Exercise Physiology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fitness benefits
fitness program requirements
metabolic pathways
specific and precise sequences
What is antidiuretic hormone AKA?
Vasopressin
liver glycogen replenishment
same as muscle glycogen
Reducing agent
the molecule/atom that donates electrons
how are SV and afterload related?
inversely
Stroke
A cerebral vascular accident a condition in which blood supply to some part of the brain is impaired
lsd
long slow distance, increase blood suply, increase ability to produce atp
Which hormones are released during exercise to increase blood glucose?
Glucagon
Transamination
amino groups transfered from one group to another = waste (uria)
Enzyme that catalyzes PC + ADP
Creatine Kinase
With increased duration what fuel source do you use most?
Plasma FFAs
Does the Fartlek routine target more aerobic or anaerobic pathways?
aerobic.
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY
- From functional stand point, the study of adaptations and responses to exercise.
What does the thins tissue-blood barrier permit between aveolar and blood gases?
rapid diffusion
What percent of maximum HR is recommended for general fitness improvement?
50-85%
ATP Production from Carbohydrate
From glucose:skeletal muscle: 36 (looses w/ transfer of NADH2 into mitocondria)Heart muscle: 38From Glycogen:skeletal muscle: 37heart muscle: 39just add 1
What is glycogenalysis?
the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
VOCAB: Deamination
breakdown of amino acids by taking away the amine and leaving you with acids.
What 2 things make up CO?
HR * SV
List the two contractile muscle proteins.
Myosin and Actin
True or False: Aging causes a decrease in the power a muscle can generate because neural drive decreases w/ age.
True.
thyroid
T3 and T4 are used to regulate metoblism, training increases the levels of T3 and T4
VO2 max =
reproducible measure of hte capacity of hte cardiovascular system to deliver oxygenated blood to large M mass that is working
10. Which of the following hormones could cause hypoglycemia if a high fructose (sugar) meal/beverage is consumed just prior to exercise? A. Glucagon B. Insulin C. Growth hormone D. Testosterone
B. Insulin
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (ICD)
Rate limiting enzyme in the Krebs Cycle
Lyases function
groups of elements are removed to form a double bond or added to a double bond
What are triglycerides composed of?
Free fatty acids and glycerol.
VOCAB: Oxygen Deficit
The difference between the O2 actually used and the total O2 that would have been used if state state metabolism had been achieved immediately after start of exercise.
How long after being released from the thyroid can the effects of T4 be seen?
2-3 days.
What are the muscular/enzyme adaptations to aerobic training?
Increased oxidative enzymes, increased size and number of mitochondria, increase in capillary:fiber ratio.
Define Flexibilty.
The capability to adapt to new and different or changing ROM which occurs at a single joint or a series of joints.
Hydrostatic Weighing
A method of measuring body volume in which a person is weighed while submerged underwater.
1)vital capacity?2)residual volume?3)total lung capacity?4)inspiratory reserve volume?5)expiratory reserve volume?
1)vital capacity - maximum amount of air that can be expired following a maximum inspiration2)residual volume - Air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration 3)total lung capacity - vital capacity + residual volume4)inspiratory reserve volume - volume of gas that can be inspired at the end of a tidal inspiration 5)expiratory reserve volume - the volume of gas that can be expired at the end of a tidal expiration
Dalton's Law
total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure that each gas would exert independently
What is hyperventilation?
Breathing harder than necessary at a given pace.
BONUS #1 Which of the following represents the highest intensity of exercise? A. 10 METS B. 5 times a person’s resting energy level (estimated) C. 38 mL O2/kg/min - D. Energy level of sitting in class
c. 38 mL/kg/min
efforts of the presidents: EKN
E: presidents council on youth fitness
K: presidents council on physical fitness
N: presidents council on physical fitness and sports
What are the two major sources of energy for our bodies?
Carbs and lipids
What does the sympathetic tone during redistibution of blood during exercise effect?
arteries, arterioles, precapillary sphinctersadrenergic tone- vasoconstriction (norepi)cholinergic tone- vasodilationslave to autoregulation
What's the difference between sarcomeres found in fusiform muscles and those found in pennate muscles?
They aren't different. Pennate muscles just have more of them.
What type of muscle fibers have a low mitochondrial content?
Type IIa.
What is cellular respiration?
Relates to O2 utilization and CO2 production by the tissues
Recovery from intermitten ex depends on these factors.
Subjects fitness, the environment (hot?), and duration and intensity of ex
What is a neurotransmitter?
A neurotransmitter is store in a motor neuron to chemically transmit the nerve impulse to muscle fibers.
