Exercise Physiology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
force production
183pg
ENDOMYSIUM
individual muscle fibers
mode
Utilize large muscle groupsContinuousRhythmicalAerobic in nature
 

 
oxygen debt and oxygen deficit.
Protein Metabolism
Recieve very little energy.High protein diets can lead to dehydration.1. Transamination2. Gluconeogenesis3. ATP Production from Amino Acids
Accordign to the Surgeons General Report, how many people do not meet the recommendations?
60%
VOCAB: Glycolysis
Breakdown of glucose or glycogen
Will you achieve more viscous deformation if you apply a stretch quickly or slowly?
Slowly.
Diabetes II
The body is insulin resistant
Name 2 contractile proteins.
Actin and Myocin
Fat (Triglyceride) Metabolism
requires aerobic metabolism1. When carbohydrates are depleated we oxidize fat for energy. This Beta oxidation occurs in the mitochondrial Matrix. Triglicerides are reduced to FFA and glycerol by a lipase enzyme. Fat metabolism is activated by cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and growth hormone. 2. ATP Production from Fatty Acids3. Ketone Bodies and KetosisKetone-metabolic by products of fat metabolism...primarily fat..acidic.Ketosis-uses fat as energy source.
Where does the Krebs cycle and oxidation phosphorlation take place?
mitochondria
Is protein catabolism done aerobically or anaerobically?
Aerobically only.
As exercise becomes more intense, and you're trying to squeeze a little bit more out of the lungs, do you decrease IRV or ERV?
IRV
CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT
- Increase heart rate during exercise causes a decrease in stroke volume thus maintaining cardiac output.
intervals
sort periods of work alternating with short rest intervals
Citrate synthase (CS)
marker of mitochoncrea oxidative capacity.during light to moderate ex: ^ CS in high oxidative fibers (type I and IIa)--Strenuous ex training : ^ CS in low oxidative fibers (type IIb)
Cellular Respiration
production of energy by the celltwo kinds: anaerobic and aerobic
What is the value of a micro?
one millionth
0.000001
ETC results in...
pumping H+ ions across inner mitochondrial membrane...results in a H+ gradient 
Where is glycogen stored?
In the muscles and liver.
What triggers ADH release?
Inadequate fluid replacement – dehydration.
What is overtraining?
An imbalance between training and recovery. (Train more than recovering.)
AUTOGENIC INHIBITION
- Reflex inhibition of a motor neuron in response to excessive tension in the muscle fibers it supplies, as monitored by the Golgi tendon organs.
Myoglobin
Oxygen binding protein found in sk M and cardiac M fibers--acts as shuttle to move oxygen from cell membrane to mitochondria--large # found in slow twitch fibers --1/4 weight of Hb--its O2 stores serve as O2 reserve for time b/t initial M contraction and delivery of oxygen-this store must be replinish and thus adds to oxygen debt
What is cardiorespiratory fitness?
The ability of the cardiorespiratory/cardiopulmonary system to deliver adequate blood supply/oxygen to the exercising muscles.
4. True or False. Steroid hormones. unlike polypeptide hormones, exert their effect(s) directly in the cell nucleus. A. True B. False
A. True
rate limiting enzymes
enzymes in a biochemical pathway that take the longest time
Molecules synthesized from intermediates in the Citric Acid Cycle
1. Citrate
2. beta ketogluterate
3. succinyl coA
4. malate
5. oxaloacetate
Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates that make 
1. fatty acids and cholesterol
2.amino acids, nucleotides
3. heme
4. pyruvate
5. Glucose
 
What happens to EPOC if activity level is increased?
EPOC increases.
What is the main role of cortisol?
Maintains plasma glucose.
How long should the stages last when testing VO2Max?
1-3 minutes.
What defines the limit of the sarcomere?
The Z line
EJECTION FRACTION
- The fraction of blood pumped out the left ventricle with each contraction. EV/EDV=EF
With regards to ventricular contractility, increased contractility results in higher/lower stroke volume?This is due to what?
