USMLE Anatomy 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
T4
Dermatome around nipple
hypoglossal canal
CN XII
L1
Dermatome to suprapubic area
Phrenic
Motor innervation of diaphragm
gag reflex
IX and X
abducts vocal ligaments
posterior cricoarytenoids
blink reflex
V1 and VII
Suboccipital nerve
Innervation of suboccipital muscles
Popliteus
Muscle that unlocks knee joint
L4
Major dermatome to big toe
Disc L3-4
Vertebral level of umbilicus
Ureter
Structure potentially injured with hysterectomy
CV6
Vertebral level of cricoid cartilage
Sphenopalatine
Major artery to nasal cavity
C3-5
Spinal levels of phrenic nerve
Pelvic splanchnics (S2-4)
Innervation of detrusor
white rami communicantes
preganglionic sympathetic axons
four mm of mastication
massetertemporalismedial pterygoidlateral pterygoid
Sympathetic innervation of cutaneous organs
T7-T12
T12
Vertebral level that aorta traverses diaphragm
Ligamentum flavum
Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae
Vertebral artery
Major vessel within suboccipital triangle
CN V
Major cutaneous nerve of face
Pedicle
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area
L5
Vertebral level for formation of IVC
L2
Vertebral level associated with origin of gonadal arteries
T10-11
Spinal levels of lesser splanchnic nerve
CN X
Innervation of levator veli palatini
Femoral nerve
Structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath
Femoral vein
Structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral sheath
Anterior cruciate
Ligament that checks backward displacement of femur on tibia
Anterior talofibular
Most commonly injured ankle ligament
Tibial
Nerve affected with tarsal tunnel syndrome
inferior mesenteric artery drains into...
splenic vein
aortic arches
1st- maxillary2nd- stapes3rd- common and internal carotid4th- aortic arch and rt. subclavian5th- degenerates6th- rt and lt pulmonary arteries(MS. CARD and pulmonary aa)
internal auditory meatus
CN VII and VIII
carotid canal
internal carotid and sympathetic nerve plexus
name the 10 retroperitoneal organs
Duodenumascending ColonUretersPancreasSuprarenal glandDescending colonAortaKidneysRectumIVC(D CUPS DAKRI)
chief flexor of the hip
psoas major
Sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle and glands of hindgut and pelvic viscera
L1, L2
TV7
Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula
Xiphisternal joint
Site for auscultation of tricuspid valve
Cricothyroid
Muscle that increases tension on vocal cords
Saphenous (L4)
Cutaneous innervation to medial side of foot
Perineal membrane
Structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces
Lateral pterygoid
Muscle attached to disc of TMJ
Rectouterine pouch
Most inferior portion of peritoneal cavity
Hepatorenal recess
Superior extent of right paracolic gutter
Disc between TV4-5
Vertebral level associated with sternal angle
Tensor veli palatini
Muscle that opens auditory tube
Superior oblique
Muscle that depresses and abducts eye
Ciliary ganglion
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil
where does the eustachian tube enter the pharynx
nasopharynx
fracture of the fibular neck resulting in foot drop damaged what nerve
common peroneal
what part of pericardium adheres to tunica adventita of great vessels
fibrous
plantar flex foot and evert
superficial peroneal n.
Branches of the radial artery
Deep palmar arch
Omental bursa
Cavity behind the stomach, has epiploic foramen
Muscles innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve
Biceps, brachial, choracobrachial
Knee joint structures
Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; lateral and medial meniscus; medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) collateral ligaments; injured in contact sports
Root of mesentary
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid within infracolic compartment
CN IX, CN X, Sympathetics
Nerves of pharyngeal plexus
Recurrent laryngeal
Sensory nerve to larynx inferior to vocal cords
Part one of duodenum
Inferior border of epiploic foramen
Inferior and posterior
Relation of ureter to uterine artery
Suspensory ligament of Ovary
Ligament that contains ovarian vessels
Vastus medialis
Last portion of quadriceps femoris to recover following injury
Inferior epigastric artery
Structure that lies between protrusion sites of direct and indirect hernias
Indirect inguinal
Type of hernia that enters deep inguinal ring
Superior cervical ganglion
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits dilation of pupil
Aponeurosis of external
Oblique
Structure that forms superficial inguinal ring
five branches of the superior mesenteric artery
inferior pancreaticoduodenalmiddle colicright colicileocolic10-15 intestinal aa.
five clinical signs of portal HTN
caput medussaeesophageal varicesinternal hemerrhoidsretroperitoneal varicessplenomegaly
what artery turns into the dorsalis pedis when it crosses the extensor retinaculum
anterior tibial
What is the inferior limit of the spinal cord?
L1/L2
Disk herniation: C4/C5
Compression of C5. Affects axillary nerve, shoulder and lateral surface of upper limb, deltoid muscle. Weak abduction of the arm.