The fate of lactate
1. Excretion in the urine and sweat2. Conversion to glucose and/or glycogen3. Oxidation/Conversion to carbon Dioxide and water4. Remains as lactate in body - small amounts
Name the three nobel prize winners for their research is muscle or muscular exercise
Otto Meyerhoff
AV Hill
August Krogh
Exergonic vs. Endergonic Reactions
Exergonic: give off energy as a result of the chemical process
Endergonic: Require energy to be added to the reactants
VOCAB: Excess Post-exercise O2 Consumption
Oxygen debt that occurs after the conclusion of exercise, during the recover phase.
Why does plasma glucose increase at the beginning of moderate intensity (60% VO2 Max)?
Because the increased sympathetic output led to increased epinephrine, which led to an increase in hepatic glucose production and a decreased insulin release.
At what percentage of VO2 Max does the ventilatory equivalent increase exponentially?
from 50-75% VO2Max
What factors make one more susceptible to overtraining effects? (7)
A-type personality, being female, increased age, decreased nutrition, increased travel, season (winter), decreased sleep, intake of alcohol or other drugs.
How do age, gender, temperature each impact flexibility?
AGE: Older -> Decreased flexibility,perhaps due to inactivity. GENDER: In general, women are more flexible. Men are more flexible in some parts of the spine. TEMPERATURE: Warm --> increased flexibility.
How does temperature effect the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
Increased blood temperature results in a weaker Hb-O2 bond. This results in a rightward shift of the curve. -Easier "offloading" of O2 at tissues
Ideal ventilation-to-perfusion ratio
V/Q >= 1.0 (this is optimum) -V/Q in reality is rarely ideal and varies according to what part of lung is looked at (lung base is over perfused aka V/Q = --V/Q that are > 0.5 are so so ok--light ex may increase v/q
Make the connection of training increasine the blood volume to increasing stroke volume.
Increased blood volume make the muscular and respiratory pump work harder, which makes venous return increase, which increases preload and therefore increases stroke volume.
What term defines the intensity is approximately between 50-85% maximum heart rate or at which adequate oxygen is unavailable.
Anerobic Threshold (Lactate or Respiratory)
50. At what intensity would muscle glycogen supply the greatest amount of energy? A. Low intensity (40% VO2max) B. High intensity (90% VO2max)
B. High intensity (90% VO2max)
Equation for O2 requirement for treadmill walking
0.1 mL/kg/min x speed + 3.5 mL/kg/min
What does Krebb's cycle provide?
Energy to the ETC, via NADH and FADH.
If you eat a meal filled mostly with carbs, will you have more or less endurance than if you had eating a meal filled mostly with protein?
more, More, MORE! :)
How does growth hormone spare plasma glucose?
Blocks glucose entry to peripheral tissue and stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver using amino acids as substrate.
Why are men 'stronger' than women?
Their muscle fibers have a larger cross-sectional area. Everything else about the muscles in each gender is physiologically equal.
Metabolite depletion in the muscle fiber can contribute to peripheral fatigue. A decrease in what metabolites can cause the problem? (4)
PCr, ATP free energy, Glycogen, Blood Glucose.
Explain the effect of ballistic stretching on creep.
There is no effect of ballistic stretching on creep. The stretch isn't held long enough to allow for creep to occur.
During end diastolic volume, what 3 things affects the frank-starling mechanism?
1) Venoconstriciton 2) Skeletal muscle pump - aids in venous return to heart3) Respiratory pump - negative pressure in the chest promotes venous return.
What are the effects of endurance training on ventilation during exercise?
You have better ventilation before endurance training than after endurance training. Weird concept and we don't really know exactly why.
Diff of PCO2 in pulmonary capillaries
PCO2 in blood greater than PCO2 alveolus which results in CO2 crossing blood-gas interface
Name 2 types of muscle soreness.
DOMS - Tears in muscle fiber connective tissues or slight tears in the muscle cells. Lactic acid accumulation
A permanent increase in muscle sizeA) Is due to overeating.B) Is due to an increase in the number of muscle fibers and/or size of muscle fiber.C) Is responsible for an increase in strength.D) Is due to a chemical change in t
A permanent increase in muscle size*Answer: Is due to an increase in the number of muscle fibers and/or size of muscle fiber
Timing of what pathways are being used in bioenergetics
< 15 sec CP
<2 min Glycolysis
Continuous Oxidative Phosphorylation
Is phosphocreatine is stable source of energy?
No. That's why glycolysis is triggered at the onset of phosphocreatine use. Glycolysis is a more stable form of energy.