HigherDue to circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine-Direct sympathetic stimulation of heart-Beta blockers
Incremental ex
HR and CO increase lineraly w/ work reate
Where does ATP-CP take place?
The cytoplasm of the cell.
48. From the correct answer in question 47, what would this test (e.g. the correct answer from question 47) indirectly estimate (measure)? A.POWER B. Fatigue index C. VO2max
C. VO2 max
what has PA been linked to?
reduce: dying prematurely, diabetes, high blood pressure,
maintain: health bones, weight, muscles, psychological well being, and joints
Oxygen Debt vs. Deficit
Debt: aka EPOC is the oxygen consumption above rest after exercise
Deficit: Lag in oxygen uptake at beginning of exercise
 
What 7 things is HR dependent on ?
sympathectic, parasympathetic, catecholamines, body temp, changes in BP, R atrial pressure, and age effect
Where does aldosterone come from?
The adrenal cortex (same as cortisol)
Describe the difference between continuous and interval training.
Continuous = long, slow, distance training. Interval = large amounts of high intensity work intervals followed by a rest or relief interval.
Contraction of the heart depends on electrical stimulation of which layer of the heart? List the path of electrical activity through the heart.
The myocardium1)SA node2)AV node3)Bundle of his4)Right and left bundle branches5)purkinje fibers
2) Avg Aortic BP
-aka Afterload -pressure in L vent must > than pressure in aorta to eject blood-SV inverse to afterload (^ aortic BP = V SV)-afterload minimized during ex via arteriole dilation
When a contraction can be held for a length of time without fatigue?
Muscle endurance
Muscular endurance is increased through A) Gains in flexibility and agilityB) Respiration and circulationC) Gains in strength and changes in metabolic and circulatory functionsD) Growth of muscle fiber
9. Muscular endurance is increased through*Answer: Gains in strength and changes in metabolic and circulatory functions
What are three ways ATP is formed?
phosphocreating, breakdown of glycogen and glucose, oxidative  formation
Gain of a system
the degree to which a control system maintains homeostasis.  Large gain, means more capable of maintaining homeostasis.
What yields more net energy, in terms of calories? Carbs or lipids?
Lipids. (9Cal vs 4Cal)
Parasympathectic input on HR normally and During exercise
Norm- HR DecrDuring exercise- parasymp decr to incr HR
Calcium is important in areas other than the bones. What are some of them? (3 major)
Muscle, nerve function and clotting.
There are three major things that are affected by specificity. What are they?
Neuromuscular activation, metabolic pathways, training mode.
What are the four major properties of viscoelastic structures?
Creep, Stress-relaxation, Hysteresis, and Strain Rate Dependence.
3 Functions of skeletal muscle
1) Force production for locomotion and breathing2) Force production for postural support3) Heat production during cold stress
Why is the FEV1.0 used?
because normal tidal volumes can occur in people with severe lung disease
Why does systolic blood pressure increase during exercise while diastolic does not?
Systolic BP (pressure on arterial walls during contraction) increases because there is an increase in stroke volume.
Diastolic BP (pressure on arterial walls during relaxation) does not increase beause there is a decrease in the resistance caused by an increase in vasodilation.
What is a cross-bridge?
When the myosin heads attach to the actin outside of it and form a cross-bridge.
19. What is the hormone and translocation protein responsible for bringing glucose from the blood stream into the muscle cell during exercise’? A. Cortisol and Norepinephrine B. Growth hormone and Norepinephrine C. Glucagon and GLUT 4
D. Insulin and GLUT 4
What are the ending processes of the Krebs cycle?
after citrate, reactions regenerate Oxaloacetate and 2 CO2
Krebs Cycle (Simple)
1. pyruvate (3 C) gives C to oxygen to give off CO2.  Now it's acetyl CoA (2 C)
2. Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate (4 C) to form citrate (6 C)
3. Then a series of reactions to regenerate oxaloacetate and 2 molecules of CO2
Indirect calorimetery, equation
Food + O2 intake --> Heat + CO2 + H2OAmt of O2 consumed is directly related to heat.
What is the main action of glucagon?
