European History 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Voltaire-Philosophical Letters
ideal society
A good feeling
Fall of Rome
to give up power
glorification of the military
The Hundred Year's War
John calvin
***pages 470-472*** Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
was an Italian philosopher/writer,He was a diplomat, political philosopher, musician, and playwright, but, foremost, he was a civil servant of the Florentine Republic. He is most famous for a short political treatise, The Prince, written in 1513, but not published until 1532, five years after Machiavelli's death.
What word means "a trait"?
emperor; granted toleration to christans and also built a new capital
most powerful members of society
People who wanted the 'People's Charter' to be adopted. The Peoples Charter was a document that set out reforms that ordinary working class and middle class people wanted the government to make. The charter would provide equality and give the ordinary man a say in the way the nation was run.
a government controlled by church leaders.
A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems
A popular Enlightenment thinker from France that had to flee because he was banished. He looked favorably on the political systems of other nations to which he traveled, so he published "letters Concerning the English Nation," explaining the things in England and contrasted it to the strict Catholic government of France. He devoted several chapters to Newton and Locke and used their virtue to attack the Catholic bigotry. Also wrote Candide, in which he showed his Enlightenment ideas, while also expressing some contempt for certain enlightenment ideas. He thought reason was the ultimate tool to shed misconceptions and to find truth.
Gavrilo Princip
Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife starting WW1
buying or selling on the internet
decorated band on top of columns
members of land owning upper class
fought against the Holy League
Henry IV
an elaborate confection, ornate in construction and ornamentation, sometimes edible but more often made and used as a decoration for a table or buffet
Estates General
• Representative body in France before 1789. Its basic function was to give consent to royal taxation. Its member were divided into 3 class, or estates: the clergy, the nobility, and the third estate.
a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
an order from the pope prohibiting Chruch ceremonies in the lands of a ruler who is disobedient to the Pope.
Council of Trent
A religious meeting held intermittently between 1534 and 1563 in Trent, in what is now, modern Italy. It was used to establish the Catholic Churches view on all of the major issues. It issued condemnations on what it defined as protestant heresies and defined the Church's teachings in areas such as Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. It occurred during and as a result of the Catholic revival, somewhat in response to the Reformation. It was important, because it established the things which the Roman Catholic Church believed.
Did "Moses" for Pope Julius also "Pieta"
medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
Etruscan Kings
Aka Tuscany. Original Rulers of Rome
John Knox
head of Presbyterian movement in Scotland. 1560 - convinces Parliament to end papal authority, ends Mass, and creates the Presbyterian church of Scotland.
Where was the technology for moveable type developed?
1. witches
witchcraft was activities of the devil
study of subjects taught in the ancient Greece and Rome, such as grammar, rhetoric poetry, and history
Cistine Chapel
Vatican City; Michealagelo; in St. Peter's Basilica
35th and youngest ever president of the U.S.A. Major events included The Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis and the starting of the Space Race. Assasinated on Nov. 22, 1963.
The Society of Jesus formed (Ignatius Loyola)
1571 1630Contribute to science: he study of Brahe, also planetary motion mathematical formula. He challenged elliptical orbits. Also Said that planets do not move at uniform speeds.
John Locke
Two Treatises on Government; Essay on Human Understanding. Montesquieu-Spirit of the Laws, Persian Letters.
Frederick the Elector
president of U. Wittenberg, protected Luther by ensuring the election of Charles V to power. He used his influence to protect Germany & the Reformation from imperial action
Theroy that sun is center of the universe
James Watt
adapted existing steam engines to make them more efficient
Sardinia Piedmont
a fairly liberal state. many italian middle class liberals thought Sardinia should basically take over all of italy and unify as one big Sardinia. some racial tones with the german culture of north italy vs. culture of southern italy.
Catholic League
formed by the Guise; dominated the eastern half othe country for several years; 1584, allied with Spain's Philip II to attack hersey in France and deny the Bourbon Henry's legal right to inherit the throne
[Age 36] Elected by Tribal. In charge of public entertainment and construction.
War of Religion (1547-1555)
Protestant princes fighting against the Catholic princes in the Holy Roman Empire
when a country sends their own officials and soldiers over to rule the colony; done by France
direct rule
2. Thirty Years War
"religious wars" (militant catholicism and militant calvinism)
Painter (N) : Mastery of laws of Perspective and Rennaisance Theories of Proportion.
Henry VIII
Began the reformation in England after the Pope took too long to decide whether or not to allow an annulment for Henry VIII and his Wife. After his wife had a baby girl Henry VIII was angry and wanted another wife. He needed a male heir.
Treaty of Versailles
June 1919 offically ends the war
Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor and German King; excommunicated twice; dethroned by his sons
In what year did 26 largely Catholic become independent from British rule?
