Vocab 817 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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occipital lobe
vision
replicate
repeat reproduce copy
Neuron
a nerve cell
action potential
a nueral impulse
Hallucinations
Perceptions expieriencede in the absence of external stimuli
hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
intelligence test
measures general mental ability
Personality Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
gender-typing
the acquisition of a tradition
Cognitive view
The psychological perspective emphasizing mental processes, such as learning, memory, perception, and thinking, as forms of information processing.
Interpertation
In psychoanalysis, the therapist's attempts to explain the inner significance of the client's thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors.
Phobias
Excessive fears of particular objects or situations
impaired functioning
difficulty in fulfilling appropriate and expected family, social, and work-related roles
John Watson
the researcher of classical conditioning famous for conditioning an 11month old baby to fear white rats
Biopsychosocial Approach
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
variables
factors that can change or vary
Shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
constructive coping
relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events
frustration-aggression hypothesis
according to this hypothesis, frustration occurs in situations in which people are prevented or blocked from attaining their goals; a rise in frustrations then leads to a greater probability of aggression
hypothalamus
below the thalamus. Directs body maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) and governs endocrine system via pituitary gland
malingering
deliberately feigning of illness for personal gain
Aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
Burnout
A gradually intensifying pattern of physical, psychological, and behavioral dysfunction in response to a continuous flow of stressors.
Nervous System
the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
regression
in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that involves reverting to immature behaviors taht have relieved anxiety in the past.
Discrimination
The unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their race, ethnic group, age, gender, or membership in another category rather than on the basis of individual characteristics
schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions
developmental psychology
psychological specialty that studies how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. (Adapted from Dement, 1999).
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 767)
Anxious-fearful cluster (Cluster C)
dependent, obsessive-compulsive, and avoidant personality disorders
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 358)
babblings
the 1st sounds infants make that resemble speech
theroy
testable explanation for set of facts or observations
debrief
to elict information about a completed procedure
castration anxiety
anxiety resulting from real or imagined threats to your sexual functions
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
biopsychosocial model
asserts that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
Self-Serving Bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
glial cells
supportive cells of nervous system that guide growth of new neurons; forms myelin sheath; holds neuron in place; provides nourishment and removes waste
medulla
structure at base of brain stem responsible specifically for breathing and heartbeat
Self-Regulation
The ability to control one?s emotions and behavior.
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Opiates
painkiller drugs such as morphine and heroine- derived from poppy plant.
estrogen
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
plato
correctly located the mind in the spherical head.
reticular formation
a pencil-shaped structure forming the core of the brain stem; arouses the cortex to keep the brain alert and attentive to new stimulation
fear
a rational reaction to an objectively identified external danger that may induce a person to flee or attack in self-defense
Delusions
Fixed but patently false beliefs, such as believing that one is being hounded by demons,
Heterosexual
Referring to sexual motivation that is focused on members of the other sex.
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
Artificial Intelligence
the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes suchs as reasoning and understanding language
Backward Conditioning
occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows an unconditioned stimulus.
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found in men
The psychological vies of William James are to those of Edward Titchener as ____________ is to __________________.
functionalism; structuralism
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 756)
Gestalt Therapy
An active treatment designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feelings and disown foreign ones.
situation variables
according to Mischel, an influence on our behavior derived from our history of experience with the enviorment
escape conditioning
training an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus. Their behavior causes an unpleasant event to stop and so they continue that behavior. They make the correct new response to stop delivery of the undesired stimulus.
Control Condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment(aka. The "dont do anything/ do everything normally"condition)
Explicit memory
Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled
central tendency
attempt to mark the center of distribution
Critical Period
An interval during which certain kinds of growth must occur if development is to proceed normally.
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor our own group
Oedipus Complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
monism
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
Social Referencing
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
cognitive therapy
the use of specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders; therapy that treats problem behaviors and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs
trichromatic
Theory of vision, that the eye must contain three receptors that are sensitive to red, blue and green colors. Suggested by Young and von Helmholtz.
role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
lateral hypothalamus
The part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signals
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
synapse
the microscopic gap that serves as a communications link between neurons; also occur between neurons and the muscles or glands they serve
phallic stage
in Freud's theory, the stage of personality developemnt, between ages 3 and 5, during which the child gains pleasure from the genitals and must resolve the Oedipus complex.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
A type of anxiety disorder involving the repeated occurance of obsessions and/or compulsions.
Womb Envy
Men who envy women: Realizing they cannot bear children and that they often play only a small role in raising them males see their lives as having less meaing/substance then woman's.
Reality testing
a test of negative beliefs to prove/disprove validity
Eidetic Imagery
A form of memory, often called photographic memory, which consists of especially vivid visual recollections of material.
Molecular Genetics
the subfeild of biology that studies and asseses the molecular structure and function of genes.
Trait Approach
a perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of characteristics that people dispaly over time and across situations
Posthypnotic Suggestions
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
conditional positive regard
value and acceptance are accorded only when an individual meets our standards or does what we specifically direct
Autonmic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart).
Babies who sleep on their right side of their head are likely to be
right handed
peripheral route persuasion
attitude change paths in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
elaboration likelihood model
a theory of persuasion that defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognitive processes to elaborate upon a message and therefore follow the central and peripheral routes to persuasion
The Middle Ear
Area just beyond the eardrum that contains the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup.
Algorithms
a means of solving a problem, which if implemented correctly and appropriately guarantees an accuratesolution.
frontal lobe
part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goal-directed behavior, and appropirate emotional experiences
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Self-consistency bias
The commonly held idea that we are more consistent in our attitudes, opinions, and beliefs than we actually are.
psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
trichromatic theory
a theory about how/why we see color. Hypothesizes that we have 3 types of cones in retina that detect primary colors of light.
lateralization of emotion
different influences of the two brain hemispheres on various emotions. the left hemisphere influences positive emotions, and the right influences negative
weber's law
the prinicple that to be percieved as different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percent (rather than a constant amount)
Predictive Validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (also called criterion-related validity).
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Rorschach Inkblot Test
a sequence of ten inkblots, each of which the participant is asked to observe and then characterize. Different aspects of the participant's descriptions, such as form and movement of objects, are scored to yield an evaluation of the participant's personality
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
Life Experience Survey (LES)
measure life events, and also people's perceptions, or cognitive appraisal, of how positive or negative events were, how controllable they were, and how well they were able to cope with the events.
stage of resistance
second stage of the GAS, during which the body adapts to and uses resources to cope with a stressor
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent ex. when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
bottom up processing
when you use only the features of the onject itself to build a complete perception
What is random assignment and how does it help the validity of an experiment?
Random asignment is the random selection of subjects to increase validity. It increases validity because it is random and clusters of similar data will not develop
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