
liberal individualism
right basedright acts are those that promote individual rights and interests
infirmity
A failing or defect in a person's character
Who is a current-day Philosopher that has studied the Radical Theory?
Garrett Hardin
benthan and mill utilitarians
the greatest happiness principle. everyone is equal to as much happiness and pleasure that they deserve. ones own happiness is not greater in value than any other persons.
John Mackie
One of the most prominent error theorist, developed the argument from relativity and the argument from queerness.
kiddush ha-Shem
“the sanctification of God”  as long as Jews were exalted and their enemies humiliated, God was glorified and the Messiah’s coming was more likely
nonmoral statement
does not affirm that a statement is right or wrong/good or bad. they assert that a state of affairs is true or false but do not assign a moral value to it.
Ex: many people think that capital punishment is wrong.
jean did not lie.
tania tries to be a good person
animals are treated cruelly
positive attention
head nodding and eye contact are signs of _____
Code of Ethics
1) Standards – honesty, respect for others, conscientiousness2) Principals - responsibilities3) Rules – specify specific duties/conduct
character of virtues theory
aristole (384 bc)emphasizes the moral agents -virtues: actions and motivations
What are the two types of supervision?
Direct & Indirect
This can be defined as not conforming to a set of approved standards of social or professional behavior.
Unethical Behavior
strong non-consequentialist theories
theories that hold that the rightness ow wrongness of an action is totally independent of the consequences of the act
contradition in will is what kind of duty?
imperfect duty
Commutative, Corrective, & Distributive Justice
Court(Commutative) ; punish if you do something wrong (corrective) ; country is responsible (distributive)
consensus paradigm
law is a coersive tool used by the power eliete to maintain the status quo. Law is restrictive, not representative
we can become more mindful through what?
meditation and self reflection
Which aspects of ethics code are aspirational, not enforceable?
1. Preamble
2. General Principles
Ethical Egoism
The belief that one always ought to do what is in one's own self interest.
What are the functions of diagnosis?
- facilitate effective treatment- help counselors predict the course of a disorder- facilitate communication among professionals- helps counselors ID disorders that may require the care of a physician- framework for research
Abortion Decision based on trimester
- First: between woman and physician- Second: protecting woman’s health- Third: potentially viable human life, preservation of life of health of the mother (determined if fetus can survive outside the womb or not)
Kant’s “Respect for people” concept?
- Treat people as ends to themselves not means.
What does Ethical Relativism tell us?
There is no perfect ethical rule.
God is dead” implicates that
only people living in caves would still be a Christian because the strong/successful should decide how everyone should act. This was a time of Darwinism’s evolution theory that the strong survive and the weak perish
What are the four forms of custody
sole custody (one parent has custody)split custody (one parent awarded custody for some of the children, the other parent has custody of the other children)divided custody (ea. parent is awarded custody for part of the year)joint custody (the parents share custody)
Chp. 8What is A.C. Nielson Company?
-> Measures ratings extensively 4x a yr -> Overnights-> "Estimate" based on statistics -> Calculate 'ratings' and 'share'
What did Thomas Hobbes discover?
When laws were broken it was pure chaos
Step 4 of the ethical decision making process
Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each course of action
Age discrimination in employment act
- Only applies to workers 40 y/o and older, and to workplaces with 20 or more employees
What is the arguement that capitalism is right in premise conclusion form?
1) bourgeoisie risks more that the proletariot2) capitalism is based on freedom of choice3) market determines the wagesc) capitalism is right
4 examples of how common notions of duty conform to the categorical imperative
1. suicide
2. borrowing on false promises
3. talents rusting
4. deny welfare, assistance to people
What does Kant say about purpose?
Purpose is to influence the will. And it is necessary to produce a good will itself.
What are bin Laden's three goals?
1. Get the US out of Saudi Arabia2. Get the US to stop supporting Israel3. Palestinian people to have their own coutnry - Israel
Purpose of the Red Flag Rules…
The Red Flag Rules were created by the Federal Trade Commission under FACTA. Their purpose is to address identity theft by focusing on methods of detecting a security breach.
