Exam Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
prototype
schema
ProSom
estozoolam (hyupmotic)
Define
 
Zygote
 
Definition
 
A fertilized Egg
Linguistics
the study of language
LSD
s syntheic psychedelic drug
physique temperament theory
somatotype theory
content validity
ex: comprehensive final exam
Reuptake
The reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button.
mail surveys
written self administered questionnaires
Sigmund Freud's 5 Stages Theory
brainstem
oldest part-central core of brain-beginning where spinal cord enters skull-responsible for automatic survival functions
Pavlov's Dogs
Unconditioned stimulus (US): foodUnconditioned Response (UR): salivatingConditioned Stimulus (CS): bellConditioned Response (CR): salivating
AFFECT
OUTWARD EXPRESSION OF INTERNAL EMOTION
masking
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
consciousness
awareness of ourselves and our environment
bipolar II
not full blown manic episodes
Physical illnesses, such as hypertension and some headaches, that are not caused by an organic disorder but instead seem linked to stress are referred to as ______ ilnesses.
A) psychophysiological
Recall
Memory task in which specific information must be retrieved
sleep apnea
involves frequent, reflexive gasping of air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep (sometimes 100's of times a night) 2% of women, 4% of men, Treatment-surgery or drug therapy
content bias
deductive reasoning
premises are true but not logical
validity
psychological statement that refers to the relative accuracy or correctness of a statement
memory
persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of info
Natural Selection
The inherited characteristics that have remained part of our species are those that enabled humans to become better adapted to their environment(i.e., to survive and thrive)
Longitudinal Design
Research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time (can't infer cause-and-effect relationships)
regression
in psychoanalytic theory a defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats back to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains. (kids suck their thumbs again or adults crying for mommy)
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
The unpleasant sensation of physical discomfort or suffering that can occur in varying degrees of intensity.
pain
Appraisal
An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus (appraisal is the primary job of the amygdala and it occurs very rapidly)
Correlational Research
Looking for relationships among variables.
self-actualization
the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
automatic processing
interpreting information that requires little effort and consciousness of activity
nervous system
the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
inductive reasoning
reasoning to general conclusions from specific evidence
animism
the belief that all things are living
medulla
the base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing
heritability
percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes
behaviorism
a theoretial orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior (JOHN B WATSON)-claims someone is made not born, cause for rise in animal research
Cognitive Dissonance
An (unpleasant) internal state which results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior
Dissociative Disorders
* dissociation - break in consciousness, memory or experience
 
a.Dissociative Amnesia - psychologically induced memory loss (ex) address, family members
 
b.Dissociative Fugue -  same as Diss. Amnesia but addition of flight from ones home sometimes for months at a time.
 
