European History Section Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Norway
Belarus
Minsk
Denis Diderot
Encyclopedia.
lyre
stringed instrument
Liberty
Freedom of choice
Fall of HRE
1806?
opposition to all war
pacifism
Portuguese land in Japan
1543
mercantilism
government policies to regulate economic and commercial activities
realpolitik
political realism or practical politics, esp. policy based on power rather than on ideals, created by Machiavelli
strait
a narrow channel of water
veto
block or reject an idea
ghetto
separate urban communities of jews
Liberalism
Associated with ideas of social progress, economic development and the middle class. Hoped to achieve a free society governed by a constitution that valued individual rights.
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Andreas Vesalius
Dissected the first human being
Mozart
"The Marriage of Figaro," "Don Giovanni," and "The Magic Flute"---child prodigy whose successful life started at six and he wrote his first opera at age 12. He excelled, but died at age 36.
Chernobyl
Worst Nuclear accident in History; downfall of USSR exampleF
Mussolini's violent squads of supporters
Black Shirts
Bartolome de Las Casas
Wrote against encomienda.
paul
converted to christianity after vision with jesus and spread christianity; from tarous
planned invasion of England failed
Philip II
margrave
a hereditary German title, equivalent to marquis, ranking above a count, originally associated with a count over a march or border area
Descartes
sought to discover the truth through deductive reasoning. He shared Bacon's and Galileo's critiques of ancient and medieval learning. Nut he offered a different methodology for understanding the universe, espousing deductive reasoning, that is, deducing a conclusion from a set of premises, not from scientific observation. He is the opposite of Bacon. He is a mathematician.
Salons
Sponsored by wealthy women, it was where the philosophes could gather and discuss opinions freely. Popular in france
crusades
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Copernicus
A Polish astronomer that had a heliocentric view of the universe. He was the first to hold this view, but he died shortly after his paper, "On the Revolution of Celestial Spheres," was published. This finding and his book that was published in 1543 would become what was known as the start of the Scientific revolution, which was a very important time period in the Early Modern Period.
Abelaird
Philosopher at Paris but best known for tragic love affair with Heloisie-idea of Medieval Love
feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Antiochus III
Commanding Selucid troops against rome in Antichone War. Lost a ton of troops in defeat.
Clement VII
kept switching side sides between Francis I and Charles V, switched to France's side, then France lost and Charles V sacked Rome. Cared more about art than German politics. Because he sucked, Protestantism spread. Refused Henry VIII an annulment because of the Protestant pressure on him, and he couldn't go back in a previous pope's word.
Calvinists were transplanted into which parts of Europe?
Holland and Scotland
35. Levellers
women's equality with men, and government programs to care for the poor
Christopher Columbus
country worked for-Spain goal- reach Asia by sailing west in search of gold and wealthy land, first explorer to cross Atlantic description of voyage- oct.12,1492 landed in b
Desiderius Erasmus
northern humanist tried to unite classical and christian ideals of civic virtue in his writings
NATO
A military alliance created in 1949. Western countries agreed to support each other in case of Soviet aggression.
Bartholomew Dias sails around the tip of Africa
1488
Rene Descartes
Significance of Doubt.stayed in his room till he died, from extream doubting
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Council of Constance
the council in 1414-1418 that succeeded in ending the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church
Perspective
a technique of giving objects in a picture the appearance of depth and distance.
Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909) who sponsored the takeover of the Congo in Africa, which he ran with great violence against native peoples.
Old Regime
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
Church of England
Anglican church, Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Censorate
Elected every 5 years. Must be 60. Must have held Consulship. Elected by Centurion assembly. 2 Functions: Take census &...
Bloody Mary (1553-58)
married to Phillip II, strongly opposed Protestantism because she was the daughter of strongly Catholic Catherine of Aragon. She beheaded a lot of people.
An idea that all government power comes from the people
Popular Sovereignty
10. The Fronde
the French were interested in overthrowing Mazarin for their own purposes; to secure their positions and increase their own power
New Monarchies
Monarchies that gained more power via centralization of government.
What is consubstantiation?
A protestant idea that, during communion, Christ is present. However the bread and wine do not transform.
End of WW I
Allies defeated Germany in 1918
Robot
Leonardo Da Vinci made one of the first designs for a robot.
How many people died during the famine?
1 million
Who was Tacitus?
A roman historian, senator, governor, and consul.
