European History Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Francis Bacon
father of humanism
What is Flora?
Jean-Paul Sarte
famous French existentialist
government based on religion
Developed empiricism: collect specimins and analyze them, big on observing and doing experiments, wanted people to really pursue new knowledge.
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
bill of exchange
Exchange of currency
-capital of the Roman Empire
ptolemy; everything revolves around Earth
from the Bourbon family
Henry IV
The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power.
believed in predestination, that God was all knowing and it became the dominant theological credo of the Puritans
people who buy and sell goods
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; Dali
Accepted heir to Caesar; begins spending money and building army. Declares himself consol through force. Then forms triumvirate.
Elizabeth's successor; poor social skills but kept England out of war.
James I
How many times did Beaumarchais marry?
A public meeting place in Rome?
an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730's; it was highly secular, emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action
Truman Doctrine
1947; stop formations of communist regimes in Greece and Turkey
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Ottoman Empire
a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe; controlled Medditeranian-blocking trade
Those socialists who after 1840 (when the word was first used) advocated the abolition of private property in favor of communal, collective ownership.
Died young, buried in Pantheon, work in Rome
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
Boris Yeltsin
1st president of the Russian Federation, reign marked by corruption, economic collapse due to induction of freemarket, and political and social problems
Author of "Prince" and "Discourse on Livy"was realist, looked for ideal in the past, believed mankind is badcritical of church, believed in seperation of church and state
Gnaeus Pompey
Defeats Pirates, and spartan army. Annexes Seleucid empire and Jerusalem. Part of 1st triumverate.
Which of the following artists painted “Girl with a Pearl Earring”?
Bohemian nobleman who fought for the Catholics in the Bohemian phase of the 30 yrs. war.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer who commanded first ships to sail from Europe to India
The occupation of seats in local restaurants protesting the fact that blacks had to eat in separtate areas. Many of these sit-ins provoked local authority figures to use brute force. But much attention to the civil rights movement.
Godess of Wisdom and warfare, Patron god to Athens
Central Powers durring WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
Star Chamber
A separate judicial system in England by which the king could bring his enemies to court for any offense he decided, and a jury made up of the king's privy councilors would make rulings usually according to the king's direction. Became a symbol of arbitrary rule and injustice within England leading up to the civil wars.
Nuremberg Trial
trials of Nazi leaders and other political leaders
The series of attacks on citizens of the USSR accused of being "wreckers," or saboteurs of communism, in the 1930s and later.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
John Wycliff
Criticized the church & believed in personal interpretation of scripture. Together with Jan Hus he set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
Willy Brandt
West German chancellor who began to improve relations w/ eastern europe and east germany with ostpolitik
Despots, one man rulers, in power in Italian city-states 1300-1500Pretended to follow laws, but actually manipulated them for own benefit
Who was the great chronicler and storyteller of English life in the late Middle Ages?
Geoffrey Chaucer
31. Predestination
ment that god had predestined some poeple to be saved and others to be damned.
he was able to overthrow the directory and established a new form of government
Port city that was believed to spread the Black Death to other parts of Europe.
35. coitus interruptus and infanticide
abandonment to foundling homes
"ping-pong diplomacy"
The cultural exchange of ping pong players of the United States and People's Republic of China (PRC) in the 1970s. This marked a thaw in U.S.-China relations that led the way to a visit to Beijing by President Richard Nixon. Part of the Detente era.
Philosopher who was first to suggest Capitalism and Materialism is bad for society
one of the three into which French society was divided before the revolution
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Pope Marcellus Mass
Palestrina / cyclical mass / high renaissance / 1550 / declamation / homophony / for mass ordinary
Peace of Paris
The series of peace treaties that provided the settlement of World War I.
Refactory Clergy
Created in response to when the Civil Constitution of the Clergy created a national church with 83 bishops and dioceses. They had the support of the King, formor aristocrats, peasants, and the urban working class.
Millenarian Thinking
thinking end is near. God is coming save some for 1000 years of peace
Anne Boleyn
second wife of Henry VIII, mother of Elizabeth, beheaded for failing to produce a male heir at the Tower of London.
