European History AP review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
French Revolution
German astronomer.
Mussolini. expansion, anti-socialist.
John Calvin. predestination. conservative
Triple Alliance
Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
Dutch Commercial Dominance
1550 - 1650
Truamn Doctrine
wanted to contain communism
Albert Einstein
"electro-dynamics of Moving bodies"
Special theory of relativity-space and times not absolute but relative to the observer and both interwoven into 4D space time continuum
Neither pace nor time had existence independent of human experience
Matter and energy reflected relativity of time and space.
476 A.D./1453 A.D.
Reign of Constantinople
-Opposed Aristotle and Ptolemy-said that objects hit the ground at the same time if dropped from the same height-He made an improved telescope-He discovered Jupiter's four moons-Wrote Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World
leopold i
king of Hungary 1655–1705; emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1658–1705.
Body of Enlightenment thinkers. Most famous for writing Encyclopedia, a handbook for Enlightenment ideas, edited by Denis Diderot. French term for "philosophers."
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed
Issac Newton
The brilliant English physicist, astronomer, and mathematician. He published "The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy," better known as "Principia Mathematica." Discovered the nature of gravity.
brilliant minister behind the French mercantilist economy
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894-1971) Soviet leader who denounced Stalin's rule and brought a temporary thaw in the superpowers' relations.
political philosophy that in the nineteenth century advocated representative government dominated by the propertied classes, minimal government interference in the economy, religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech
Government after fall of Directory; Napoleon was head as First Consul
explorers who were important in creating a desire to colonize central africa through stories of their travels there, led to Leopold II of Belgium's pursuit of an empire in Austria
the theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that the principle of utility, defined as the greatest good for the greatest number of people, should be applied to government, the economy, and the judicial system
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
Puritan Revolution
Puritans get control of England

(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia & including almost all German speaking states except Austria by 1844
the doctrinal system of Cornelis Jansen and his followers, denying free will and maintaining that human nature is corrupt and that Christ died for the elect and not for all humanity.
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian navigator who crossed the Atlantic several times and officially called the land thought by Columbus to be Asia the "New World." Later, a German cartographer renamed this land "America" in honor of Vespucci's work.
Reign of Terror
Directed by Jacobin Maximilien Robespierre to suppress all opposition to the Revolution within France. Lasted from September 1793-July 1794. Ended with Robespierre's execution by those fearing his fanatical policies
Glorious Revolution
It was the victory of constitutionalism in England over absolutism in the rest of Europe with the agreement for Parliament to share power with the Monarchs.
Edmund Burke
Writer of "Reflections on the Revolution in France." This conservative British statesman regarded the revolution as blind rationalism.
Bohemian who argued that priests weren't a holy group, claiming instead that the Church was made up of all of the faithful. He questioned transubstantiation, and said that the priest and the people should all have both the wine and the bread. He was burne
Jan Hus
- economic policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail GORBACHEV in mid 1980's
- "restructuring"
less government regulation
- greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture
When did most citizens think the soldiers would be home from war?
Clara Zeikin
(1857-1933) German Marxist who focused on women's issues in the Communist Party.
Bolshevik (October) Revolution
Replaces the Provisional Government with Lenin's forces
FDR wanted quick Soviet entry into Pacific War; used to decide what to do with Germany after the war; FDR wanted UN; Churchill wanted Germany as a buffer between them and Soviets
A large German gunboat whose presence sparked the Second Moroccan crisis when it entered Agadir.
a process developed by Henry Cort where coke, derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to make high-quality iron, prompted a boom in the British iron industry
British women who lobbied and agitated for the right to vote in the early twentieth century
culture system
a collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group's collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language
Auguste Comte
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism
the popularly elected lower house of government of the new German Empire after 1871.
Giovanni Boccaccio
The Decameron
Portrays a wordly society.
Potsdam Conference
Brought forward many differences over east Europe; postwar conference in July of 1945; Stalin would not allow any type of freely elected government in east European countries; Roosevelt had died and was succeeded by Harry Truman, who demanded free elections.
the last aristoctic revolt against a French monarch
This Scott, who originally made musical instruments, also was responsible for perhaps the most significant invention of the Industrial Revolution - the steam engine.
Thomas Newcomen
Enclosure movement
18th century English movement, marked the rise of market oriented estate.
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan leader of the Roundhead army in the English Civil War who defeated Charles I and established a republic, or commonwealth, in England. He ruled as "Lord Protector" from 1653-58, the period known as the "Interregnum" in England.
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the Church during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534, these "soldiers of the Counter-Reformation" were committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation.
Originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people. They turned to Talmud study; felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too academic, that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy.
Lorenzo Valla
The author of the standard Renaissance text on Latin philology and the "Elegances of the Latin Language," and "Donation of Constantine."
Treaty of Westphalia
This treaty brought all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire to an end. Rescinded Ferdinand's Edict of Restitution.
Organic Articles 1802
This established the supremacy of state over church in France following the Concordat.
the Spanish crown claimed the right to one-fifth of all precious metals mined in South America
Third Republic
French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
Louis XIV
(1643-1715) Also known as the "Sun King". The ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe.
divine right
the idea that rulers recieve their authority from and God and are answerable only to God
Edward VI
During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country
Peterloo Massacre
This protest led to the government issuing the Six Acts.­ An orderly protest that was savagely broken up by armed cavalry.­ The reason for protest was for the repeal of the Corn Laws which brought widespread unemployment and postwar economic stress. The protest was held by mostly urban laborers, who were supported by radical intellectuals.
Balfour Declaration
An agreement by which the British promised the Jews a national home in Palestine.
Dawes Plan
plan devised by American banker to scale back German reparation payments for WWI and establish a cycle of loans to Germany which let it pay off outstanding war debts to the Allies, who in turn paid off debts to the US, creating a win-win situation
a political system governed by a few privileged people
All India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded Pakistan (813)
Second French Republic
The government under LP Napoleon, established in 1848 until 1851.
By the time of Catherine's death (Nov. 17, 1796), modern Russian society was organized and its culture had struck firm roots. Russia was also playing a determining role in world affairs.
Black Hand
A Serbian secret police who is responsible for the death of austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand
Vasco da Gama

Sailed from Portugal for India.
J.G. Herder (1774-1803)
Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.
the belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny
Richard Arkwright
The inventor of the water frame which put textile manufacturing into factories.
Petition of Right
Petition presented to James I of England by Members of Parliament (MPs) in response to his absolutist tendencies. This sated that the King could not tax without Parliamentary consent, quarter troops in private homes during peacetime, declare martial law, or imprison a person without a definite charge.
James II
Came into power after Charles II and was pro-Catholic and absolutist.
Marie Antionette
Austrian wife of Louis XVI. Hated by all of France for a variety of reasons. Did NOT say "let them eat cake". EVER. That am NOT fact. She was executed during the Reign of Terror.
justification in the eyes of God was based ________, and not on good works and sacraments.
Faith alone
Balance of Power
A strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna.
Edict of Restitution
was issued by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II in 1629 in the middle of the 30 Years War and said that all Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1552 had to be restored and only Catholics and Lutherans were allowed to practice their faith. It is significant because it represented the peak of Habsburg power.
St. Bartholemew's Day
(August 24, 1572). Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV).
Alfred von Schlieffen
German who concocted the plan of "France for breakfast, Russia for dinner"
Marie and Pierre Currie
Discovered that element radium gave off rays of radiation that came from within atom itself.
Atoms small worlds containing subatomic particles.
Dutch East India Company
established pepper plantations on Java and Sumatra, important & very large trading presence
The Atlantic Charter
This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II; Renunciation of territorial aggression, No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned, Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government, Access to raw material for all nations, World economic cooperation, Freedom from fear and want, Freedom of the seas, Disarmament of aggressors.
Nation Convention
a meeting held over several days at which delegates select the party's presidential nominee, approve the party platform, and consider changes in party rules and policies
Treaty of Versailles
Negotiated by the Big Three Germany was stripped of colonies Alsace and Loraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would spilt Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified until later.)
Enlightened despot

Scientific Revolution
- Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great.
Micheal Romanov
in 1613 an assembly of nobles chose Michael as new czar. For the next 300 years the Romanov family ruled in Russia.
One of the most important barriers to the initialization of Italian unification.
the papacy
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis 14th
The Great Fear
Refers to the period of July and August f189, when peasants sacked the castles of the nobles and burned the documents that recorded their feudal obligations.
Irish Question (Gladstone's first office)
Gladstone disestablished the Church of Ireland and the taxes it levied. He also sponsored a land act which gave compensation to evicted Irish farmers.
Reasons for Russian weakness
These were the reasons of bad leadership, and lack of organized or effective army
Irish Potato Famine
Potato crop struck by a fungus that turned them black; decimated population; millions emigrated to U.S. and Britain
Charter of the Nobility
written by Catherine the Great in 1785. It legally defined nobles' rights and priviledges (ie passing title on to family, power over serfs, etc)
Wealth of Nations
by Adam SMITH, is a vibrant attack against mercantilism and one of the most influential books ever written on economics.