c.Dissociative Identity - aka Multiple Personality Disorder 
Similarity
Things that are a like are perceived together
problem solving
thinking and bnehavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available
information about which cells are firing, how many cells are firing, pattern they fire is an example of
functional code
Abnormal Psychology
People are fascinated by abnormality as it relates to psychological disorders
Radical Behavorism
1.Skinner proposed theory based on principles of reinforcement.2.it proposes that all organismic action is determined and not free. 3. not observable. 4. self-reports=flawed.
spontaneous recovery
reappearance of a CS after extinction
range
The difference between the highest and lowest number in a distribution.
crystallized intelligence
Factual knowledge about the world, word meanings, arithmetic, etc.
What is the opposite of a reinforcer?
punishment
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
Dependent Variable
Variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.
What is the lifetime prevalence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
5%
• Psychological disorder-
1) interferes with normal functioning 2) harmful to the individual 3) society says it’s unhealthy.
extrovert
a person concerned primarily with the physical and social environment, a person whose attention is directed outward, not towards inner feelings
descriptive statistics
tells data and measures correlations and distributions
Basic Trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Noam Chomsky
famous linguist known for his theory of nativism
Secure attachment
When exposed to the stranger, the infact seeks closeness and contact with the mother, uses the mother as a safe base from which to explore. A)shows moderate distress on separation from the mother.B)happy when the mother returns.
moral treatment
approach to mental illness calling for dignity, kindness, and respect for the mentally ill
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
sensory adaptation
a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation (occurs in taste,smell,touch)
Forewarning
Advance knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion and increases resistance to the persuasion that follows.
discuss the effect that nicotine has on anxiety
calm anxiety.
Location Costancy
As you drive down the highway, telephone poles and trees fly by---our retina. We know that they are still there
Who developed the concept of opersnt conditioning?
B.F. Skinner
trance
Another word for the state of deep relaxation that can occur during hypnosis.
problem-focused coping:
taking direct steps to solve the problem
leniency effect
the tendency of raters to provide ratings that are overly generous
Case History Method
a research method that involves gathering many details about one or several individuals, usually through interviews, to support, develop, or refine a particular explanation of behavior
Oedipus Complex
According to Freud a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealous and hatred for his rival father.
side effects of antipsychotic drugs
drowsiness, constipation, cottonmouth, tremors, muscular rigidity, impaired coordination, can cause tardive dyskinesia
Flynn effect
the trend toward increasing average IQ over sucessive generations
NORMATIVE APPROACH
which measures of behavior are taken in large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
KT. Values or ethics that emphasize the proper thing to do in a particular situation.
Situational Ethics
What type of learning is taste aversion?
classical conditioning
Cognitive Distortions
Irrational thoughts that arise from a systematic bias in the way a person thinks about reality (Aaron Beck)
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 537)
Extrinsic motivation
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person.
demonic model
view of mental illness in which odd behaviour, hearing voices, or talking to oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body
state-dependent memory effect
tendency for info to be better recalled when the person is in the same psychological or physiological state as when the info was first learned
delusions (of grandeur)
think they are better than everyone else (Jesus)
Mental Retardation
The term used for people whose IQ scores are significantly below average. The current definition requires scores more than two standard deviations below average. About 3% of people fall within the criteria. 389
Social Anxiety Disorder
-fear of 1 or more social/performance situations where person is exposed to unfamiliar people
-person fears they will act in humiliating/embarassing way.
-exposure to feared social situations provokes anxiety (may be panic attacks)
-recognizes fear is excessive and unreasonable
-social situations are avoided or endured w/intense anxiety
-age of onset is mid adolescence (rare in under 10)
-occurs in 1-3% of children (more girls than boys)
-66% have another anxiety disorder
-selective mutism may be symptom
Hockett's featers of language (PD)
 
productivity: language is creative, sentences can be made up of few basic elements but can be combined in many novel ways-syntax
displacement: by using language we can communicate about thing that are physically and temporarily displaced
what are sensory neurons?
carry incoming info from sense receptors to cns
Outcome expectation
A person's belief that a specific and desired outcome will follow a particular behavior
The perpose of camolflage is:
to break up figure-ground organization
placebo effect
a change in behavior in the absence of an experimental manipulation
Are women more likely to diet or to exercise in their quest for an ideal body image?
diet
naturalistic observation method
The method which involves careful and unobtrusive observation of behavior where it happens-in the "field".
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe one would have foreseen how something turned out, after learning the outcome
Defense Mechanism - Displacement
Finding a safe target.Ex. Boss yells at man --> Man yells at wife --> Wife yells at son --> Son can't yell at anyone so he goes and kicks the neighborhood cat to take out his anger
Formal Operations (adolescence through adulthood)
Logically solves all types of problems. Thinks scientifically. Solves complex verbal and hypothetical problems. Is able to think in abstract terms.
What are Ethics?
outward expression of our values/ our observable behavior - what others see walking the talk - Integrity
social psychology
the study of how people view and are influenced by one another
Outgroup homogeneity effect
The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups.
What is lucid dreaming?
dreaming and knowing you're in a dream. you can even sometimes control content and outcome of dreams.
cognitive perspective perspective
focuses on how we take in, process, store and retrieve information
Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models
Memory models in which new experiences change one's overall knowledge base
What is Equal Protection (SVP)?
That the SVP process differs from other civil commitment schemes.
What is the CEREBELLUM?
A dense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem; it arouses the cortex and screens incoming information.
Which correlation coefficent is stronger? -.9 or +.3?
-.9 because it does not matter, the sign indicates if it is positive or negative correlated .9 > .3
What is the definition of sexual dysfunction?
an abnormality in an individual's sexual responsiveness and reactions.
How does the paradigm of "I"-statements vs. "You" statements relate to being assertive?
Being assertive means focusing on