What did Mussolini promise to turn the Mediterranean into once again?
a "Roman Lake"
21. the Romanovs
the new tsar, beginning a new dynasty
what was the estimated population of Native Americans living in North America before the explorers arrived?
2-20 million people
5. Louis XVI
knew little about the operations of the french government and lacked the energy to deal decisively with state affairs
Rostker v. Goldberg
Selective Service system to adopt a policy of requiring only men to register for the draft
Council of Trent outcomes
Who was Bishop Ambrose?
A bishop who threatened theodosius with excommunication.
"Price Revolution"
when the steady rise in prices, or the steady decline in value of a given unit of money, constituted a gradual inflation. However, it was so slow that it cant be compared to the inflation in modern societies. A cause emerged from the growth of population itself, that set up an increasing demand for food, and that brought less fertile lands into production. So the cost of production increased, which increased agricultural prices.
Tennis Court Oath
This occurred on June 20th 1789 in Paris when the 3rd Estate was locked out of a meeting hall. They vowed there to not leave until they had drafted a constitution for France. This constitution would protect the rights of the people and would prevent the other estates from undoing their actions. This was the actual event that started the French Revolution. They at first thought that the king would cooperate, since he frequently listened to them, but then he ordered 1000s of soldiers to come to Paris, which put them on edge. The king also cut out some of his officials that had been supporters of the Third Estate.
Ferdinand of Styria
appears to be the same as Ferdinand II
20. Treaty of Tordesillas
divided up the newly discovered work into separate Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence
Invasion of Norway
This gave Germany access to good naval bases from which they could launch their U-boat operations, and it also secured their shipments of iron-ore from Sweden.
After the fall of Jerusalem, the most important leader in the Church.
Bishop of Rome
Treaty of Versailles – (1919)
This peace treaty officially ended World War I between the Allied Powers and Germany. After six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference, it was signed as a follow-up to the armistice (signed in November 1918) in Compiègne Forest
During WWI who were the Allies?
G.B., France, Russia, Serbia, Italy, Belgium, US
The Twelve Years Truce
12 year cease-fire in the 80 years war
22. Russian serfdom
An abundance of land and a shortage of peasants made serfdom desirable to the land owners
Com es va aprovar la Mancomunitat?
Primerament, aquest projecte va ser presentat a Canalejas per Prat de la Riba al 1912 i es va proposar al Congrés dels Diputats, on es van fer grans retallades. Al 1914, desprès de la mort de Canalejas, s'aprova tenint com a president a Prat de la Riba, d
Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf, founders of the field of international law, argued that sovereign states were
subordinate to natural reason and justice
Describe colonial law, society and politics in the mid-1700s.
The colonies were ruled by British mercantile laws. They contained diverse ethnic and religious groups, and much free discussion in politics.
James II (1685 - 1688)
(England) Went against the Test Act of 1673 and revised the Declaration of Indulgences.
What does POV stand for on an AP Euro DBQ?
How did Mussolini's policies reflect his attitude toward women?
He awarded women for bearing tons of children; he wanted to keep women in the home, because working women signified a progressive, democratic social order, something he did not want.
The effect of the coalitional government in France was
It was difficult for France to rebuild because of disagreement in the French government
27. On the Fabric of the Human Body
based on Vesalius Paduan lectures, in which he deviated from traditional practice by personally dissecting a body to illustrate what he was discussing
During the reign of Louis XIV, the Sun King, all of the following occurred EXCEPT
France conquered most of the continent of Europe
The Renaissance
Dutch farmers.
the working class
cancel or invalidate
an evildoer or criminal
Cleopatra VII of Egypt
Greek goddess of hunting.
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Public intellectuals dedicated to doing a public service to solve real problems of the world. They reached their peak in the last half of the 1700s. One famous philosoph was Jean-Jacque Rousseau, who wrote political papers, ones concerning theater on morals, an opera, an autobiography and a paper on Education. The purpose of the philosoph was to create a better world. This was a transnational phenomenon and the republic of letters was the idea that all thinkers were bound together by a dedication to reason. Immanual Kant summed up this idea in a Latin phrase he coined "sapare aude", meaning "dare to know." The philosophs didn't necessarily oppose religion, but rather religious intolerance. They believed that the human condition could be benefited by thinking. The philosophs created an Encyclopedia attempting to collect all of the knowledge in one place. It was written from 1751-1772. They believed that this encyclopedia would help common man to do/ know things that he wouldn't have been capable of knowing before. They wanted freedom of the press and freedom of religion, because they believed this was the natural law. They were often members of the upper middle class.