It spares plasma glucose by stimulating lipolysis
How do the O2-Hb dissociation curve and the CO2-Hb dissociation curve compare?
O2Hb = sigmoidal; CO2Hb = linear
Does aerobic training have a significant effect on static or dynamic lung function?
No. the effects are through optimizing work of respiratory muscles and improving gas exchange through deeper and more rapid breaths. The lung itself doesn't change.
What effect does an antiinflammatory have on healing of muscle tissue?
It alters the normal healing process and has a negative effect on force generation after eccentric exercise. It is thought that inflammation results in muscle remodelling. So without this critical phase, muscle doesn't not remodel to its full potential.
How does the transition from exercise to recovery differ between untrained and trained individuals?
Trained - steady state achieved quicker and recovery is fasterUntrained - steady state takes longer to achieve and recovery takes longer.
What is the body's response to heat stress?
Anterior hypothalamus -> Commencement of sweating and increased skin blood flow (cutaneous vasodilation)
What does the term pulmonary ventilation describe?
How ambient atmospheric air moves into and exchanges with ait in the lungs
What do the coronary arteries do?
Supply the heart with its own blood/oxygen supply during diastole.
27. Which of the following metabolic pathways would produce the least (net) amount of ATP? A. 3 molecules of glycogen (from stored glycogen in the muscle) metabolized to lactate B. 4 molecules of glucose (transported in the blood stream from
B. 4 molecules of glucose (transported in the blood stream from the liver) metabolized to lactate
What happens at the end of glycolysis?
If it is slow...pyruvate is produced and moves into the mitochondria (Krebs Cycle)
If fast... lactate is produced and moves out of the cell into circulation
What do we use the phosphocreatine stores for?
Quick bursts of energy, lasting 10 seconds or less. ie: golf swing, run to one end of the room
What is cardiovascular drift?
AN incr in HR to compensate for a decr SV to maintain COUsually gradual incr
Describe the actions of GH at high levels of intensity.
They may be redundant, because cortisol comes into effect at high levels of intensity. Cortisol is also much stronger than GH, so the action of cortisol predominates even though both hormones are present.
What are the secondary criteria to determine VO2max?(3)
1. RER>1.1, 2. HRmax 10bpm from predicted, 3. Blood lactate level of .8mmol/L.
why is it so difficult to study overtraining?
Because symptoms are vague and everyone responds differently.
Why is flexibility important? (2 major important, 3 minor, 1 wrong) --> from flexibility handout.
MAJOR: Improvement of ADLs in elderly, Injury prevention in elderly. MINOR: Improved economy of movement, Improved posture, Improved body awareness. WRONG: Decreased muscle soreness associated w/ other exercise.
List 8 of the microstructures of skeletal muscle:
1) Sarcolemma - muscle cell membrane2) Myofibrils - threadlike strands within muscle fibers3) Myofilaments which are composed of Actin and Myosin4) The sarcomere which is made up of many myofilaments (Z-line, M-line, H-zone, A-band & I-band)5)Sarcoplasmic reticulum - storage sites for calcium6) Transverse tubules7) Terminal cisternae - where Ca2+ is released from8) Mitochondria
What 3 things does the conducting zone consist of? What is it's job?
1) Trachea2) Bronchial tree 3) Bronchioles Conducts air to respiratory zone. Humidifies, warms, and filters the air.
What happens to the lactate that diffuses out of the muscles?
Diffuses into the bloodstread to be picked up by the liver, heart, kidney's and other muscle cells then used to make ATP out of it. It is converted into pyruvic acid and/or glucose.
17. In the diagram above(Dia C), which line would represent the dominant energetic pathway within the first 10 seconds of high-intensity activity? A. A, because it represents oxidative energy sources B. A. because it represents immediate ener
B. A. because it represents immediate energy sources (see chart c)
How does a rate limiting enzyme control the speeds of reactions?
they are found at the beginning  of metabolic pathway to avoid accumulation and they are controlled by modulators
What 6 things are related to/ affect afterload?
MAPSV & afterload have an inverse relationshipvessel diameterhormones epi/norepibld viscosityHTN
Why can you encounter error when using HR to determine VO2max?