I statements.
What are 3 ways we problem solve?
Algorithm- logical way of solving a problem with guaranteed results.Heuristics- simple thinking stragegy that allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently Insight- sudden often novel realization of te solution to a problem
explain 2 different types of "mother monkey figures" used in Harlows experiments
- wire mother with a baby bottle-cloth mother with no baby bottle
attitude
amplitude
determines loudness
Sorge
care and concerns
continuity
-perceive continuous patterns
postmodernity
contemporary developments in historical, social, and economic processes
Personality developement
Continuities, consistencies, stabilities in people over time, and the way in which people change over time
Psychiatry
M.D.: physicians (perscribe medication), training emphasizes diagnosis and treatment
social neuroscience
social and neuro processes
Gardner's Intrapersonal
ability to understand oneself-theologians and psychologist
stimulation
friendship provides children with interesting information, excitement, and amusement
self-esteem
a global assessment of self-worth
Stress
the physiological and psychological response to a condition that threatens or challenges a person and requires some form of adaptation or adjustment
Clairvoyance
-perceiving remote events (e.g., sensing your house is on fire)
Eve
had 3 personalities (multiple personality disorder)
libido
sexual "energy" in need of gratification/outlet
roles
bundles of socially defined attributes and expecations associated with social status/ positions
Cognition
The mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.
Psychosocial stages
Erikson's eight developmental stages for the entire life span; each is defined by a conflict that must be resolved satisfactorily for healthy personality development to occur.
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
The perspective behavior is environmentally learned.
Learning (Behavioral)
learning
a relatively permanent change in behaviour, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation
interpreter
a left hemisphere process that attempts to make sense of events
top-down processing
information processing guided by higher- level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
Bowlby's Ethological theory
-Detachment
-Stages of attachment
-Preattachment phase
-"Attachment-in -the-making" phase
-Reciprocal relationship phase
Body Image
The way you see yourself
oxytocin
a maternal pituitary gland hormone that triggers uterine contractions
experience-expectant processes
prewired processes in the brain
What is Level I treatment (ASAM)?
Outpatient
Rehersal
The act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in short term memory.
Ernest Groves
pioneer in family life education
Groves Conferences of Conservation of Marriage and FAmily 1934 -
Non-Diagnostic Condition
-“we are researching difficult verbal problems…”
Baby Talk
The high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants; also called child-directed speech.
Primary Reinforcers
Events or objects inherently satisfying a physical need (food, water, relief from pain)
Do we still have frontal lobotomies?
No.
59. William James wrote Principle of Psychology and founded
Functionalism
naloxone
blocks the receptor sites causing more pain, decreases the effectivness of placebos
conscientiousnss
degree to which person is self disciplined and goal oriented, low: unreliable, impulsive, tends to quit; high: reliable, cautious, tends to persevere
NONCONSCIOUS PROCESSES
MENTAL PROCESSES OCCURRING OUTSIDE OF AND NOT AVAILABLE TO CONSCIOUS AWARENESS.
mass madness
the widespread occurrence of group behavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteria.
Loci Method
technique of associating items with specific places
Researchers have found that resolution of Erikson's stage of intimacy versus isolation typically occurs in adulthood rather than in adolescence. One reason for this finding is that identity development is correlated with....
cognitive development
authentic relationship
interaction is open, honest, and direct. involves sharing
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord.
gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated
cognitive development
Hearing
Both internal and external sounds can be heard inside of the womb. A fetus can hear its mothers voice as well as her heartbeat, breathing, swallowing, and other various 'rude' noises her body makes.
Experimental Research
Reasearch designed to discover the causal relationship between various factors
Theory
A general principle or set of principles that explains how a number of seperate facts are related to one another
What is another name for endogenous opioid peptides, or nervous system chemicals similar to opiates?
endorphins.
k-complexes
large waves in stage 2 of sleep
Longitudinal Study
Investigation of same group of individuals over time.
Reinforcement
Strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur.
Social Norms
The “rules”, or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation.
Counseling psychologist
Problems of normal living Schools, clinics, other institutions Master’s in counseling, PhD, EdD, or PsyD
Underweight
Less than the appropriate weight for your gender, height, age, body frame, and growth pattern
red blood cells
contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen; each cell lasts ~3 months
fertilization
insemination of an ovum by a sperm
Memory T Cells
remember previous invaders, allowing rapid response if encountered again
Which psychedelic drug is on Schedule II (because it's considered to have medical use by the gov't)?
PCP
maintenance rehearsal
reciting info in the original form
PLACEBO
AN INERT OR HARMLESS SUBSTANCE GIVEN TO THE CONTROL GROUP IN AN EXPERIMENT AS A CONTROL FOR THE PLACEBO EFFECT
Murray Bowen
1954: joined Lyman Wynne at NIMH
Size consistency
-perceive objects as having a consistent size even when our distance from them changes
-Reciprocal relationship btw size and distance
Code of Ethics
A set of moral principles.
If all else fails...
-Verbatim playback: repeats interviewee's exact words
-Paraphrasing and restatement: repeats response using different words
-Summarizing- pulls together the meaning of several responses
-Clarification Response- Clarifies the interviewees response
when to memories start?
usually around 4 yrs.
black bile
from the spleen and stomach; hepatitis, ulcers, malaria, etc