What are the chain of events in cardiovascular drift? 5 major
Inc tempcutaneous diliation-- inc bld to skindecr plasma vol- decr SV leads to inc temp- leads to dehydrationdecr SVIncr HR to maintain CO
What happens if the osmoreceptors detect increased osmolarity?
The receptors fire, and send a signal to the hypothalamus to increase release of antidiuretic hormone, to increase H2O resorption in the kidney so that osmolarity will decrease.
The stage duration can't be too long when testing VO2 max, but it does have to be long enough to _____ what?
Reach steady state in each stage.
The theory of compartmentalization attempts to explain what phenomenon?
ATP does not drop in concert with, or as much as, PCr with activity.
What are the three methods to increase flexibility?
Slow static stretch, Ballistic Stretch and PNF.
Which of the three factors involved in resistance has the most impact on resistance? What is the equation for resistance?
Radius of the vesselResistance = (length x viscosity) / radius
What is tidal volume?
air moving in or out of the lungs in each breath
What are the characteristics of Type I fibers? Size, force, colour, mitochondria content, speed, metabolism, rate of fatigue.
Small. Low force. Red. Mitochondria content high. Slow. Oxadative. Fatigue resistant.
How does blood pressure change with exercise?
The SBP increases; the DBP decreases slightly or stays the same.
33. If lactate is converted back into pyruvate and NADH during exercise, where will the NADH go? A. Into the Krehs cycle for further metabolism B. Electron transport chain for further metabolism C. Nowhere, it will just he stored in the
B. Electron transport chain for further metabolism
Fastest most simple way of producing ATP
PC + ADP --> ATP +C
PC donates phospate group to ADP to form ATP
What are the 7 general effects of glucose that promote storage of glucose and lipids?
1.Increases uptake of glucose by cells (liver, muscle and adipose), 2. Promotes formation of glycogen in liver and muscle, 3. Promotes formation of triglycerides into adipose tissue, 4. Inhibits liver glucose release and glycogenolysis, 5. Inhibits FFA release from adipose tissue 6. Inhibits lipolysis and lipid oxidation in muscle, 7. Promotes uptake of amino acids, and protein synthesis.
Is muscle hypertrophy one of the major effects of aerobic training?
Not really. (look at runners, and bikers; they dont have very big quads) muscle bulk isn't necessarily to their benefit.
What is pulse pressure? What is the equation for it?
The difference between systolic and diastolic Pulse pressure = Systolic - Diastolic
What are the 3 main functions of the ventilatory system?
1. Supply oxygen required in metabolism
2. Eliminate carbon dioxide produced in metabolism
3. Regulate hydrogen ion concentration to maintain acid-base balance 
What does knowing how ATP producing pathways mean for sports and athletic training? Give an example.
If you know what pathways are needed for a sport, you know what pathways to train. For example, a soccer player will use 70% anaerobic (sprinting) and 30% aerobic (recovery time).
What is GTP? Where is it produced?
in the Krebs cycle, GTP is a high energy compund and transfers Pi group to ADP to make ATP
What are 4 hings the cardiovascular system does in response to exercise?
Incr CO = HR + SVRedisribution of bld flowIncr BPIncr a-v O2
What impact does specificity have on metabolic pathways?
If you're going to run a marathon, you need to train your aerobic pathways. The more you train those pathways they better they serve you. You can't train for a 5k race by doing 100 yard sprints, because the two activities depend on different metabolic pathways.
In regards to high or low for each of the different muscle types, list the oxidative capacity, the amount of ATPase, maximal force production, speed of contraction, and muscle fiber efficiency for Type IIx muscle fibers:
1) Oxidative capacity (# of mitochondria) - low2) Amount of ATPase - highest3) Force production - high4) speed of contraction - highest5) Efficiency - low
What is the normal at rest a-VO2 difference and why does it increase as exercise intensity increases?
At rest the arterial blood has about 20ml of O2 for every 100ml. The body only needs to take about 5ml of that 20ml. During exercise the muscle needs to take up more O2 to make more ATP.
What is the benefit of a pennate muscle over a fusiform muscle?
You can pack more cells into the same cross sectional area; more fibers --> more sarcomeres --> more force --> more power.
What is an enzyme and how does it work?
A protein that functions as a catalyst to modify or release products. An enzyme will combine with its specific substrate to bend or break the bond.
16. Which of the following energetic pathways would not be dominant during the first 10 seconds of high-intensity exercise? (Of note, ATP== adenosine triphosphate; ADP adenosine diphosphate, AMP= adenosine monophosphate, Pi= inorganic phosphate, Cr= crea
C. C57H104O6 + 80 O2 --> 57 CO2 + 52 H20
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Term:
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