USMLE World Pathology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Wilm's tumor
Tatrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Hairy cell leukemia (a b cell neoplasm)
X-linked or AR:: mucopolysaccharidoses (except Hunter's)
Lung (mesothelioma & bronchogenic carcinoma)
Autosomal-dominant diseases: What is the cure for hereditary spherocytosis?
Genetic gender disorders: Turner's syndrome is the most common cause of primary ------------
What pneumoconiosis is associated with exposure to the following occupations or materials?• Aerospace industry, nuclear reactors
What seronegative spondyloarthropathy is seen in HLA-B27–positive young females and presents with the triad of conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis affecting the knees and ankles?
Reiter syndrome
what is characterized by bilateral acoustic schwannomas and multiple meningiomas?
what does thrombocytopenia cause?
increased bleeding time
Primary Brain Tumors-Child Peak Incidence: Diffusely infiltrating glioma, usually found in posterior fossa?
Low-grade Astrocytoma
X-linked or AR:: sickle cell anemias
X-linked or AR:: infant polycystic kidney
What benign cardiac tumor is associated with tuberous sclerosis?
What potent platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor is synthesized by platelets?
What vascular tumor associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome involves the cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, and retina?
What malignant bone tumor is characterized by Codman triangle (periosteal elevation) on radiograph?
What female pathology is associated with endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus commonly affecting the ovaries as chocolate cysts?
What adenocarcinoma presents with elevated levels of acid phosphatase, dihydrotestosterone, PSA, and bone pain?
Prostatic carcinoma
What retrovirus is associated with adult T-cell leukemia?
What transmural inflammatory bowel disease can be found from the mouth to anus, has noncaseating granulomas, is discontinuous (skip lesions), and has a cobblestone appearance, thickening of the bowel wall, linear fissures, and aphthous ulcers with normal
Crohn disease
do fatty streaks in children indicate future sites of atherosclerosis?
what is suggested by fever, bilateral conjunctivitis, cervical lymphadenopathy and desquamative mucocutaneous involvement?
what is hemosiderin accumulation due to?
excess iron
what is suggested by numerous lymphocytes and giant binucleated cells on histology with low-grade fever, weakness and neck swelling?
Hodgkin lymphoma
Bleeding Disorders: What disorder type presents with mucous membrane bleeding, petechiae, purpura, and prolonged bleeding time?
Platelet abnormalities (microhemorrhages), which can be caused by ITP (antiplatelet antibodies and increased megakaryocytes), TTP (schistocytes), drugs, and DIC (increased fibrin split products).
Autosomal-dominant diseases: What disease involves elevated LDL owing to defective or absent LDL receptor?
Familial hypercholesterolemia (type IIA)
What disease caused by decompression sickness leads to multiple foci of ischemic necrosis that affect the head of the femur, humerus, and tibia?
Caisson disease
True or false? Ethyl alcohol induces the cytochrome P-450 enzymes.
Name the product or products of arachidonic acid:• Chemotactic for neutrophils
What virus is associated with both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma?
What is the physiologic storage form of iron?
What syndrome is associated with gastrin-producing islet cell tumor resulting in multiple intractable peptic ulcers?
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Do the following structures pick up stain from hematoxylin or eosin?
• Collagen
Name the hypochromic microcytic anemia based on the following laboratory values.
• Normal iron, TIBC, percent saturation, and ferritin
Thalassemia minor
What atypical pneumonia can be diagnosed with elevated cold agglutinin titers?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
What is the term for chronic necrotizing pulmonary infections resulting in permanent airway dilation and associated with Kartagener syndrome?
What bronchogenic carcinoma is associated with an elevated level of Ca2+, involves keratin pearls, occurs in men more than women, is associated with smoking, occurs in the major bronchi, and is seen in the central areas of the lung?
Squamous cell carcinoma
What disorder is associated with loss of polarity, anaplasia, pleomorphism, discohesiveness, increase in the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, hyperchromasia, and increase in the rate of mitosis?
Name the type of regeneration (i.e., labile, stable, or permanent) based on the following examples.
• Kidney
What benign solitary papillary growth within the lactiferous ducts of the breast commonly produces bloody nipple discharge?