Everyday language of ordinary people
establishing control over foreign lands and people; used policy for conquering
German; created the printing press
Find: France, London, Moscow, Paris, Prussia, Russia, Vienna, Austro-Hungarian Empire
principality; also a diplomatic state; was the best at diplomacy
Organization of German states formed in 1834 to reduce tariffs among members
Thomas Cramner
archbishop of Canterbury who encouraged the church of England and married Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII
Weimar Republic
government of Germany before ww1
Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty
Intellectual movement based on the study of classical literary works of Greece and Rome.
historian who sought for partiotic feelings
married to Philip II of Spain
a person legally bound through indenture to a master craftsman in order to learn a trade
Margaret Cavendish
natural philosopher and duchess of Newcastle, participated in debates about matter and motion, the vacuum, magnetism, and the components of color and fire. She hosted the "Newcastle Circle" an informal gathering of distinguished scientists that received Descartes.
Edmund Burke
British writer who attacked the Revolution as application of blind rationalism that ignored historic realities of political development.
revolutionary leader who tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility
Plantation Economies
Plantations came about as the Europeans discovered the ability to steal humans and force them into slavery, since they couldn't depend on the gold that they originally were expecting to suffice for them. They used mass labor to create large amounts of goods cheaply, and as a result, the plantation owners became very rich. The plantations however displaced the small farmers in the new world, because they could make goods for far less. Many slaves died on these plantations, most of whom worked on the sugar plantations, because the work was particularly treacherous. Many plantation owners left their plantations to agents and kept the great wealth, moved back to Europe, and created a new class.
Wrote "In Praise of Folly"-critical of Church practices-Dutch humanist
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Pyrrhic Wars
[280-275] Tarento, to Rome's south, attacks Rome. Asks Pyrrhus of Ephirus (near macedon) for help.
Louis XI
spider king, plotted death of aristocratic opponents and replaced them with loyal relativesknew his limitationsrecieved Charles the Bold's lands and some gunpowder
What were muslims on the Iberian Peninusla called?
The USSR's Policy of "openess of communication" to the West or the United States
The Normandy Landings, June 6, 1944 — the day on which "Operation Overlord" began commencing the Western Allied effort to liberate mainland Europe from Nazi occupation during World War II.
Quan va ser suprimida la Mancomunitat?
Al 1925
March 1918
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ends war between Russia and Germany.
What are Italians considered the most of all European?
The architect that designed The Cuppola of St. Maria or II Duomo
Filippo Brunelleschi
The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones.
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV's religious truce; conceded some religious freedoms to Huguenots in France
3 Field System
crop rotation system. 2 fields grow-each field growing things taking different nutrients from soil; field empty; produced 13% more food than 2 field system
The belief that people should not have government; it was popular among some peasants and workers in the last half of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth
John Locke
Believed people were born free with natural rights (life, liberty, and prosperity)
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Battle of Gaugeramela
[331]Largest Persian force since Greco War. ~45k Mac vs ~125k Per men. Alexander then hailed king of Persia.
Leader of Mercenary army in Italy, a contractor, loyal to highest bidder
When Russians realized that the Bolsheviks were merely the newest tyrants ruling over them, this deception was the main cause of?
The Civil War
48. Mestizos and mulattoes
European and native american offspring: the offspring of Africans and whites
Edict of Nantes (1598)
Acknowledged Catholicism as the official religion on France, but it allowed Huguenots to worship in selected places.
Ulrich Zwingli
A humanist and Catholic priest that led the church in Zurich in its break from Roman Catholicism, in 1519.
Ancien Regime
"Early modern period"; just faced 100 years war, climate change, black plague, and peasant rebellions. Begins with the creation of more powerful states. France & England are more centralized. "reconquest" on Spain.
