Exam GEOL Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Caldera
Collapsed volcano
Chemical/Biochemical sedimentary rocks
LimestonesChertsEvaporitesCoal
paleoenvironment cross beds represent
...
MineralsEx
occur naturally, inorganic solidsgranite
Were the first tetrapods fast?
no
base level
lower limit of downcutting
Porphrytic
• Fine matrix (groundmass) with large embedded visible crystals. • Initially, slowly cooled and forms large visible crystals.• Then flash cooled maybe extruded to surface and forms fine matrix
Tides:
daily oscillations in sea level
Know Normal Fault
*caused by tension
**PICTURE**
number of naturally occuring elements
92
ferromagnesian silicates
The same as dark silicates
size
By definition, stocks differ from batholiths in ____.
dendritic drainage
occurs in uniformly erodable rock
clade
group of organisms with common ancestor
How do rocks deform?
Elastic deformationDuctile/Plastic deformationBrittle deformation
cT air mass:
Continental tropical: hot, dry
Fe2+ is found in ____ environments.
oxygen-poor
What region corresponds to "PACKSTONE, and WACKESTONE" rocks?

A)reef
B) slope
C) lagoon
C) lagoon
Earthquake
ground displacement and energy release associated with the sudden motion of rocks along a fault
porosity
how much pore space the rock contains
Neutron
a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. the neutron is electrically neutral, with a mass approximately equal to that of a proton
jetties
_____ are rock walls designed to protect the entrance of a harbor from sediment deposition and storm waves.
Turbidity current:
sediment collapses during a slope failure, which forms a dense mixture of water and sediment. Flow down-slope as fast-moving slurries called turbidity currents.
true
Laurasia and Gondwana formed as a result of the splitting of Pangea into two super continents (true or false)
what is not a defining characteristic of a species?
time
Paleozoic Era
570 to 245 MYA • Dominant large animals: Amphibians/fish• Continents mostly together, similar animals and plant species, flat-few mountain ranges, large, warm, clear, shallow seas. • Appalachians form 350 to 400 MYA.
Pre-Cambrian
 
4.6 byo - 540 myo
86% of time
Sedimentary rocks
Rocks that formed through erosion, transportation, deposition, cementation, other physical processesMajority of surface rockOften fossiliferous
rigid zone
the upper part of the glacier
1-8b Lithosphere
Solid, strong, and rigidCrust and uppermost part of mantle
hotspots
local areas of hot mantle apparently unrelated to plate movement
What are some nonrenewable resources?
fuels and metal
formation of glaciers
accumulation of snow leads to compaction; cementation (by ice) of ice granules produces firn; further compaction and recrystallization produces ice
plastic flow involves 2processes:
-rearrangement of water molecules within the crystal lattice
-the slipping of ice crystals past one another
delta
The body of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river when the river's velocity decreases.
What is recrystallization?
-The formation of new crystalline mineral grains from old ones
derived traits
something that evolved out of the primitive condition; a trait that evolved later and occurs in only some of the members of a lineage
French Frigate Shoals
worlds biggest mountainsmore than 50 extinct volcanos
Three classes of sedimentary rock
1. Clastic2. Chemical3. Organic
Fleck
Basalt Flows on Yucca Mountain can be dated to determine how recently volcanic activity occurred.
recumbent fold
-overturned to such an extent that the limbs are essentially horizontal-found in the cores of mountain ranges such as the Canadian Rockies
What is the environment that corresponds to "LAGOON" deposition?
Medium wave energy
Continental drift
the concept that the continenets have moved about over the earth's surface
What do plants do to survive?
Shed leaves and branches
historical geology
a major division of geology that deals with the origin of Earth and its development through time. Usually involves the study of fossils and their sequence in rock beds
Scoria cones form when:
basaltic magma contains dissolved gas. Magma contains less gas when it reaches the surface and erupts as a flow.
What is Groundwater used for?
50% drinking water, 40% irrigation
Thera... continued...
- coincides with the exodus of the Children of Israel from Egypt - may lie at the center of the legend of Atlantis, the empire described by Plato that was swallowed up by the sea
Law of Horizontality
states that all strata are horizontal when they form or that almost all strata are initially more nearly horizontal than vertical
Effects of Land Use ChangesUrban Buildup
increases impervious cover
 inc. lower magnitude flood frequency
reduces lag time of flooding
plate
a large, mobile slab of rock that is part of Earth's surface
Plate tectonics
the theory that holds that the rigid lithosphere is broken up in to a series of movable plates
cost and advantages of geothermal
While the construction of geothermal plants are very costly, creating electricity from that point onwards is quite cheap.
The main disadvantages of geothermal power is that it's only viable in limited geographical areas due to the depth of the hot rocks and the availability of water.
Where is recrystallization especially common?
-In limestone formed by coral reefs
-Calcium carbonate crystals in the fossilized reef change from their original form to the more stable calcite
New Fernando Earthquake
- 1971- 6.5 magnitude- half a billion dollars in damage
What three orogenies formed the Appalachian Mountains?
1) Acadian: Devonian (oldest)
2) Caledonian
3) Alleghenian: Permian (youngest)
internal causes for slope failure...
inherintly weak materials, water in different roles, decreasing cohesion, adverse geologic structures
Earth system
A term used to describe th Earth as a set of closely interacting systems, including sub-systems, the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
Problems associates with GW withdrawl
• Water table height is effected by amount of water going into and coming out of aquifer• Severe droughts and over usage of wells can cause long term decreases in water table height
Natural metal purification:
The metal bonds with sulfur in a hot liquid environment and settles to the bottom of the liquid.
Explain the Agaophyton
it grew up to 1 m tall, it was slender, most have grown in shallow water or thick clumps
What happens when water flows in channels?
-Particles are moved in several ways
-The largest particles, which form the bed load, roll or slide along the stream bed
-Smaller particles move along the stream bed by saltation
What did short wave solar radiation due to H2O and NH3? what was the result?
Short wave solar radiation decomposed H2O and NH3 and resulted in molecular O2 and N2
What is a Yazoo tributary?
A tributary that goes through a back swamp before it joins the stream again
What is the zone of aeration?
An Area above the water table which includes the capillary fringe and the belt of soil moisture
Highest part of the storm surge
is the right hand side of the eye
what is the N. American Cordillera?
- over 70% of the mountains of western N.A. have been added or "accreted" to N.A. over the past 200 million years
What are the three basic types of slope failures?
-Fall - a sudden vertical, or nearly vertical, drop of rock fragments or debris
-Slides - involve rapid displacement of a mass of rock or sediment in a straight line down a steep or slippery slope
-Slump - involves rotational movement of rock and regolith (downward and outward movement along a curved surface)
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