vocab list AP euro Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Valois Dynasty
Before scientific revolution, Aristotle was the authority on science. Renaissance brings back classical writings. His beliefs weren't "good enough" any more. The renaissance brought back his work and it became popular to look at his works and "re-write" it.
Estates General
the legislature/legislative body
Gladstone Reforms
Prime Ministers Gladstone's reforms.
Fragmented states. Milan, Florence, Venice, Papal states, Naples.
July Monarchy
Monarchy of Louis Phillipe
Charles X
(Louis XVII's younger brother): Bitter, takes revenge on what has happened to his family. Passes the July Ordinances.
Lower Nobility of Spain, corrigidors were drawn from this class
charivari processions
Processions that disciplined community members who didn't follow sexual expectations (mostly lead by young unmarried men).
Edgar Degas
ballerina, horse racing, born penniless, he related to poor people, chauvinist, he goes blind, so he turns to sculpture
name of England under Cromwell; emergence of political dissidents who were supported by Cromwell: Levellers, Diggers, Quakers, 5th Monarchists
Robert Stewart
Representative at the Congress of Vienna. From England. He wants to create a lasting peace by building large powerful enemies around France, so they can't do it again.
Active/Passive Citizens
Active Citizen-people who could afford to pay 3 days salary to taxes, if you could do this you had the right to vote, this made it so the only people who could get elected are people who own property. Out of the 20 million living in France only about 40,000 men could vote.
Brings back Catholisism to France, his reconciling with the Catholic Church. Napoleon wants France to Catholic, but he said that he was an independent King.
lord protector
Cromwell ruled through generals in charge of different places. He ruled with military dictatorship. He didn't like power.
Battle of Breitenfeld
Protestant victory under the leadership of Gustavus.
the placement or confinement of like people in a particular area, activity, or category.
King Louis XII
Started selling bureaucratic and ecclesiastical offices to make up for the shortfall in royal coffers.
seven electors
Nobility of HRE that traditionally elected emperors that voted for the Hapsburgs in return for money.
Spanish Writer. Don Quixote. First guy to look at how society turns people out. Ideas of what is reality and what is not. Cervantes read a lot of Rene Descartes.
(Royalist) Made up of the clergy, nobles, the king, house of lords and peasants(king protects the peasants, the peasants still believe that the King will protect them).
Louis XVI
Completely foolish King. In arranged marriage with the Princess of Austria, Marie Antoinette. He was a very ineffective leader. He always stayed in Versailles, partying. He is in a great need for money. France has incredible debt and the only people he can tax are the French peasants. Louis turns to the Nobles hoping that the Nobles will give him money.
Mechanist. He doesn't care why things happen, he wants to know how they work. He spent life trying to figure out how thing work. He is Greek, he comes back in the Renaissance. His ideas resurface in the Renaissance and the scientists love him. He inspires them a lot.
Society of Friends
Quakers; stressed personal conscience for actions
wanted to get rid of private property
Thermidorian Reaction
July 26, 1794. Since the French Revolution, Nothing has been accomplished other than a whole lot of people have been killed. Reaction is the killing of Robespierre and the Jacobins. Robespierre and Danton go to the guillotine. The new government is the The Directory.
Romanov Family Dynasty
(1613-1917) Starts after Time of Troubles continues until the Russian Revolution. This Family will rule Russia until 1917.
Albrecht von Wallenstein
Aristocratic who wasn't very powerful. Emperor Ferdinand called on him to raise an army,.He established the last unified authority over Germany for more than two centuries. Successful defeat of Danish king.
Sea Beggars
Dutch fight back against Philip II. They're a small group of Dutch sailors who flew the flag of William of Orange and seized the fishing village of Brill. They stimulated more uprisings nearby.
Matthew Corvinus
r. 1458-1490, looked like a New Monarch of Hungary, but successors weren't able to overcome feudal nobility. Defeat at Mohacs by Ottoman Empire
Star Chamber
Royal prerogative court at first used to control disobedient feudal barons.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte III
(Napoleon's Nephew) 1848-1870 France votes to establish a new Republic, where they can vote. They vote for him. He promises to crack down lawlessness and return France back to the glory days Napoleon. He wins by 70% of the vote, landslide. He ran of the fact he will make France glorious again. It appears that the revolution has been successful. He does the same stuff as his Uncle. He puts France on the right path. He declares himself the Emperor of France and gets rid of the constitution, and calls France, the Second Empire. While he is the second emperor of France he is going to make mistakes in foreign wars.
"Republic of Letters"
Philosophes were known as this. "Country" made up of the thinkers that knew each other and sent letters to each other. This small group of people were really close.
Brunswick Manifesto
(July 25, 1792): Earl of ________, from Prussia. He declares: If anything should happen to the King of France, Prussia will come and wipe out all of France. War has started.
He had an Earth centered universe. A solar system and universe where everything circles around us, even the sun and planets circle around us. He tried to explain why the planets "ellipse" or go in little loops. He has a picture of the universe that had been excepted forever.
Death of King Henry VII of England (date)
Rump Parliament
the Parliament in session during the time between the kings and under Cromwell- tried and executed Charles I. Purged of those opposed to the execution of Charles.
Ship Money
Meant for the defense of that town from the ships. Costal town has to pay the King for protection. Parliament collects money from taxes except from ship money. The Parliament cannot prevent the King from using this tax. Charles take ship money and taxes all towns and cities in England. The only thing Parliament had over the king was money, now he has money.
House of Lords
Higher house of the Parliament. Older more prestigious house that is traditionally made up of Nobel people. They were considered the superior people.