The belief that one ruler should have all of the power
Sprout flow
when they flooded the ground right after they planted
What were explorers like Cartier, Cabot, and Columbus searching for?
the Northwest Passage
Fat Man
name of the nuclear bomb dropped in japan; kahn is the main subject, man that plans nuclear war, here where he discusses the use of deterrence and that the bomb is necessary to uphold peace
Diet of Speyer (1529)
princes' power to determine religion according to their own beliefs was reversed; catholicism was only tolerated religion
Oliver Cromwell
A military leader during the the civil war in Engand that eventually lead the opposition against King Charles I. He organized the New Model Army and defeated the cavaliers at the Battle of Naseby. This caused the king to retreat, and he eventually forfeited a year later. The rump parliament that was supported by the soldiers establishes a Puritan Republic headed by Cromwell. He wasn't very popular though either, because he was very demanding. The Professional Jews were allowed to return for the first time since the 1300s. He paved the way for the emergence of Great Britain, by going to Ireland and subduing them.
Puritan Commonwealth
The reign of virtue in the English Revolution in which the Puritans decided what was goof for the people of England is known in English history as the:
Das Kapital
Written by Karl Marx and edited by Engels. Critical analysis of capitalism
Poor people who were not free but had to do whatever work their feudal lord required.
What event got Mussolini control of the state without firing a shot?
harch on Rome
15. Galileo Galilei
the first European to make systenatic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope
"Peace, Bread, and Land"
Lenin’s slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.
49. the Grand army
defeated the continental members of the coalition, giving him the opportunity to create a new Europran order
L’etat de droit
un legislation mettre en place et appliquer quatre vingt mille euros est le coute en 2009
What is the longest river in the British Isles?
Shannon River
a soldier of a division of the Roman army, the legion
Exchange Bank of Amsterdam
Backed by the Dutch government. The bank made Holland
the financial center of the world. Allowed deposit of 'mixed money' and issued notes for
florins. Innovative use of checks and guaranteed deposits.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Settlement of 27 BC
All providences that required an army given to Augustus. The senate heiled him as Augustus
28. Poland's Sejm
or Polish diet, was a 2 chamber assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who where also members
King Henry VIII
King of England, founded the Church of England, or Anglican church making himself the head of it
Le statut de pays candidat
quand il satisfait les accords ensemble, le pays peut deposer leur candidature. Le Conseil de Ministres represent l’interet etat, Commission – interet d’union et Parlement – internet des citoyens
Who was Nero?
An emporer of Rome who blamed the christians for starting a fire that burned Rome.
Edward III
Wanted to be King of France he led the British to victory at Crecy, Agincourt
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
"the greatest happiness for the greatest number"-- utilitarianism- advocates government involvement economically to help the working class
16. Factory discipline
performed a set of tasks over and over again as efficiently as possible
35. Franz Joseph Haydn
spent most of his adult life as mucisical director for the wealthy Hungarian princes, the Esterhazy brothers
What is the Colosseum?
The place romans would go to watch gladiators fight.
How did Balkan nationalism contribute to the decline of the Ottoman empire?
the Balkans had tons of different nationalities, and so because each group wanted its own state, they were easily taken over by larger countries.
Quines són les conseqüències de la Setmana Tràgica (1909)?
Els partits burgesos intenten millorar la llei d'administració local, es trenca la Solidaritat Catalana i la Lliga passa a formar part de la repressió.
was expressed by Machiavelli's philosophy
"abandon morality and win by any means necessary"
Which of the following would social historians Philippe Aries and Peter Laslet argue about family structure and the role of children in Early Modern Times?
Children had become a more integral part of the family
The founding of the Royal Society of London and the Academy of Sciences in France in the 1660s
helped to institutionalize the pursuit of natural knowledge
Què era la Lliga de Catalunya? Quan es va formar i quina va ser la seva primera acció?
Una secció del Centre Català, els més conservadors, es va separar per formar aquest grup polític ja que creien que Almirall era massa progressista. Aquest grup va ser format per Angel Guimerà i Lluís Domènec i Muntaner al 1887. La Lliga de Catalunya va de
What does it mean to plead the belly?
Women on death row could plead that they are pregnant. They could not be hung if they were pregnant. The "child getter" would impregnate a woman to save her life.