Disk herniation: L5/S1
Compression of S1. Affects tibial nerve, posterior surface of lower limb, little toe, gastrocnemius and soleous. Weak plantar flexion and flexion of toes.
Branches of radial nerve
Deep (motor), superficial (sensory); branch at lateral epicondyle of humerus where it meets radial head --> injury results in motor deficit without sensory loss
Branches of the axillary artery
Thoracoacromial, lateral thoracic (mammary gland), subscapular (collateral to shoulder), posterior and anterior humeral circumflex arteries.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Motor innervation of all laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid; sensory innvervation below vocal cords
T1 - 2
Spinal levels of sympathetic fibers to head
Between left pulmonary artery and aorta
Location of ductus arteriosus
Ovarian and round Ligament
Two remnants of gubernaculum in females
Levator ani + coccygeus
Two major components of pelvic diaphragm
dorsiflex footextend toesevert foot
deep peroneal n.(pEroneal n. -> Everts)
seven structures found in more than one mediastinum
esophagusSVCvagus nerveazygous veinthoracic ductthymusphrenic nerve
lt recurrent laryngeal n. passes under...
arch of the aorta
superior orbital fissure
CN III, IV, VI and ophthalmic vein
What is scoliosis?
Lateral deviation or torsion caused by polio, leg length discrepancy, hip disease or hemivertebrae
Branches of the subclavian artery
Internal thoracic artery (continuous with superior epigastric and inferior epigastric which provide colateral circulation in postductal coarctation of the aorta), vertebral artery.
Irrigation of the colon
Cecum, ascending colon and proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon irrigated by superior mesenteric artery. Distal 1/3 of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid and rectum irrigated by inferior mesenteric artery
Structures of the anterior mediastinum
Thymus, fat and areolar tissue
Boundaries of the mediastinum
Laterally by the pleural cavities, anteriorly by sternum, posteriorly by vertebral column.
Landmarks of the esophagus
Cricoid cartilage (C6) to esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm (T10). It lies posterior to the trachea.
Auditory tube, levator veli
Palatini
Major structures to pass through pharyngeal wall superior to superior constrictor
Right coronary artery
Usual origin of SA and AV nodal arteries
Left 5th interspace, midclavicular line
Site for auscultation of mitral valve
sensation to anterior two thirds of tongue
lingual branch of V3
two veins that form the portal vein
superior mesenteric and splenic
what is the lymphatic drainage of the pelvic organs
internal iliac nodes
what forms the obturator nerve
L2-L4(L2-L4 does the thighL4-S3 does the leg)
Branches of the brachial artery
Deep brachial artery (together with radial nerve at midshaft of humerus), ulnar artery and radial artery at the cubital fossa.
Structure of the intervertebral disc
Center part is semigelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by fibrocartilage anulus fibrosus
Actions of the radial nerve
Extends digits, wrist and elbow. Supination.
Relationships of the ureters
Cross over external iliac and pass lateral to the internal iliac and medial to gonadal arteries
Inferior vena cava
Formed by union of common iliac veins at L4; renal veins join IVC at L1/L2
Branches of the celiac trunk
Left gastric artery (lesser curvature of stomach), splenic artery, common hepatic artery
Parasympathetic innervation of the submandibular and sublingual gland
VII cranial nerve via submandibullar ganglion
CN X - CN X
Afferent - efferent limbs of cough reflex
CN IX - CN X
Afferent - efferent limbs of gag reflex
what three structures are in contact w/ the left colic flexure?right colic flexure?
spleen, stomach, left kidneyliver, duodenum, right kidney
what two muscles do you test to see of CN XI is intact
trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
what area of the eye has no photoreceptors
optic disk (blind spot)
Irrigation of the pancreas
The head is irrigated by superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. The body and tail from the splenic arteries.
Avascular necrosis of the femoral neck
Damage to medial femoral circumflex artery
MCC site of femoral hernia
Medial from femoral vein just below inguinal canal. MC in women.
Why are transient ischemic attacks produced?
Compression of the vertebral artery within the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae by osteoarthritic osteophytes
where does the axillary artery become the brachial artery
when it crosses the teres major
at the level of rib 6, the internal tghoracic artery divides into what two arteries
musculophrenic and superior epigastric
Sympathetic innervation of head and neck viscera
T1 and T2 via superior cervical ganglion
what vessel does right gonadal vein drein into
right gonal vein drains into IVCleft drains into left renal vein!!
Radial nerve injury at the wrist
Sensory loss on the lateral part of the dorsum of the hand. No extension of the digits.
What are the cooper ligaments and clinical significance
Attach the mammary gland to the skin. A tumor mass distorts these ligaments and causes dimpling of the skin
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