88. According to the _____ view, the need for love, self-esteem, belonging, self-expression, creativity, and spirituality are as important as biological needs.
humanistic
Proprioception
ability to sense position of the body and limbs
monitor and keyboard
short term memory: whats happening right now
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
Identification and Recognition
assigns meaning to precepts. answers, "what is this object"
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way.
conditioned reinforcers
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Social Motive
Motive (such as the needs for affiliation and achievement) that is acquired through experience and interaction with others
Ethic Identity
-Sense of belonging to an ethnic group
-Doll Preference
-Clarks(1939, 1950)
-Girl like Me
-Barbie doll study
-Racial socialization
light adaptation
the process by which the visual receptors rapidly become less sensitive as one moves from a dark area to a lighted one
Hypothesis
A prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested
Aphasia
loss or impairment of the ability to produce or use language
Validity is
the agreement between test score or measure and the quality it is believed to mesure. "Does the test measure what is supposed to?"
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that gender-role is influenced by the formation of schemas, or mental representations, of masculinity or femininity.
Two defining qualities of personality change
1) enduring
2) internal
Cognitive-Social Theory
Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior.
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
Types of attachment:
-Secure attachment
-Anxious/resistant attachment
-Anxious/avoidant attachment
-Disorganized/disoriented attachment
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
American psychologist who helped found humanistic psychology and developed client-centered therapy.
tactile stimulation
is created when anything that makes contact with our skin and gives rise to an integrated experience of touch
infertility
failure to conceive a child after 12 months of sexual intercourse without birth control
simple pretend play
fantasy play behavior in which children watch or mimic each other but do not collaborate in any organized way
Donald Hebb
two stage neural theory of memory formation: short-term memory, learning causes formation of cell assemblies, reverberations can change the strength of synaptic connections so that when reverberations stop, memory is maintained.
variable ratio schedule
number of responses is on average
Lyman Wynne
focus of work on how pathological thinking is transmitted in families
Interposition
-if an object blocks our view of another, its perceived as being closer
Sociocultural Theory
An emergent theory that holds that human development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces.
Verbal Comprehension
A measure of acquired knowledge and verbal reasoning
Might be best though of as a measure of crystallized intelligence
What does the DSM-4 do?
Classification system for psychological disorders; helps diagnosis.
representational momentum
motion in a picture tends to continue in the observers mind
Stage 1
More when your younger and more when your really old
Dissociative Identity Disorder
a person exhibits two or more personality states, each with its own patterns of thinking and behaving
People with a __________ relish opportunities to take on new challenges.
High need for achievement
Mental health services
80% of mental health services now being done in the schools
pupil
the opening in the iris of the eye through which light passes into the eye
corpus callosum
The thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and makes possible the transfer of information and the synchronization of activity between them
Construct validity evidence
is established through a series of activities in the which a reseracher simultaneously defines some construct and develops the instrumentation to measure it.
What are three levels of analysis
1) Population
2) Group differences
3) individual differences
Implicit Personality Theory
A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.
primary auditory cortex
in the temporal lobe where auditory neurons in the thalamus travel
induction
the process of using a limited set of examples to draw conclusions that permit inferences about new cases
complications to simple dominance
multiple gene effects, sex linkage, codominance, parental coding, crossing over, and x-deactivation
What are the symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal?
Sleep disturbance, anxiety, restlessness, sweating, depression, paranoid ideation, agitation, headaches, loss of appetite, stimuli hypersensitivity, muscle twitches, toxic psychosis, seizures
a column of nerves that transmits messages from the brain to the body and from the body to the brain
(8) Spinal chord
first order change
change that occurs within the system which itself stays the same
The Simulation Heuristic
-How easily we can imagine something happening influences our reactions to it
-E.g., bronze medalists were happier than silver medalists (Medvec et al., 1995)
Age of Viability
The age (about 22 weeks after conception)at which a fetus can survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available.
how much information do we retain just by paying attention to something?
thirty percent
8. Overt behavior includes
only those things that can be observed.
Entraiment
We are all entrained to go to bed and wake up at the same time
Texas public school nutrition policy
applies to foods of minimal nutritional value (FMNV),any type of candy and also restricts the provision of “competitive foods,” including foods and beverages not provided by school; implamented-TDA restrictions for birthdays, parties and classroom snacks
Psychoanalysis - Freud
the unconcious is the focus of this theory
Gender socioemotional Development (emotion)
girls admit to feeling sadness, shame, and guilt, boys tend to deny that they experience these emotions; males show less emotional self regulation
principle of proximity
the closer two figures are to each other, the more likely we are to group them and see them as part of the same object
What other drugs interact with alcohol?
Cocaine: interaction forms the metabolite cocaethylene --> dramatic rise in HR & BP, can cause liver damage and death