Woven Cloth
City State
Serbs attacking people
French noble/author/philosophe. Spirit of Laws (3 part govt) and Persian Letters (criticized Europe's culture). Discussed governments throughout history. Felt that the best way to protect liberty was to set up check and balance system in govt. (three branches: judicial, executive, legislature).
Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
Louis 14th dies - mercantalism
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of liberal nationalism throughout Europe.
Heinrich Himmler
overseer of the holocaust
John Cabot
country worked for-England goal-northwest passage description of voyage- didn't find northwest passage, claimed north america coast for england
men from the lower class
truggle for civilization, Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic church resulting from Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility in 1870.
Central Powers
alliance of austria-hungary, germany, the ottoman empire, & bulgaria in world war i aka triple entente
Clearly defined geographic areas in which people have common leaders, history, and sovereignty
Characteristics of art
Perspective, individualism, shading, humanism, realism, and geometric patterns
Peasant's Revolt (1524-25)
Lutheran peasants misinterpreted Luther's "we're equal in God's eyes," and, and first, Luther supported them against the lords, but when it got out of hand, Luther allowed nobles to crush them. The peasants drew up the 12 Articles. 75,000 were killed. Caused by cop failure and economic decline.
feudal system
a system of managing land
Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems. Two main functions: enforce royal orders and weaken the power of the regionl nobility.
Germany signs military alliance with Austria-Hungary.
When did they start to plant?
Lorenzo Valla
A humanist who used historical criticism to discredit an eighth-century document giving the papacy jurisdiction over Western lands.
Modern day in the Czech Republic. Capital is Prague. When Imperial agents went to Prague to deliver news of the Emperor's intention to restrict Calvinist practice in the area, Bohemian officials reacted by throwing the agents out of a 4th floor window, sparking the 30 Years War.
M.L. (Early Life)
University of Erfurt, Augustinian Monk, originally wanted to be a lawyer but gave up his studies after being struck by lightning
Toleration Act
1689 act of English Parliament; allowed Protestant Dissenters to practice their religion but still excluded them from political life and public service
Primary Source
an original source that informs directly, not through another person's explanation or interpretation
John Lock
He wrote "Two Treatises on Government"
the city to which Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire. This shifted all of the power to the East.
Aristide Briand
as a multinational treaty that prohibited the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defense.[1] It was the result of a determined American effort to avoid involvement in the European alliance system.
Francis Drake
William Cecil, chief advisor to Elizabeth
the process of rich landowners taking over and fence off land formerly shared by peasant farmers
Prince _________ (the __________) established the nation of _______ as a leader in knowledge about the seas.
Henry (the Navigator)/Portugal
Mary Wollstonecraft
English feminist author who wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
emperor; codified laws so same for everyone; had wall built across britian
L’interet general d’UE
capacite d’integration. Pour suivre l’appondrissements (integration) pas bloquer la fonctionnement. On va utiliser cette argument de la mesure ou l’adhesion ne doit pas bloquer l’UE. Que l’UE peut suspender les negotiations.
The largest lake in Italy is ___________
Who was Minerva?
The roman goddess of wisdom.
Federico Fellini
Italian director that made films of fantasy and boroque style
reign of terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Two countries on the Iberian Peninsula?
Portugal and Spain
taly into World War II, British Empire forces, together with patriot Ethiopian fighters, liberated Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign in 1941. This was followed by British recognition of full sovereignty, (i.e. without any special British privileges), with the signing of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in December 1944.
Louis XIII
Son of Henry IV, has Cardinal Richelieu to make all of his political decisions. Married to Anne of Austria, but he is gay, so they take fifteen years to produced Louis XIV. He fought with his mom a lot
Think who focused on using reason to change economics
10. Monroe Doctrine
guaranteeing the independence of the new Latin American nations and warning against any further European intervention in the New World
Juan Ponce de Leon
country worked for-spain goal-4G's, colonize Florida description of voyage-reached Florida, 1st to reach US mainland, failed to colonize, was killed
The first public theatre (1576) was called
The Theatre
Warsaw Pact
An organization of Central and Eastern European Communist states. It was established in 1955 to counter the alleged threat from the NATO alliance.
What was Anabaptism?
Anabaptism was a religion that believed in spiritual rebirth and adult baptism.
