EXAM HESI BIOLOGY Flashcards

Terms Definitions
PLANTS
AUTOTROPHS
CELL DEATH
APOPTOSIS
AUTOSOMAL
NOT SEX-LINKED
Cellular Respiration energy
C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O
describe cyanobacteria
blue-green bacteria
example of genius
Homo
1 MILLIMETER
0.001 METER
UNIT OF ORGANIZATION
CELL
describe euryarchaeota
methanogens and halophiles
PLASMA MEMBRANE
A LIPIDPROTEINCARBOHYDRATE COMPLEX
PROVIDES A BARRIER AND T-PORT SIGNALING SYSTEMS
Hydrophobic Tails
Water fearing called NON-POLAR
Dominant Allele
The letter is capitalized
Kingdom determines
whether plant or animal
telomere
the end of a chromosome
CELL MEMBRANE
COMPOSED PRIMIARILY OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
CHROMATIN
PROTEINDNA COMPLEX MAKING THE CHROMOSOME
CHROMOSOMES
FOUND INSIDE THE CELL'S NUCLEUS
VIRUSES
INTRACELLULAR PARASITES REQUIRES HOST CELLS TO REPRODUCE.
AGONIST
ACTIVATES A RECEPTOR; BINDS RECEPTOR;NEGATIVE FEEDBACK INACTIVATES RECEPTORGENERATES CELLULAR RESPONSE
Cytoplasma
A watery suspension called cytosol inside the cell that the organelles are suspended.
Which of the following biologic macromolecules are most important to the cellular membrane?
Phospholipids
describe kindom animalia
complex, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that digest food outside of cells. mostly consume other organisms for nutrients.
electrophoresis
a technique of seperating charged molecules in a matrix to which an electrical field is applied.
which fat/lipid type is often components of cellular membranes
steroids
polymer
a molecule composed of repeated subunits
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
OBSERVE THE SITUATION
ASK A QUESTION
TURN QUESTION INTO A TESTABLE HYPOTHESISPREDICT THE OUTCOME OF YOUR EXPERIMENTPERFORM EXPANAYLZE RESULTSEVALUATE HYPOTESIS
ORGANELLE SERVES AS A PRIMARY PACKAGING AREA FOR MOLECULES
GOLGI
INTERPHASE
TWO SIMILAR DAUGHTER CELLS ARE PRODUCED AND COMPLETE DNA INSTRUCTIONS IN THE CELL MUST BE DUPLICATED DURING SYNTHESIS S
CHEMOTAXIS
WHITE BLOOD CELLS MIGRATE TOWARD BACTERIA
Steroids
last of the lipids, component of membrane, precursors to significant hormones
Long chains of polymers of sugar. Their purpose is storage, structural and energy
Carbohydrates
ecology
the study of the interactions of organisms with their environment and with each other
describe kingdom protista
single celled eukaryotic organisms. more complex then bacteria, include protozoans and some types of algea.
describe kingdom monera
most primitive. encompasses all bacteria, single celled prokaryotic organisms
catalyst
a substance that promotes a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy of a chemical reaction, but which itself remains unaltered at the end of the reaction.
DIOECIOUS
ORGANISMS PRODUCE ONLY ONE TYPE OF GAMETE; HUMANS
TEM
LIMIT OF RESOLUTION OF 2NM FLOURESCENT SCREEN
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
LACK ENCLOSED ORGANELLES HAVE FLAGELLA FOR LOCOMOTION OR HAIR LIKE PILI FOR ADHESION.
Cellular Reproduction
Cells produce in 3 different processes and fall into 2 categories sexual and asexual (splits daughters)
Membranous organelle found attached to the nuclear membrane and consist of 2 continuous parts--rough and smooth.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
These are components of the molecule of inheritance - DNA & RNA used in the transfer and as a messenger in most species of the genetic code.
Necleir Acids
Contains DNA of the cell in organized masses called chromosomes which contain all the material for the regeneration of the cell as well as instruction for the function of the cell.
