European Middle Ages Flashcards

Terms Definitions
horse
knight
crusades
holy wars
clergy
religious officials
caliph
succecor to Muhammad
workers
peasants and serfs
manor
the lord's estate
Saint Patrick
went to Ireland
monasteries
religious communities for monks
holy roman empire
the germanic-italian empire
vernacular
everyday languages of ordinary people
Pax Mongolica
Peace of the Mongols
major domo
mayor of the palace
Charlemagne
the first Holy Roman Emperor
what is a synonym for serf
peasant
monastery
a christian community where people gave up private possessions and devoted their lives to serving god
Hulegu
Chinghis's grandson plundered Persia & Iraq
Pope
became the political figure in Italy
Muslims
Struck from the south, invading through Italy and Spain, expert seafarers, struck as far as Switzerland
Troubadours
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
secular
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
sacraments
the important religious ceremonies of the Catholic Church
lord
landowner granted land called a fief
Treaty of Verdun
divided Charlamagne's former empire into three parts
knights
mounted horsemen who pledged to defend the lords' land in exchange for fiefs
great schism
the great division of the church
Charlegmane
ruler of Western Europe in early 800s
Middle Ages
The yearsbetween ancient and modern tines ( yrs. 500 (ancient) 1500 (modern))
Cowardly Knight
armor was stripped
shield was cracked
sword broken over head
put in coffin and brought to the church
mock funeral service
Serfs
rural laborers, or peasants, who were not allowed to move away from the land on which they worked
sacrament
one of the christian ceremonies in which god's grace is transmitted to people
Interdict
an order that said that many sacraments could not be performed in the king's land
convents
the religious way of life for nuns
Tortoise
moved slowly on wheels and sheltered soldiers from falling arrows
The Church
The shared beliefs bonded people together especially in all the turmoil and warfare. Priests and other clergy administered the sacrements. Religious holidays were occasions for festive celebrations. Her authority was both religious and political. Created a system of justice to guide people's conduct. All medieval Christians, kings, and peasants, were subject to canon law. The two harshest punishments were excommunication and interdict.
fief
land granted to a vassal in exchange for protection
parliament
a legislative group made of 2 citizens of wealth from every borough
Model Parlament
A council of lords, clergy, common people that advisedthe English king on government matters
apprentice
an unpaid person training in a craft or trade
Ascetics
men who went into the wilderness to avoid to temptation of the world and lived a life of denial and seclusion- influence the monastic movement
Lay investiture
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.
Clovis
the Christian leader of the Franks who had united them into one kingdom in 511
Agincourt
a battle in northern France in which English longbowmen under Henry V decisively defeated a much larger French army in 1415
Benedict
480?-543, at 15 he left school and hiked up to the Sabine Hills, where he lived as a hermit. His way of learning became the basis of all moastaries
Lombard League
An alliance of Italian merchants and the pope against Frederick I when he continually invaded Italy. At the Battle of Legnano, they faced Frederick's army of mounted knights. In an astonishing victory, they won and footsoldiers were able to defeat feudal knights using crossbows for the first time in history.
john wycliffe
preached that only jesus was the true head of the church, not the pope
John
king of England in 1215 was forced to approve the Magna Carta, which limited him the power of the king and established the rights English freeman
Chess
it taught how to plan a battle- to anticipate and counter an opponent
Inquisition
a church court set up to try people accused of heresy
Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German
Louis's three sons
Literature of Chivalry
Many stories of this timed idealized castle life. They glorified knighthood and chivalry, tournaments and real battles. Songs and poems about a knight's undying love for a lady were also very popular. Feudal lords and their ladies enjoyed listening to epic poems that recounted a hero's deeds and adventures. Many told the stories of King Arthur and Charlemagne. The Song of Roland is one of the oldest and most famous medieval epic poems.
100 Year War, Part 2
DEE
-decline of religious faith and code of chivalry
-effectivness of longbow
-english king's neet to met with government raised war funds
Roman Catholic Church
This powerful religion led by the Pope exerted considerable control over European society during the Middle Ages
The Art of Courtly Love
primarily followed by the nobility
expresses love and admiration
Philip Augustus
A ruler of France from 1180- 1223, who expanded the king's income and power by invading and gaining more lands- Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine.
Normandy (Northmen's land)
the fief Charles the Simple of France gave the Vikings
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
Charles the Simple
King of France but held little power. In 911 faced Rollo in a peace ceremony. Gave Rollo a piece of French territory, became known as Northmen's land, or Normandy. Rollo swore allegiance to him in return.