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929, when general panic set in that everyone with investments in the market tried to pull out of the market at once. This week and its aftermath marked the start of the Great Depression.
robber baron
a noble who robbed travelers passing through his lands
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
During the celebrations for the wedding between Huguenot Henry of Navarre and Catholic Princess Marguerite, Catholics, probably led by Catherine de Medici, attacked and massacred Huguenots in Paris and then all over the nation.
"Sun King"
Another name for Louis XIV, meant to relate him to the sun as a divine being.
What event started WWII in Europe?
Germany's invasion of Poland
Principia Mathematica
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton wrote this. It was filled with contributions to many areas of science, and included the three well-known laws of motion.
Avant Garde
The adjective form is used in English, to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.
180-192. Marcus' Son. Put on a lot of gladiatorial combat. Assassinated in 192, conspiracy with his wife
1. Christian Humanism
major goal was the reform of christianity.
The center of the Inca civilization was centered in which South American mountain range? This range runs through which modern nations?
Andes/Peru and Chile
Northern Renaissance
spread by the French invasion of Italy and Italian scholars- more interested in religious reform
Voting Rights Act, 1965
Suspended poll taxes, literacy tests and other voter tests designed to prevent blacks from voting. Blacks winning the right to vote changed the political landscape of the South forever.
What was Lutheranism?
Lutheranism was a religion founded by Martin Luther that believed we are saved by faith in God's promises and grace alone.
The Novocherkassk massacre
6/1962 - Grain shortage + Krushchev increasing price of meat and butter and demanding higher output from workers = decrease in pay
Henry VII
King of England and winner of the War of the Roses. He founded the Court of Star Chamber and was the first of the Tudor Dynasty in England.
Franco-Prussian war
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.
battle of verdun
Verdun was the longest battle and one of the most devastating in the First World War and more generally in human history. , lots of artillery
A right that belongs to all humans by being born
Natural right
16. Germanic confederation
had little power, came to serve as Metternich's instrument to repress revolutionary movements within the German States
42. Richard Arkwright's "water-frame"
powered by horse or water, which turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels
Writer of The Prince, a dark look at at power which influenced leader for the next 400 years.
Peter the Great
9 years old when chosen to become a czar. Had to flee Moscow, and established a new capitol in St. Petersburg. He is over 6ft tall. Had 1 son who he had thrown in jail where the son mysteriously died.
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty in 1555 between Charles V and Lutheran Princes that ended the religious struggle between the two groups, stating that the princes could decide what section of Christianity their land would follow
The salaried workers that were in charge of the grain supply, road repair and the postal system
Civil Servants or Civil Service
Oliver Cromwell (1599 - 1658)
Created New Model Army ; Led commonwealth England (1649 - 1653)
New York Times v. U.S
The government may not restrict the press from publishing what is labeled as"classified information" if the materials will not cause an inevitable, direct, andimmediate event imperiling the safety of American forces.
What led to the US entering WWI?
a. Zimmerman Telegram
b. sinking of the Lusitania
18. Frederick William the great Elector
laid the foundation for the Prussian state
Name three new types of technology used in WWI.
tanks and heavy artillery, poisonous gas and gas masks, airplanes with guns
How did the Cold War end?
Fall of the Berlin Wall and collapse of the Soviet Union.
Què és una autonomia?
Es una zona de l'estat a la que el govern central cedeix certs privilegis legislatius limitats. Juntament amb el govern central aprova un estatut que garanteix aquests privilegis i altres questions d'interés per a la autonomia.
Why did the Roman Catholic Church sell indulgences?
To raise money, especially to fund expensive building projects such as Saint Peter's in Rome
What were the Sacrosancta and the Frequens?
They were 2 reform decrees passed by the Council of Constance. The Sacrosancta decreed that everyone including the Pope was subject to its authority and the Frequens decreed that the council met regularly.
Qui va ser Prat de la Riba?
Enric Prat de la Riba va ser un dels màxims representants del catalanisme dels inicis del segle XX. Era el líder incial de "La Lliga" (desprès va ser substituit per Cambó) i va ser dirigent de la Mancomunitat de Catalunya (1914) i de la Diputació (1907).
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