Why, according to Rachels, is Jones no better, from a moral point of view, than Smith?
both men acted for personal gain and had the same viewpoint and conclusion despite the situation on how it ended
Example of the reference effects
I ought to NEVER act in a way where my decision will become a universal law.
Chp. 4 What are some of the outlines of: Truth n Journalism?
Basic Tenets and Land mines n road 2 truth n reporting
visceral
instictiue
eudaemonia
happiness; well-being.
epistemology
the study of knowledge
Who popularized Ethical Egoism?
Socrates
Morgagni
founder of pathologic anatomy, Italian
Justice
-Risk vs benefit-Consistency of treatment options
individual/personal
what I believe or feel
abortion
the deliberate termination of a pregnancy by surgical or medical means
ETHICAL PROBLEMS
ETHICAL DILEMMA- something not uncommon, we've heard of this before & worked through these casesETHICAL UNCERTAINTY- something that has never happened before, no idea about the outcome (ex: siamese twins attached at abdomen)ETHICAL DISTRESS- you know exactly what is going on, but you have no authority about what to do
Kant
1.Believed in logic, not emotion.
2. A good will is the only thing that is intrinsically good.
3. Moral truths should be logically consistent and universal.
4. Categorical Imperatives
Moral distress
moral agent with institutional constraints in the way with a chosen action on the other side (A)(B) you know something is wrong but not sure what
traits that are morally valued
Moral Virtues
This model is consequence and/or situation based.
Utilitarianism
inductive argument
an argument that provides probable support for its conclusion
false (always after)
empty the trash during surgery
Statute of Limitations
imposed time constraints that restrict the period of time after an injury occurs during which a legal action must be commenced
Businesses must also take into account a wide range of social issues
consumersenviromentemployees
Level 6
Make decisions based on universal human ethics.
why are deceptive tactics unethical?
coerced internalized confessionsdrunk,groggy,juvenile
ethical theory that holds that true ethical understanding is a purely rational matter in which emotion and sentiment play no central role
rationalism
T/F When one has integrity, he/she adheres to moral and ethical principles, has sound moral character and is honest.
True
Autonomy
refers to the commitment to include clients in decisions about all aspects of care. For example, the consent that clients read and sign before surgery illustrates this respect for autonomy.
confucianism
the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
What are the the ethical concerns that are particularly challenging when counseling families?
competenceconsentconfidentialitycompeting interestsprotecting client welfarepotl for imposition of counselor values
Virtues
Character Traits - that make up a moral lifePlato's 4:Self-Control(temperence), Courage, Wisdom, JusticeVirtue Ethics - focuses on personal excellence by doing the right thing
Appetite
must be controlled by man along with emotion.
a want for a material thing
 
moral judgement
process of making an assesment about an ethical situation in which there is conflict of values principles or expected behaviors
pyre
when someone dies you burn the body on a pile of wood
What principle did Garrett Hardin use in defending that it was in the best interest of recievers to not have aid given?
Lifeboat Ethics
moral relativism
believe that people innately know what is right and wrong
Emotivism
The belief that an ethical judgment is simply the expression of an emotion and does not describe the world at all.
Torah
The Hebrew Bible, the heart of Jewish ethical tradition.
subjective relativism
the view that an action is morally right if you approve of it. For example: someone who says "honor killing may be right for you, but it is most certainly not right for me"
clarifying
when a patient says back to you what you said to understand
How to Handle other's emotions
- Listen actively- Validate- Empathize, if possible- Maintain one’s own sense of control & self-restraint
ethical relativism
rules of right and wrong are dependent upon the cuture in which they develop. there are no universal rules
In the ADHA structure, which group accounts for records / communication?a. Executiveb. Member Servicesc. Governmental Affairsd. Institute for Oral Health
b. Member services
The belief that there is a real and universal moral truth independent of anyone's belief.
Realism
Occupancy fraud is...