Gregory I
In 590, he became pope. As head of the curch of Rome, he broadened the papacy beyond its spiritual role. It also became secular, or wordly. The pope's palace was the center of Roman government. He used the church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor. Negotiated treaties with invaders such as the Lombards. According to him, the region from Italy to England and from Spain to Germany, fell under his power.
"town air makes free"
reside in town 1 year & 1 day = legally free
rook
castle
Karakorum
Mongol capital
haji
pilgrimage to mecca
Visigoths
settle in Spain
Justinian
famous Byzantine emporor (527-565)
Plate Armor
heavier (more protection)
100lbs
Tithe
church tax 10% of income
vassel
served lord of higher rank
medieval
referring to the Middle Ages
Bishops
supervised priests and settled disputes over Church teachings and religious practices
Charter
a document incorporating an institution and specifying its rights
the name charlemagne means
charles the great
the canterbury tales
written by geoffrey chaucher
suzerain
noble or clerical lord owed service
prayers
men and women of the church
Vassal
A knight who promised provides military services exchange for land
feudalism
A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life
tournament
the festival that involves mock combat
all of these frankish leaders were part of the carolingian dynasty except: clovis, charlemagne, louis the pious, charles the bald
clovis
second crusade
christians failed to recapture the crusader state of edessa from the turks
saladin
a kurdish warrior and muslim leader, took jerusalem in 1187
gothic architecture
new architecture from germanic tribes, mostly applied to churches
Ain Jalut
site Mongol defeat by Egyptian sultanate
Gothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
illuminated manuscripts
highly decorated books produced by monks
Reconquista
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
Dialects
As Germanic peoples mixed with the Roman population, dialects of Latin formed. By the 800's French, Spanish, and other Latin based languages had developed
canon law
the body of codified ecclesiastical law, esp. of the Roman Catholic Church as promulgated in ecclesiastical councils and by the pope.
Pilgram
A person who journeys to a sacred place
building empires
in western europe, the roman empire fell apart into many small kingdoms. during the middle ages, two powerful leaders- Charlemagne and Otto the great- tried to revive the idea of empire. they both allied with the church.
Charles Martel
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages.
Knight
warrior on a horseback who promised to defend his lord's land in exchange for a fief
Crècy
First major battle of the Hundred Year War, English archers defeated the French army and force the French king to give up some of his kingdom.
a book of rules to be used for governing monasteries was written by
benedict
magna carta
a document John was forced to sign guaranteeing certain political rights
Medieval Ladies
managed the manor while the lords were away
Frederick
First ruler to call his lands the holy roman empire
Clothilde
the wife of Clovis who urged him to convert to her own faith (a traditional form of Christianity)
Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor who argued with the pope over lay investiture
Pope Gelasius I
In 500 he recognized the conflicts that would arise between church and state. He wrote. "There are two powers by which this world is chiefly ruled: the sacred authority of the priesthood and the authority of kings." Made the analogy of religion and politics being two swords. He thought the pope should bow to the emperor in political matters. In turn, the emperor bow to the pope in religious matters. If this remained so, they could live in harmony.
troubadour
one of a class of medieval lyric poets who flourished principally in southern France from the 11th to 13th centuries, and wrote songs and poems of a complex metrical form in langue d'oc, chiefly on themes of courtly love.
william the conquerer
won a battle against england and then declared all of england his personal property
Peter the Hermit
A small man who wore monk's robes; gathered an "Army" of common people
page at 7
they would wait on their hosts and learn manors
would practice fighting skills
learned chess for war strategies
Common law
a body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nation's legal system
Pepin the Short
the son of Charles Martel who agreed with the Church to fight the Lombards
Avignon
city that was home of the popes for 67 years. city where Church was "held captive"
Frederick I
By 1152, the 7 princes who elected the German ruler knew they needed a strong one to keep the peace. They chose him, his nickname was Barbarossa for his red beard. The first to call his lands the Holy Roman Empire. Dominated the princes. He repeatedly invaded the rich cities of Italy. His brutal tactics spurred Italian merchants to unite against him. He also angered the pope, who joined the merchants in an alliance known as the Lombard League. In 1176 the Lombard League faced his army at the Battle of Legnano. The Italians won. In 1177, he made peace with the pope and returned to Germany. His defeat undermined his authority with the princes. After he drowned in 1190, his empire fell to pieces.
The Kingdom of Songhai
The West African kingdom that was the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa
life of peasant people
peasants paid a tax on all grain ground in the lord's mill. Any attempt to avoid taxes was a crime. Peasants also paid a tax on marriage. Weddings could take place only with the lord's consent. They also had to pay a tithe, or church tax. They lived in crowded cottages. Usually only one or two rooms, they had a simple diet. Avg. life expectancy was 35 years, most didn't travel more than 25 miles from home. Many children did not survive to adulthood.
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