Science and Religion
led more people to doubt religious authority that was based on faith alone, points of tensions not surprisingly continued to emerge between science and religion.
Phillpe Petain
Chief of State for Vichy France, Told Citizens he was a positive influence on country
Thomas More
An English Scholar that dremt of a Utopia used with scholarship to create a better society. He was the author of "Utopia." He was a Catholic humanist and was a supreme counsellor to Henry VIII. He was a saint in the Catholic Church and also in the Anglican Communion. He was a opponent of the protestant reformation and its followers, and thus eventually went against the King of England, Henry VIII. He opposed the separation from the papal church and denied that the king was the Supreme Head of the Church of England, ending in his death in 1535.
Charles I
Not as diplomatic as his father, he lost his head in English Revolution, used Irish troops in fighting
Aemilius Paulus
Takes Roman control of army during 3rd macedonian war. Defeats macedon and claims a huge amount of treasure
Causes of 30 Yrs War
Political: Desire for absolute Hapsburg monarchyDynasticHapsburgs vs. Wittelsbachs (Maximilian of Bavaria)Hapsburg-Bourbon feudFerdinand of Styria is King of Bohemia, Hungary, then HRE
What was the name given to the peaceful march that ended in civilians being killed in Russia?
Bloody Sunday
27. Suburbs
outer ring of the city, where people could have individual houses and gardens
Ancien Regime
The old order before the Revolution in France
15. Abbe Sieyes
Piblished a pamphlet in which he asked, "What is the third Estate? Everything. What has it been thus farin the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something."
Domino Theory
A term used by the Americans meaning that if a country became Communist, then its neighbouring countries would likewise fall to communism, like a row of dominoes. This theory was the basis of the American involvement in Vietnam.
What crop did the famine in the 1840's affect?
Potato
whiffler
an attendant who clears the way for a procession
George Sand
wrote Indiana, had to use a man's name in order to get published
Battles of the Trebia and Trasimene
[217] Hannible's victories against rome in 2nd war
The Charter of 1814
Established the ruling of the Bourbon restoration (Louis XVIII)- gave some freedoms of revolutionary period but left most power to king1. established freedom of religion by not popular sovereignty 2. confirmed the loss of church property- angered royalists 3. did establish a week bicameral legislature
41. Francis Bacon's inductive method
a correct scientific method, urged scientists to proceed from the particular to the general
What was the Elizabethan Settlement?
The Elizabethan Settlement were the events that led to the restoration of the Church of England. For instance everyone was required to attend Church of England services, if one refused they were fined.
Helsinki Accords, 1975
An agreement made in the Detente era that recongized all 1945 European borders in exchange for a Soviet comminment to improve human rights behind the Iron Curtain.
What are the pagams?
People who were not Christians ot Jews.
London and other urban areas
In the English Revolution, the forces of Parliament were usually supported by:
What was the major reason for the colonization of Brazil by Portugal?
European demand for sugar
44. Ten hours Act of 1847
Children between nine and thirteen could only work eighteen hours a day; those between thirteen and eighteen, twelve hours
What are three causes of World War I?
nationalism, alliances and militarism
Who was Severus Alexander?
Roman emperor and last ruler of the Severus dynasty. Was assassinated.
Which of the following statements best describes Peter’s form of rule over Russia?
It resembled Louis XIV’s absolutism, but it lacked the western countries’ legal regularity
Què eren les Bases de Manresa (1892)?
Era una reunió d'intel·lectuals que proposaven el projecte d'estatut d'autonomia federal. Eren molt conservadors ja que només podien votar els caps de família i per oficis. Aquestes bases deien com s'hauria de dur la governació de Catalunya.
A strong current of skepticism developed in the late seventeenth century Europe, whose adherents asserted that
all beliefs are relative, varying in time and place
Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 because
he thought religious unity was necessary for France’s strength and dignity
What was the primary purpose of Henry VII’s Star Chamber?
to mediate disputes between nobles, therefore undercutting their power
Què era el Memorial de Greuges (1885)?
Va ser un escrit fet pel "Centre Català" (principalment per Almirall) que reivindicava el dret civil català, el proteccionisme cultural i la política anticentralista. Aquest es va presentar al rei perquè tingués present la regió de Catalunya i la seva con
What caused the U.S. to enter World War I?
the sinking of the Lusitania by a German U-boat which killed over 100 Americans
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