Representation by the buyer that an investment property will be owner-occupied in order to obtain the more favorable terms offered by the lender on owner-occupied real estate.
rule utilitarianism
a theory that holds that the right action is that which accords with a rule that maximizes happiness
example of duty (Jones)
Shopkeeper Jones doesn't wanna cheat customers b/c bad for business thus, sensible reasons.
Involuntary Manslaughter
when death occurs as the result of a negligent act (reckless driving)
biological theory
we commit good or bad acts because of biological predispositions. This is evidence of traits that are selected for species survival for our evolution.
what is the rule of law?
nobody is above the law
characteristics of psychologists who become involved sexually with clients
1. male
2. 40-50 y.o.
3. unstable marriage
4. professionally "burned out"
5. depression, sleep probs, &/or substance abuse
6. older than clients by about 10 yrs.
Justification or Morality
To justify something is to prove that it is right, just , or valid gives reasons why we should care about morality.
What shld employees do if their supervisor issues a directive that is unethical but not illegal?
- consult with outside experts/colleagues confidentially- schedule an appt with the supervisor to address their concerns w/ their employer and work toward change in the organization- arrange an appt with your supervisor and his/her supervisor to discuss the situation-refer to the approp certification or accreditation organization- voluntarily terminate employment
Three overarching issues that comprise the quest of philosophy.
Problem of knowledge: epistomology & metaphysics.
Problem of Conduct: ethics
Problem of Governance:theory of law, political science.
Kan’t categorical imperative.
- Act in such a way that your behavior could become a universal law
- categorical =Applies in all situations | imperative= what you should due
- like the golden rule
How much must be given to the affluent?
Everything leftover after necessities
characteristic of acceptance of social responsibility
– integrity, objectivity, and due professional care
What is a counselor's duty before beginning an evaluation?
Explaining to the client the difference btw an evaluation and counseling, obtain written consent from the client unless the evaluation is court ordered
treatment payment and operations TPO
things that can be given out without patient permissionTreatment - Collection of information by clinical staff, Review of patient charts by clinical staff, Transmission of prescriptions to a pharmacy, Consultation with other providersPayment - Completion of billing forms by clerical staff, Transmission of information to a health plan, Transmission of information to a billing service, Completion of billing forms by clerical staffOperations - Day to day business activities, Accounting and bookkeeping entries, Internal quality assurance reviews, Staff training
What are the two theories about giving aid to poor nations?
1. Liberal Theory

2. Radical Theory
How should fee info be communicated?
1. preferably in writing
2. before or withiin reas. time
3. after commencing representation or changing them
Breaches of principles in the PA code of Conduct
in disciplinary review & actions (fines, revocation of certification)
What is the third premise that legalizing drugs is wrong?
If drugs were legalized, the number of people using drugs would increase. And the number of problems in premises 1&2 would increase.
purpose of Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing
1. criteria for eval whether tests are properly used
2. primary (all), secondary (desirable) and conditional (depends of 1' or 2')
the diffrence between moral relativism and moral absolutes is-
absolutes in morals do not change with time and situations but moral relativism says that standards and moral change with time and the situation.
What did the Saudi government think about bin Laden?
Kicked him out of the country and stripped him of his citizenship
With regard to fraud, loan originators are required to…
Be on the lookout for, and report, anything that could jeopardize a lender’s investment. Originators have a fiduciary obligation to lenders.
Why according to Rachels, is it wrong to allow a baby with Downs Syndrome to die rather than to repair an easily treatable intestinal blockage?
The decision is based on ease. They are giving a "valid" excuse to not perform the surgery by saying the preexisting issue of intestinal blockage can not be surgically fixed and letting the baby die instead of using its Downs syndrome as the ultimate reason to kill. The idea that when there is an intestinal blockage, one can let the baby die but when there is no such defect there is nothing that can be done for one must not kill the infant.
What is the most impt dual role to be avoided in evaluation and testing?
a counselor should never evaluate a client they are also seeing for counseling
How do Y and Z respond to the objection that, while no one intends them to die, their proposal requires that someone else be killed intentionally?
they just need his organs and if he can not survive he can not but thy did not intentionally mean to kill him
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