Benzodiazepines/Barbiturates: sedation is potentiated - can be lethal.
Approach – avoidance conflict
a conflict arising when a single choice has both desirable and undesirable features
What is the Situational/environmental approach?
Behavior is determined by the situation or environment.
Factor that Wechsler focus on that those before him had not
Non intellective factors
Point Scale
Performance Scale (first scale to measure non- verbal intelligence)
Psychoanalytic View of Depression, real 2.
-in depression the feeling are repressed and the anger get turned inward (away from the loved "object" toward the self) surface in the form of self reproaches, often for being selfish and selfcentered or not being good enough for the lost "object"
sub systems of short term memory
auditory working memory and visuo spatial working memory
two strategies for improving the processing of information
creating mental images & elaborating on information
Social Theory of Gender-Role Development
The theory that gender roles are acquired through the basic processes of learning, including reinforcement, punishment, and modeling.
What are the methods of ingesting amphetamines?
Orally
Snorted or smoked (after crushing into powder)
Shooting (mixing powder w/liquid)
This is the part of the brain that makes us uniquely human and is involved in thinking, memory, language, emotions, motor functions, and perception,
(20) Cerebral Cortex
What is the Interactional approach?
Behavior is determined by both the person and the situational factors as well as by their interaction.
in LTM: you can say it, but you can't explain really how you feel, it's more about the feelings TO YOU
episodic
Sleep Amount in...
5 yr olds: more than 9 hours of sleep, 10 year olds: stays the same. 15 years: 8 hours of sleep, and after is less than 8
All of the following are true of projective tests, EXCEPT
Projective tests are completely objective.
what is an orthographic orienting task?
a question about the a physical property of the stimulus, such as, is the writing large or small?
Subtypes of Schizophrenia 4-5
4. Undifferentiated - A met but not 1, 2, or 3
5. Residual or Prodomal
motion aftereffects, waterfall effect
when you stare at a moving image for a prolonged period of time and look away and the new scene is moving in the opposite directions
Major criticism of structured interviews
Does not provide as broad a ranged of data
How are the IQ scores calculated?
Take the sum of the raw scores from subtests and compare them to that persons specified age range
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