Louis XIV

King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child.
Rousseau's conception of the General Will meant?:
a vague common "interest" but not necessarily majority rule.

(General will is what the body politic (community of citizens) would unanimously do if they were selecting general laws and were choosing/voting with full information, good reasoning, unclouded judgment (bias and emotion can cloud judgment), public spirit, and attempting to discern the common good.)
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Christine de Pisan
first women writer to make a living on her own; wrote The City of Ladies in defense of the character of women
Charles I
son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland; was deposed and executed by Oliver Cromwell
The Protestant Reformation in Germany did what?
Compounded problems that had existed since the Middle Ages.
During the 16th century the main reason for the increase in power of the English monarch was the?:
ability of the Tudor monarchs.
Index of Prohibited Literature
This was the list of books that were prohibited by the papacy in order to stop more religious thinkers
Regard to divorce in 16th and 17th cent.:
Catholic didn’t accept, Prostestant did, however adultery and irreconcilable differences
The immediate crisis causing WWI was the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He was killed by an organization called...
the Black Hand, a secret Serbaisn nationalist group
The unification of Italy was primarily due to?:
the success of Cavour and Garibaldi together with the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.
Examples of New Monarchs from three separate nations:
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strenghthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Gavrillo Princip
Assassinated Archduke Ferdinand
attacked superstition, religious intolerance, and dogmatism
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
landed upperclassmen; support notion of strong king; conservatives
Location where the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire was assassinated.
(according to Nazi doctrine) a Caucasian person of Nordic descent (and not a Jew)
Alexander Dubcek
Czechoslovakia, created Prague Spring, wanted "communism with a human face", Soviets crush his movement
consercration means Christ is present but bread and wine serve more as a symbol
European conflict in this country divided it into North and South territories but overall expansion of trade in this country was unsuccessful.
French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. The parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Article 48
under the Wiemar Republic constitution, this authorized emergency decrees suspending civil liberties
James I (Stuart)
1603-1625. Queen Elizabeth's Scottish cousin. Wanted English absolutism, because Scotland was absolute, disliked by Parliament. Alienated a Parliament grown accustomed under the Tudors to act on a premise that monarch and Parliament together make decisions. Lack of respect for English customs. Catholic, while Eliz. was Protestant. Divine Right.
Henry VIII
Married originally to Catherine via papal dispension. Wanted an annulment of this marriage, so set himself as the supreme head of the Church of England. Took money from nunneries and monasteries.
Triennial Act
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.
Ayatollah Khomeini
Iran, established the Islamic Republic of Iran, violent ruler, combined religion with politics, bad relation with US, Iranian hostage Crisis
Bartholomew Diaz
Portugal-Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope
Zimmermann Telegram
The British intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land Mexico lost the US
Catholic Reformation
before 1517, renewal because of stimulation of a new spiritual fervor
Babylonian Captivity
(Middle Ages) The _________ ________ was when pope Clement V (r. 1305-1314) moved to Avignon to avoid unrest in Rome. This period for the papacy is noted for administrative and financial efficiency.
The Scientific Method
Newton fused Descartes rationalism with Bacon's empiricism to create this...
Utopian socialists
Early 19th century socialists who hoped to replace the overly competitive capitalist structure with planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation. Leading French Utopian socialists such as Charles Fourier and Louis Blanc believed that property should be communally owned.
an instument used to determine the position of heavenly bodies
Ernst Renan
a French philosopher and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany. He is best known for his influential historical works on early Christianity and his political theories. Wrote Life of Jesus, a different book titled identically to Strauss' work.
Trench Warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI. A brutal battle of attrition.
Kapp Putsch
A 1920 armed conservative insurrection that temporarily caused the German government to flee and resulted in workers' strikes
The Greeks and Romans called the region in the plains along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers __________.
Nazi-Soviet Pact
freed Hitler to use force against Poland without fear of Soviet involvment
Polish Nationalism
Poles in Warsaw had their own constitution, and could govern themselves. Didn't like Nicholas I (absolute). Several Polish secret societies rebelled against Nicholas I for supposedly using Polish troops to squash other rebellions. Bloodiest Revolution in 1830's.
Habsburg-Valois Wars
1494-1559. Series of wars fought over lands gained in Max and Mary's marriage. HRE Charles V(Catholic) vs. Valois Kings (Catholic) and German princes (Protestant). Power struggle between Spanish Hapsburg and French Valois. Spanish win ultimately.
