European Middle Ages Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tithe
church tax
clergy
religious officials
Canon Law
church law
khans
Turco-Mongolian tribal leaders
Weapons
crossbows
broad swords
battles axes
maces
Temujin
original name Chinghis Khan
Burghers
Merchant class town dwellers
Serf
another name for a peasant
Griots
professional poets in West Africa
Mongols
nomadic worriors conqured most Eurasia
Monk's Vows
poverty chastity and obedience
serfs
peasants tied to the land
Monasteries
religious communities were christian men called monks gave up their private possessions and devoted their lives to serving God. They became Europe's best educated communities. Monks opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books. In 731, the Venerable Bede, an English monk, wrote a histry of England. Scholars today still consider them the best histories of the early Middle Ages. In the 600's and 700's, monks made beautiful copies of religious writings. Women who followed this way of life were called nuns and lived in convents.
Bubonic Plague
FCPODS
-1/3 of the population died
-families torn apart by fear
-decline of trade & ag. w/out workers
-prices rose
-serfs demanded better wages and left manors to find them
-church loses power because of the inability to heal the sick
Tributary States
while states remained independent, their rulers had to acknowledge Chinese supremacy and send regular tribute to the Tang emporor
Romaneque
italy and southern europe
roman stylye
solid stone looked like a fortress
arches
dark and gloomy
benedict
Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order about 540 (480-547)
Troubadours
poet-musicians at the castles and courts of Europe
Aachen
Capital of Charlemagne's empire, c. 800; a city in present-day Germany
who was cheifly responsible for increasing the church's secular role during the middle ages
gregory I
Charlemagne
crowned emporer by pope leo III, reunited western europe
Magyars
group of nomadic people who overran italy attacking isolated villages on horseback
The Ottoman Empire
Turkish-speaking nomadic people who had migrated from central asia
the middle ages
1000-1300 CE-faint beginnings modern Europe
merchants-free farmers-craftsmen
provided people with goods and services
Canute
danish king who conquered england in 1016, molding anglo-saxons and vikings into one people.
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
lay investiture
the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles
Crusades
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
vassal
person receiving a feif from a lord
excommunication
Banishment from the church, was used by the church to wield power over political rulers. For example, a disobedient king's quarrle with a pope might result in it. This meant the king would be denied salvation. It also freed all the king's vassals from their duties to him. If the king continued to disobey the pope, the pope could use the interdict
third crusade
truse signed by Richard and Saladin, allowed christians to visit jerusalem
Justinian Code
commission to collect and organize the laws of ancient Romw
troubadour
a traveling poet and muician of the Middle Ages
Saint Scolastica
Benedict's sister and she started a convent
she had the same rules as Benedictine for women
Hugh capet
Frankish nobility elected him to serve as the king - this started the Capetian Kings
bubonic plague effects
social: avoidance of others, jews migrate to east europe
political: government goes to chaos, leadership shake up, end of feudalism and serfdom
religious: questioning of the church, hedonism, flagellant, increased antisemitism
economic: inflation, less farmland
middle ages
the era in european history that followed the fall of the roman empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500 - also called the medieval period
crossbows
it was used by infantry during the Battle of Legnano to defeat feudal knights
Otto I
the most effective ruler of medieval Germany
Loss of learning
Germanic invaders who stormed Rome could not read or write. Knowledge of the Greek language decreased extremely and only priests and other church officials were literate. Germanic tribes however, had a rich oral tradition of songs and legends, but no written language.
Fief
grant of land from a lord in exchange for protection
Joan of Arc
Religous peasant girl who led French forces to victory over the English in several battles of the Hundreds Years' War; captured by England's allies andexecuted for witchcraft by the English
Samurai
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy (japanese version of a knight)
what provided the origin of the english common law?
royal courts of justice
power and authority
weak rulers and the decline of central authority led to a feudal system of relationships. under this system, local lords with large estates assumed power. the church too played a growing role in government affairs. this led to power struggles between political leaders and popes.
effects of commercial revolution
more workers needes, more banking and lending services available, merchants wealth expanded,
Treaty of Verdun
In 843, Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German, all brothers and sons of Louis the Pious, after fighting for control of the empire, divided the empire into three kingdoms.
Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer)
a major domo who extended Frankish reign and defeated a Muslim raiding party from Spain at the Battle of Tours
the treaty of verdun ended
civil war in the empire established by charlemagne
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