When people want to go backwards to a time when Authority went unquestioned. If the country is stable then things are safer. It is a desire to return to a simpler, 'better' time. A central government that is unquestioned.
The Chartist Movement
They wanted the People's Charter, a constitution that was for everybody: They were after:
Universal male suffrage.
All ballots should be secret. (If it's not secret because the rich would control voting.)
To do away with the property to be eligible to vote. Prevented the loophole of voting.(Black laws)
They do not attain what they want but they influence William Gladstone.
William of Orange
An aristocrat. Become leader of the rebels and the Dutch success against Philip increased.
King Louis XI of France
r.1461-1483, New Monarch, Valois Dynasty, acquisition of Burgundy thru battle; Anjou, Maine, Provence thru inheritance
Italian Wars
The lure of Italy because its wealth, culture, and fragmentation irresistible to many French Kings. This did not gain any land from Italy for France, only culture.
1500 and 1550
Population of Europe reached and then exceeded its level prior to Black Death in 1347.
Invisible hand
Greed is good. Greed = Ambition. Greed can drive an economy. Individual's want for things, creates a demand. Personal desire stimulates the economy.
Edict of Nantes
Religious toleration for all types in France.
William & Mary
(Mary, daughter of James and her husband, King of Netherlands) (1689-1702) Mary is the sister of James II. Mary is married to William of Orange(King of Holland). Completely alters England. When William and Mary take over they give up on absolute monarchy. This makes Parliament more powerful than the monarchy.
English Civil War
war fought between the Tudors and Stuart Kings
Charles I
son of James I; takes power and assumes complete authority: marries a Catholic, refuses to work with Parliament or to embrace reform; forced loans on Parliament
Tennis Court Oath
First big major protest in the French Revolution. The 3rd estate leaves the Estates General and go to an indoor tennis court in Versailles. They met, and took a vow not to leave until they had a vote, and a constitution. This went on for a while and rumors start so the general public starting to protest as well. People are hoping that they will get a vote but they are afraid the King is going to kill them so they decide to storm a fort in Paris. King could have opted to make changes but the nobles refused and rumors started to spread that the peasants would not.
Renunciatation of Arisocratic Privileges
(Aug. 4th) The nobles recognizing they are about to lose everything, renounce their Aristocratic privileges saying peasants are allowed to do anything. 1. Gave up their Feudal rights and made common lands free to everyone(fishing & hunting rights are available). Said the 3 Estate System of France in gone. Now they have to have a new type of government.
The Old Regime
The Three estates of France before the French revolution. France is the wealthiest country in the world.
David Riccardo
He is not a Marxist or Communist. The Ion Law of Wages. Raging industrial capitalists will use what he did to support what they do, Marxist will later use this to support his ideals. He says that labor gives value to a product. Marxist will use this to support his ideals. Labor is the foundation of value. Capitalist follow this. If you pay workers too much, workers will want more. If you pay workers more, they will be able to afford things that will distract them from sex. If you pay your workers less, they will go to work, and come home and have sex, so more babies, more demand, less paying.
Bohemia (Czech Republic)
The start of the Thirty Years' War. They were angered that Catholic emperor Ferdinand didn't honor previous promise of toleration of Protestantism.They replaced him with Calvinist Frederick II who became the V as emperor.
Battle of Lutzen
Wallenstein called back in to lead HRE army. Catholics defeated. Gusavus Adolphus killed. Wallenstein killed. Habsburgs saved, but in long run, lost most of their power through fragmented power.
Hundred years' war
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
Napoleon Bonaparte
He was born on an Italian Island that is part of the French kingdom. October 5, 1795, there is an attempted coup in Paris. The nouveau-riche(new nobles) try to take over the Directory. He steps in and saves the government. The Directory makes him a general. He gets sent to the Italian Battlefield. He gets put in charge of Italy. He defeats the Austrians and the Italians. He attacks Egypt which was owned by England. He conquers Egypt. The English Navy goes to rescue Egypt, they are outmanned. He runs away and leaves him men to be slaughtered. He runs back to France. He returns to France and plans a Coup d'etat. Later on crowns himself Emperor of France.
He is the first to take over the monarchy after the French Revolution. (Louis XVI' s younger brother)
12 Year Truce
1609, signed by Spain and the United Provinces, but was truly a de facto independence for the Netherlands
The Social Welfare State
We've got to do something as a society. We have to guarantee that people could live. The establishes lines as the Government sees as poor. If you are poor, then the government has to help workers. It made it legal for unions to go on strike. It establishes workman compensation, if you get hurt on the job, they will pay you. Unemployment, if you lose your job then the government pays up to a certain time until you can get a new job. Retirement money. They come up with compulsory schooling.
Cromwell and Puritan Independents
They wanted no church with a central authority. (Type of Roundhead)
Milan, North America, Mexico, Central and South America
Expansion of territorial holdings from Charles V. Not much expansion in Europe.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
At the root of evil in society is the uneven distribution of property. Some people get more than they need and some people gets less than they need. People are inheiritantly unequal in ability. In the natural state of being, it is natural to be cooperative but as soon as property is claimed, people start to fight. "All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains" The Social Contract: By living in a country one agrees with their laws and their social contract. General Will: Idea that you will sacrifice your individual will to the General will. Everybody compromises, everybody has a say in the government.
King Henry VII of England
- r. 1485-1509, begun the Tudor Dynasty
- worked through Parliament and built alliance with the gentry to gain power over dissatisfied feudal nobility and build royal allies
Guise family, Bourbon family, royal family
The three main conflicting groups of the French Civil Wars.
Three main issues of the Congress of Vienna
Legitimacy, Compensation and Balance of Power.
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