Ignatius of Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon; added belgium and Holland to create the Netherlands, gave Prussia lands along the Rhine, enhanced Austrian influence over the Germans, allowed Austria to take control of Italian lands
Corn Laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
States General
way Charles made united provinces from low countries
Bank of England
recieved deposits and echanged forigen currency like other banks, but also made loans
Eleanor of Aquitaine
(c.1122-1204) An example of an aristocratic woman who exercized political power in the middle ages. She was the wife of Louis VII, after that marriage was anulled she married King Henry II of England (Count of Anjou at the time). ________ of _________.
A French tax on officeholders in the government, which provided about 1/3 of the royal income. It was initially implemented by Henry IV to demonstrate his power over nobility, but became useful in a more practical sense later on.
christian humanism
a branch of humanism associated with northern Europe. Like their Italian counterparts, the Christian humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian content. Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.
Pacification of Ghent
stipulated that all provinces would stnad together under William's leadership, respect religious differences, and demand Spanish troops be withdrawn from the Netherlands
Dreyfus Affair
A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemitic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, Catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.
A region that Germany took from France in the Franco-Prussian War. Germany lost it at the end of WWI.
General Ludendorff
Commander of German armies on the Western Front. In the spring of 1918, he launched an all-out offensive on the Allies, gambling everything.
pair of hostesses whose salon was the most brilliant in Europe
Maria Theresa
Charles VI's daughter, who was heir to the throne in 1740. MT was in a difficult position, for not only had Charles had left her w/an empty treasury, a poorly trained army and an ineffective bureaucracy, but she also faced a rebellion by the Czech nobles in Bohemia, and the Hungarian nobles were ready to follow suit. So, MT went around to the nobles and appealed to them as a damsel in distress. Though she was also forced to promise the Hungarians autonomy (w/in empire), the plan still worked wonders.
Yalta Conference
February 1945. Big Three agree to only accept unconditional surrender of Axis powers. Demilitarization and Denazification of Germany (outlaw Nazism, propaganda). Poland loses territory to USSR, gains 25% of Germany's land.
Battle of Dunkirk
Early 1940. Trapped Frn, Brit, Belg, troops on the beach of Dunkirk trying to resist Germany. Rescued by navy and civilians after a German general makes Germ army stop to fortify themselves
New Imperialism
Caused by Social Darwinism, as well as economic, military, political, humanitarian, and religious reasons
Saint Bartholomew's Day
Cath attack on Calvinists; marriage of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarrre, all to mend Cath/ Hugeonot; Henry of Guise (Cath) night before attacked Adm Gaspard de Coliquy (Calvinist) led to slaughtering and more violence
French Revolution (1789)
provided a model of revolution for Europe and was the political movement that inaugurated the rest of the political world
Cardinal Mazarin
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
Bank of Amsterdam
new institution that was both transfer and deposit
Duncan Grant
a Scottish painter and member of the Bloomsbury Group.
Henri Petain
Led the French army at Verdun and eventually became Commander of the French Armies. He served as Prime Minister in 1940. When German forces defeated France, he took control of the Vichy area in 1942. Because of his cooperation with the Nazis, he was arrested and imprisoned until his death in 1951.
Mein Kempf
in English means 'My Struggles' or 'My battle,' is a book written by Adolf Hitler while he was in prison. It combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's National Socialist political ideology.
The Imitation of Christ
(1484) about the good for laypeople; said Christians to take on the life of Christ and live simply
League of Armed Neutrality
formed by Russia to protect neutral ships from British attack
Act of Uniformity
restored church service of the Book of Common Prayer
Studies in Hysteria
a book published in 1895 by Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer. It contained a number of Breuer and Freud's case studies of "hysterics". It included one of their most famous cases, Breuer's Anna O. (real name: Bertha Pappenheim), which introduced the technique of psychoanalysis as a form of cure.
Marshal Josef Pilsudski
In 1926, he carried out a military coup and ruled Poland personally until his death, when the gov. passed into the hands of a group of his military followers.
King Charles II of England
Took over after Cromwell's son could not maintain power. Religious tolerance, b/c he was a secret Catholic. Treaty of Dover with Louis XIV. No heir; after his death, his brother James II (Catholic) gets the throne.
Vasco de Gama
Rounded the Cape of Good Hope and made it to India, where he found spices that he sold for several thousand percent value.
British Civil War of 1642
Charles I had dissolved Parl., and so raised an army of mercenaries, while Cromwell took over Parl.'s New Model Army, which won. 1646- Cromwell splits from Parliament b/c he believes in freedom of religions and they are Protestant. Join up against him, but he still wins.
The success of the second Assyrian Empire was based on
a large well-disciplined army, a society that valued military skills, and kings that other people feared.
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