Who was Maximian?
Ruler of western empire after Diocletian divided the empire into eastern a western regions.
Isaac Newton
He built upon the thought of Kepler, Galileo and Descartes to effect a bold synthesis of the Scientific Revolution, to which he added his own extraordinary discoveries. He developed the first synthesis of scientific principles. Newton synthesized the empiricism of Galileo and other with the theoretical rigor and logic of Descartes, thereby laying the foundations for modern science, which is based on both theory and experimentation. He invented calculus which is a set of math laws that explain how things move in space. He discovered the law of gravity.
Charles VII; told by Joan of Arc to take crown
Native American's as slaves
During the conquistador reign in Central America, many natives were taken and turned to slaves. Those that were not killed, that is. They were forced to work in the mines and also on the sugar plantations, both of which were very dangerous jobs. They were displaced from their homelands and taken to other islands to work on the plantations.
Richard I
Brave warrior but poor king as he wasted his time fighting in the Middle East-good PR
Publius Cornelius Scipio
Given councilor power even though he's not elegibile for office; conquires spain back from carthage
Frederick of the Palatinate
the Palatinate threatens to be Protestant, which endangers the Spanish Road to Flanders
someone who wants to get rid of govt completely
3. Cotton Industry
production of cheap cotton goods using traditional methods
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
47. Austerlitz and trafalgar
where Napoleon attacked the austrian and russian forces
"Star Wars" or SDI
Proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1983 to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. One factor in the fall of communism as the USSR could not keep up financially.
Allies durring WWI
Britain, France and Italy and the US
a soldier of a division of the Roman army, the legion
Defender of the Faith.
When Henry VIII was strictly Catholic and persecuted the Protestants with the help of Thomas Wolsey and Thomas More, he was given this title by Pope Leo X. This was an honor and was given to him because of his staunch Catholic ideas and prosecutions of others within his reign.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
" in an attempt at reconciliation Catherine de Medicis tries to marry her daughter, Margaret, to Henry of Navarre a Huguenot. Which is foiled by the Guise family, when they attempted to assassinate the Huguenot leader while at the wedding."
In the late Middle Ages pessimism was due to widespread death from what two causes?
Disease and War
34. Maria Winkelmann
the most famous of the astronomers in Germany, assistant to Gottfried Kirch
Cottage industry
an industry that can be run from a household by the family members using their own equipment
Fall of Berlin Wall
Was dismantled in the weeks following November 9, 1989. It was an iconic symbol of the Cold War. This was the first step toward German reunification and symbolized the end of the iron curtain and communism in eastern Europe.
What are the pagams?
People who were not Christians ot Jews.
Peter Paul Rubens
Dutch, did a lot of nude paintings of his wife, "Garden of Love"-"Self Portrait with Isabella Brant"-diplomat
Which classes were the first to suffer from bad harvest and economic depression?
Peasants and urban poor
50. Chateaubriand's Genius of Christianity
the "bible of romanticism" His defense of catholicism was based not on historical, theological, or even rational grounds but largely of Romantic sentiment
What did the Superpowers invest primarily in in the Cold War?
weapons, nuclear technology and space travel
Who was Diocletian?
An emperor of Rome who began the most violent persecution of the Christians.
The period of the Commonwealth left England with
a backlash against standing armies, martial law, and Puritans
Què és una nació?
Es un grup de gent vinculada per certs trets característics com la llengua, cultura, tradicions, religió o origen ètnic. Tota nació té una història pròpia que ajuda o fa que hi hagi una cultura pròpia. Tots senten que hi formen part
Copernicus’ great contribution to our understanding of the universe was to
theorize that the sun was at the center of the solar system
How did Ancient Rome adapt to their environment?
farming on hillsides, building roads, and trading on the Mediterranean Sea.
All of the following statements are true about the practice of charging interest on loans EXCEPT:
it was rarely practiced in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
Quines diferències hi ha entre nació i estat?
Mentre un estat es el grup de població que viu en un mateix territori sota el mateix govern, autoritat i lleis; la nació es el grup de gent que se sent vinculada per certs trets característics com la llengua, cultura, tradició, religio o origen ètnic.
Who's ideas did Lenin follow as he set up the new government?
Karl Marx, and his ideas about communism
Raul Prebesch
A republic
bonia and herzegovinia
Invented the printing press
century, Feminists educational campaigns rallied for higher woman's second level education through universities.