Nucleus
protein kinase
an enzyme that adds phosphate groups to a protein molecule at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues
what r the largest of the biological molecules
proteins
autosome
a chromosome that is not involved in sex determination
flanking region
The DNA sequences extending on either side of a specific locus or gene
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same linear arrangement of genes. a pair of matching chromosomes in a diploid organism
what is cytoplasm
fluid w/in cell membrane contains substances that are used by the cell to create energy. 80-97% water
MEMBRANE VALVES THAT OPEN AND CLOSE FOR POTASSIUM EFFLUX AND SODIUM INFLUX
ION CHANNELS
CYTOSKELETON
HELPS MAINTAIN CELL SHAPE BUT PRIMARY IMPORTANCE IS IN CELL MOTILITY. THE INTERNAL MOVEMENT OF THE CELL ORGANELLES, AS WELL AS CELL LOCOMOTION AND MUSCLE FIBER CONTRACTION.
LOW POWER OBJECTIVE LENS
MAGNIFIES 10X - ON NOSEPIECE
CARRIER PROTEINS
GLUCOSE T-PORT BY A PLASMA MEMBRANE CARRIER PROTEIN
MITOCHONDRIA
SURROUNDED BY A SERIES OF FOLDS CALLED CRISTAE.
FUNCTIONS: ENERGY PRODUCTION--THRU METABOLISM CONTAINS ITS OWN DNA IS A CAPTURED BACTERIUM
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
Energy used by all cells, organic molecule containing high energy phosphate bonds. We get ATP by breaking the high energy bonds
retrovirus
a member of a class of RNA viruses that utilizes the enzyme reverse transcriptase to reverse copy it's genome into a DNA intermediate, which integrates into the hostcell chromosome.
describe passive diffusion
small molecules pass through the cell membrane by using only a small amount of energy
OCULAR MICROMETER
GLASS DISK WITH A RULED SCALE THAT FITS INTO A MICROSCOPE EYEPIECE. USED TO MEASURE THE SIZE OF OBJECTS.
MUTATATION
CHANGE IN THE DNA SEQUENCE OF A GENE TO SOME NEW, HERITABLE FORM
HETEROTROPHS OTHER FEEDERS
OBTAIN ENERGY FROM OTHER AUTOTROPHS OR HETEROTROPHS.
ANIMAL CELL
DO NOT HAVE CHLOROPLAST OR A CELL WALL
How could water be boiled at room tempature?
Lower the pressure
What is the function of glucocorticoids that are secreted from the adrenal cortex?
Carbs, protein, and fat metabolism
what are nucleic acids
part of the molecule inhereted through reproduciton, DNA & RNA.
3 domains ( super kingdoms) of living organisms
bacteria, archea, eukarya
proteins are made up of how many molecules and what are they called
20, amino acids
primary cell
a cell or cell line that is taken directly from a living organism, which is not immortalized
CYTOTOXIC T CELL
PLAYS A PRIMARY ROLE IN ATTACKING AND KILLING CANCER CELLS
when are dideoxynucleotides used
in DNA sequencing and the treatment of viral diseases
what is a phospholipid
2 fatty acids bound to a phosphate group. 1 end of phosphate chain is polar, and the other end is nonpolar= the 2 ends are attracted to each other forming a barrier around the cell.
what kindoms are eukaryotic cells and what r the 5 features
protists, plants, fungi, animalssubdivided by internal membranes, DNA enclosed by membrane-bound nucleus, DNA organized into chromosomes, cytoplasm surrounds the nucleus and organelles, plant cells & yeasts cells & protists have cell wall animals dont.
what does the endomembrane or cytomembrane system consist of
ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER, golgi body, vesicles, lysosomes, peroxisomes
SOLVENT IN CONTACT WITH AMINO ACIDS
VERY HYDROPHILIC AND IN CONTACT WITH THE, SIDE CHAIN OF LYSINE AND HAS A MARKED HYDROCARBON CHARACTER.
what do ribosomes do in the endo/ctomembrane system
small structures made of RNA and protein that assemble protein chains. can be free in cytoplasm or bound to the ER
what does the smooth ER do in the endo/ctomembrane system
lacks ribosomes. site of lipid (membrane ) synthesis
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