Intraductal papilloma
What condition results in the following CSF results?
• Opening pressure 70 to 180 mm H2O; 0–10 WBCs (monocytes); glucose 45 to 85, protein 15 to 45
Normal values
What pancreatic islet cell tumor is associated with MEN I syndrome?
what is suggested by urinary incontinence, ataxic gait and dementia?
normal pressure hydrocephalus
Pseudohermaphroditism: What is the most common form of male pseudohermaphroditism?
Testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity), which results from a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (x-linked); blind-end vagina
TUMOR STAGE VS. GRADE: what has more prognostic value? Grade or stage?
What cystic swelling of the chorionic villi is the most common precursor of choriocarcinoma?
Hydatidiform mole
What are the most common causes of osteomyelitis• In drug addicts?
Name the nephritic disease based on the immunofluorescent staining.• Granular deposits of IgG, IgM, and C3 throughout the glomerulus
Postinfectious GN
A Japanese man has weight loss, anorexia, early satiety, epigastric abdominal pain, and a palpable left supraclavicular lymph node. On endoscopy you find a large, irregular ulcer with elevated margins on the lesser curvature of the stomach. What is your
Gastric carcinoma
Name the macrophage based on its location:
• Liver macrophages
Kupffer cells
Patients with sickle cell anemia are at increased risk for infection from what type of organisms?
Encapsulated bacteria
What form of nephritic syndrome is associated with celiac sprue and Henoch- Schönlein purpura?
IgA nephropathy
Name the cancer associated with the following oncogenes. (Some may have more than one answer)
• hst-1, int-2, erb-2, and erb-3
Breast cancer
Name the cerebral vessel associated with the following vascular pathologies.
• Epidural hemorrhage
Middle meningeal artery
Eating fava beans can produce the Mediterranean type of what deficiency?
G-6-PD deficiency
What are the most common causes of osteomyelitis
• In drug addicts?
Xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism
Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, SCC of skin
what is haptoglobin?
binds to free hemoglobin, decreased in SCD
what is suggested by bilateral retinal hemmorhages and subdural hematoma in a baby?
shaken baby syndrome
what is suggested by hyperpleasia of esophagus, elongation of lamina propria and inflammtory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes)?
GERD induced esophagitis
Patent ductus arteriosus: What is the auscultatory finding in PDA?
Continuous, "machine-like" murmur.
Aplastic Anemia: What causes aplastic anemia?
Radiation, benzene, chloramphenicol, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, viral agents, Fanconi's anemia, idiopathic causes.
Hereditary Spherocytosis: What are some associated diseases?
Gallstones, splenomegaly, anemia, and jaundice.
What is the term for pigmented iris hamartomas seen in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1?
Lisch nodules
Name the type of exudate, given the following examples.• Meningococcal infection
Purulent exudates
What form of coarctation of the aorta is associated with Turner syndrome?
Preductal (infantile)
What is the term for pus in the pleural space?
What is the term for air in the pleural space?
What is the term for the syndrome consisting of hepatomegaly, ascites, and abdominal pain due to hepatic vein thrombosis?
Budd-Chiari syndrome
What germ cell tumor is seen in the 15-to 35-year-old age group, peaks when the person is 35 years of age, and is a bulky mass that spreads via the lymphatic system?
What malignant tumor of the skin is associated with Birbeck granules?
Histiocytosis X
What syndrome is due to a Neisseria sp. infection in a child resulting in bilateral hemorrhagic infarcts of the adrenal glands?
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
What GI pathology is associated with a positive string sign, an increase in the number of bloody stools, RLQ pain, skip lesions, terminal ileum most commonly affected, occurrence in women more than men, and an increased thickness of the bowel?
Crohn disease
What is the term for excessive amounts of granulation tissue that can block re-epithelialization and wound healing?
Proud flesh
Rheumatic fever most commonly follows pharyngeal infections with what bacteria?
Group A β-hemolytic streptococci
what is suggested by a continuous murmur with systolic accentuation?
patent ductus arteriosus-machinery murmur
what is suggested by a female with pruritis, fatigue, pale stool,
xanthelema, and lymphocytic infiltration with granulomatous destruction of interlobular bile ducts?
primary biliary sclerosis
Pseudohermaphroditism: What are the phenotypes in female and male pseudohermaphroditism?
female - XX; male - XY
Blood Dyscrasias-Sickle Cell Anemia: What are the treatment options?