Albert Einstein
German scientist. "The Electro-dynamics of Moving Bodies." theory of relativity: space and time are not absolute, four-dimensional space-time continuum. Initially rejected, solar eclipse proved his theory and started new scientific age (1920s)
Most sympathetic to Rome
Educated their children their
South Slavs
east of adriatic sea
Decembrists (Russian rebels) revolted on the 1st day of Tsar Nicholas I's reign. They got ownd...
mental and emotional strength in facing difficulty, adversity, danger, or temptation courageously
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Peter Brueghel
flemish artist
painted scenes of peasants and countrysides
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles
Black Shirts
Mussolini's private army. Destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and local Socialist party headquarters. Pushed Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy.
Triple Entente: Russia, Great Britain, France.
Big Four
Control negotiations of peace treaties.
US: Woodrow Wilson
France: George Clemenceau
Great Britain: David Lloyd George
Italy: Emmanuelle Orlando
group that holds power in a democracy
Quintuple Alliance
(Oct 9, 1818)
Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia and France(after paying way debt)
Meet periodically to discuss problems and ensure peace
Ostrogoth king who was allowed to bring his people to Rome after 476.
a philosophy that uses reason to explore questions of faith
Labor Party (Britain)
a centre-left democratic socialist political party in the United Kingdom
First Estate
1st class. Wealth and privelege. Didn't like change. In power
The Grand Alliance defeated Germany by _____.
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation.
The narrow strait connecting the Black Sea with the Sea of Marma.
January 22nd 1905
"Bloody Sunday" 100,000 Russian workers and their families were owned by Russian troops while on strike. Sparked the Russian revolution of 1905.
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Englishman who became a German citizen; wrote "The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century," which made the Germans believe that they were the best race, and they were responsible for saving Europe from lower races (Jews, Negroes, Orientals)
Great Schism
1378-1417 14th
Pope died while in Rome so they elected one in both places
Ninety-five Theses
-Martin Luther
-1517 posted to a church door in Witenberg
-his criticism of the Pope and the church
-argued against indulgences, corruption, and salvation cannot be bought... only attained through faith
Lajos Kossuth
This man was a Hungarian nationalist leader who demanded independence and a constitution
Pope Gregory VII
former monk, extended Clunaic reforms to all, outlawed marriage for priests, outlawed simony (selling of Church offices), called people to renew their faith, restored Church's right to choose church officials (not nobles)
Soviet Union
In 1941, Hitler attacked the ______ along a vast front. By October, Leningrad was practically surrounded, Moscow was besieged, and most Ukraine had been overrun.
the mass killing of 6 million European Jews
Florence Nightingale
An English nurse who brought medical reforms to the theater of war, introduced sanitation, and organized barracks hospitals, all of which saved the lives of countless British soldiers.
A book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
a person who belongs to a group that another group considers to be savage or uncivilized, people who werent roman
Council of Pisa
failed meeting to fix the western schism
February-March Revolution
was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the end of the Romanov dynasty. Tsarism was replaced by a Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov, an alliance between liberals and socialists who wanted to instigate political reform, creating a democratically-elected executive and constituent assembly.
Giacomo Matteotti
The leader of the Socialists in the Italian parliament. Kidnapped and murdered by five of Mussolini's thugs.
Benjamin Franklin
Seen as a leader of the Enlightenment in America due to his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy. Refuted, challenged, and made Raynal take back his theory that said the New World was inferior to Europe and that all Europeans who immigrated to the New World degenerated.
Thomas Hobbes
If man were to live in perfect freedom he would become greedy and evil.
Tsar Nicholas I
Last emperor of Russia. He ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. Commisioned priest, Father Gapon, to organize group to counteract the Marxists. Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in World War I. Dissolved Duma in 1906 His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which he and his family were executed by Bolsheviks.
victor emmanuel II
He was king of Sardinia, Piedmont and Savory until 1861 when he was crowned the first king of a united Italy
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
An organization founded in 1949 the members of which signed a defense pact to protect those countries the North Atlantic.
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry IV of France on April 13, 1598 to grand Hugenots substantial rights in a a Catholic nation. This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots. This was the first time that Hugenots were treated as more than schismatic and Heretics. This opened up a path for religious toleration.
Reasons for the development of dictatorships
1) lacked a strong tradition of self-government, with its necessary restraint and compromise; 2) many states (ex: Yugoslavia) were torn by ethnic conflicts that threatened their very existence; 3) dictators appealed to nationalists and military leaders as a way to repress such tensions and preserve national unity; 4) large landowners and the church looked to dictators to save them from progressive land reform or communist agrarian upheaval; 5) the Great Depression crushed all of the countries with democratic governments
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Equal justice, natural rights, freedom of speech, religion, press
What were some MAJOR literary works of the Renaissance? What made them unique?
• The Inferno - Dante.
• Don Quixote - Cervantes. Considered by some to be the first modern novel, Cervantes' work combines the realms of imaginary and reality to fuse a brilliant yet humorous composition.
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