European Renaissance and Reformation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Renaissance
rebirth
annul
to cancel or set aside
perspective
technique that shows three dimensions on a flat surface
Humanism
a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Anglican
relating to the Church of England
Anabaptist
in the Reformation, a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and in separation of church and state.
Presbyterian
a member of a Protestant Church governed by elders (Presbyters) and founded on the teachings of John Knox
Utopia
An imaginary land decribed by Thomas More in his book Utopia (an ideal place).
Defined secularism
Secularism comes from the word secular, meaning of this world. Medieval civilization had been largely concerned with religion and the next world. The new economic and political horizons and opportunities that were opening up for Western Europe in the High and Late Middle Ages got people more interested in this world. During the Renaissance people saw this life as worth living for its own sake, not just as preparation for the next world. The art in particular exhibited this secular spirit, showing detailed and accurate scenery, anatomy, and nature, whereas medieval artists generally ignored such things since their paintings were for the glory of God. This is not to say that Renaissance people had lost faith in God. Religion was still the most popular theme for paintings. But during the Renaissance people found other things worth living for besides the afterlife.
Council of Trent
meeting of roman catholic leaders called by pope paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by protestant reformers
Jesuits
members of the society of jesus, a roman catholic religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola
Leonardo Da Vinci
A painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist.
Protestants
Were another break off of the Catholic Church that was lead by the protesting German princes
Catholic Reformation
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
King Henry VIII
A king that was young, strong, handsome and intelligent also he loved sports, literature, music and food.
Excommunication
This is when a person or persons are expelled from the catholic church and no person belonging to the curch is allowed to help said person or persons out.
Michaleangelo
He sculptured the David.
patrons
A person who supports artists.
patron
a person who supports artists, especially financially
theocracy
A government controlled by religious leaders
indulgence
a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin
johann gutenberg
developed Printing Press and printed the Bible...books became cheaper, easier to produce and more available..
Reformation
a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope's authority.
Anabaptists
These were people that believed that church and state should be separate, that if ou were baptized as a child you should also be baptized as an adult, they refused to fight in wars, they would not wer wedding rings, and they shared their possessions with others. But both the Catholic Church and the Protestants believed that the Anabaptist were extremists andpersecuted them. but the Anabaptists somehow survived and they became the forerunners of the Mennontes and the Amish. They also had strong inluences on the Quakers and the Baptists.
vernacular
the everyday language of people in a region or country
Calvinism
a body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin
predestination
the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
Protestant
a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation.
Lutherans
Were a break off of the Catholic Church lead by Luther who demanded reforms.
Gutenburg Bible
The first full sized book printed with movable type and a printing press.
Define/characterize and explain Huguenots
Huguuenots were the followers of calvin that lived in France. They were often on harsh terms with the catholic Religion the most violent being on August 1572 the feast of St. Bartholomew. Catholics were hunting and murdering as many Protestants as the could find. The killings lasted 6 months after that day and at the end up to 12 thousand Protestants and Hugenots were killed.
Luther's 95 Theses--W5 (who, what, when, where, why?
Luther's 95 Theses were written on October 31, 1517 to Tetzel and he posted them on the door of the castle of Wittenberg. Luther wrothe the theses in response toTetzel's tactics of making money by selling people pardons.
List and explain Luther's three main teachings
1. People could win salvation ony by the faith in God's gift of forgiveness. The church taught that faith and good works were needed for salvation. This means that the only way into heaven is to figive and live the teachingf God.
2. All church teachings hould be based onthe words of the Bible. The pop and church traditions were fase authorities. This means that what the church is doing is wrong and that what they should be doing is what is found in the bible not something they made up.
3. All people of the faith were created equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the bible for them. This means that everyone is equal in Gods eys and no peson is any more holy than the next, so priests should act the same as any other person.
Presbyterians
followers of John Knox
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Edict of Nantes
A declaration of religious toleration issued by French King Henry of Navarre in 1598.
Renaissance Woman
A woman who was knowledgable in the classics and were expected to inspire art but rarely except for a few cases make it. They had many traits such as being charming and being educated better then normal women.
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Why were people angry with the Catholic Church?
Because of the Catholic Church's practices of indulgences, simony, the pope's infallible authority
Who, what, when, where did the Council of Trent occur?
The council of Trent was a meeting where they decided very important condemnations.
1. The church had a final say on what the bible meant
2. Any other interpretations were heresy.
3.. You need faith and good works to get into heaven
4. You could not get into heaven on just faith.
5. The bible and the church traditions were equally powerful authorities of guiding the Christian life
6. The Four Indulgences were valid acts of faith (but selling false indulgences were banned)
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