Hydroxyurea (increased HbF) and bone marrow transplantation.
Fragile X syndrome: What genetic change is involved in Fragile X syndrome?
x-linked defect affecting the methylation and expression of the FMR1 gene.
In what rare AR disorder do you see neutropenia, defective degranulation, and delayed microbial killing due to a problem in chemotaxis and migration?
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
What type of GN, associated with celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis, has mesangial deposits of IgA, C3, properdin, IgG, and IgM?
Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)
What type of healing occurs in a clean surgical incision?
Primary intention
In what syndrome does the patient have angiomatosis; renal cell carcinomas; pheochromocytomas; retinal, cerebellar, medulla, or spinal cord hemangioblastomas; and epidermal cysts?
von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
Which subtype of AML is most commonly associated with Auer rods?
M3 (promyelocytic leukemia)
what other factor does vWF bind to and what does its deficiency cause?
VIII, prolonged PTT
what is the defect in hemochromatosis?
HFE gene mutation resulting in unregulated intestinal endocytosis of transferrin/iron
Tetrology of Fallot: What is the embryological cause of the tetralogy?
Anterosuperior displacement of the infundibular septum.
Testicular Feminization syndrome (46, XY): What is the molecular defect in testicular feminization syndrome?
Defect in DHT receptor resulting in normal-apearing female
Autosomal-dominant diseases: What chromosome is affected in NF type 1?
Long arm of chromosome 17 (17 letters in von Recklinghasen's)
Muscular dystrophies: In what muscles does weakness begin with Duchenne's MD?
Pelvic girdle muscles and progresses superiorly
What form of sunlight is the most carcinogenic?
Ultraviolet B (UVB) sunlight
The "tea-and-toast" diet is classically associated with what cause of megaloblastic anemia?
Folate deficiency (very common in the elderly)
What are the four reasons for hypochromic microcytic anemia with a low MCV?
1. Sideroblastic anemias (i.e., porphyrin and heme synthesis disorders)
2. Thalassemia
3. Iron deficiency
4. Lead poisoning
what is suggested by gross hematuria and what conditions is it associated with?
papillary necrosis assoc with scd, DM
Paraneoplastic effects of tumors: SIADH
ADH/ANP from small cell lung CA and intracranial neoplasms.
Does ELISA or Western blot confirm whether a patient is HIV-positive?
ELISA screens and Western blot confirms the diagnosis.
What is the name for the following RBC indices?
• Average volume of a RBC
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
what is wear and tear pigment of aging and how is it generated?
lipofuscin generated by lipid peroxidation
Congenital Heart Disease: Name 3 common R-to-L shunts.
The 3 T's: Tetralogy of Fallot (most common cause of early cyanosis), Transposition of the great vessels, truncus arteriosus
What is the term for edema that has LDH below 200, protein level 2.5, and a specific gravity below 1.020?
Transudative; exudative has the opposite values and has an elevated cellular content.
True or false? Blood clots lack platelets.
True. A thrombus has platelets, but clots do not.
A 20-year-old woman who was recently diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease goes to the ER with a tender, painful, swollen, and erythematous knee (monoarticular). What organism is the likely culprit?
Neisseria gonorrhea (history of STD in patient with monoarticular infectious arthritis: think gonococcus)
What are the three Bs of adult polycystic kidneys?
1. Big 2. Bilateral 3. Berry aneurysm
Is an anti-HAV IgG Ab associated with immunization or recent infection?
Anti-HAV IgG Abs are associated with immunization or a prior infection. Anti-HAV IgM is associated with acute or recent infection.
True or false? GERD is a cause of asthma.
True. Don't forget this in your differential diagnosis of an asthmatic.
True or false? GERD is a cause of asthma.
True. Don't forget this in your differential diagnosis of an asthmatic.
What three criteria allow you to differentiate an ulcer from an erosion or carcinoma?
1. Less than 3 cm
2. Clean base
3. Level with the surrounding mucosa
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