Because HR is affected by arousal, hydration and the type of exercise. There is also individual variability in tolerance due to motivation, muscle strength and power, and anaerobic capacity.
During end diastolic volume, what is the frank-Starling mechanism?
A greater preload results in a stretch of ventricles and in a more forceful contraction
What 3 ways is heat exchanged during exercise?
1) Evaporative heat loss - most important means of heat loss!!2) Convective heat loss - small contribution3) Radiative heat loss - small role in total heat loss
What are two factors that blood pressure is affected by?
Amount of blood coming from the heart (stroke volume) and vessel diameter.
23. Which of the following conditions would increase the production of lactate? A. A trained cyclist maintaining a steady state volume of oxygen uptake (V01) at intensity 50% of his/her maximum VO2max B. A trained sprint athlete with a high a
B. A trained sprint athlete with a high amount of LDHm (muscular type) enzyme activity during a race, and the need of the glycolytic pathway at a fast rate.
What is the final electron acceptor at the end of the ETC?
Oxygen. It combines with the 2e- and 2H+ to make H2O.
If you're looking at a graph of VO2 over running velocity, and patient A's slope is higher than patient B's, what does that tell you about their movement EFFICIENCIES?
Patient A has a worse movement efficiency because the slope is higher. Lower slope = better movement effiency.(The change in oxygen consumption for the same increase in workload is lower, which makes person B more efficient than person A).
What is cardiac output? What is the equation for it?
The volume of blood pumped by the heart (per minute)Q = Heart Rate x Stroke VolumeHeart rate = number of beats per minutesStroke volume = amount of blood ejected in each beat.
Major % of O2 and CO2 blood transport
--99% of O2 binds to Hb--CO2 becomes bicarbonate (HCO3)----1 Hb transports 4 O2# of O2 that can be moved per blood unit depends on Hb concentration (norn conc: males = 150 g/l of blood. Females = 130 g/l of blood) this changes in supersaturation
So .. what were the end products of Krebb's again? (It's important!)
1ATP, 3 NADH, 1FADH. Oh yes, and 1CO2.
What is the roles of the lungs and kidneys in pH regulation?
lungs - increased PCO2 results in low pH, increases ventilation, CO2 is "blown off", pH lowered Kidneys - not essential during acute exercise. Regulates blood bicarbonate concentration and is important in long-term acid-base balance.
If a man and a woman have the same amount of muscle, which will be able to generate more force?
They'll be able to generate the same amount of force. Force generation per cross-sectional area remains constant, regardless of gender.
creatine phosphate
phosphocreatine.
hyperventilation
HyperventilationDecreased carbon dioxideIncreases breath holding capability
which scientist developed a respiratory gas analyzer that bears his name?
HALDANE
Synapse
The junction between two nerons
What are the important regulatory enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism?
phosphofructokinase
phosphorylase
Rate limiting Enzymes (4)
1. Creatine Kinase
2.Phosphofructokinase
3.Iscitrate dehydrogenase
4. cytochrome oxidase
Where is ADH produced?
Posterior pituitary gland
Tachycardia
a resting heart rate above 100/min
Insulin
lowers blood glucose levels by facilitating glucose transport through cell membranes. also activates activates the enzyme glycogen syntheses, which converts glucose to its storage form, glycogen. last it is a potent inhibitor of lipolysis.
glycolysis
the catabolism of carbohydrates, as glucose and glycogen, by enzymes, with the release of energy and the production of lactic or pyruvic acid.
What are isotonic actions?
dynamic movements
concentric and eccentric
Energy Carriers.  Definition, example, and what it's vital in.
Transport hydrogens (therefore energy).  Vital in aerobic production of ATP. NAD+/NADH and FAD+/FADH
What type of muscles are preferentially recruited at more than 85% VO2 Max?
Type 2b
Is running economy related to performance technique or muscle biochemistry?
Performance technique.
pancreas
supplies the working tissues with fuel by secreting hormones glucagon and insulin.
Blood lactate concentratioin
balance b/t production and removal--lactate production during exercise via NADH, Pyruvate and LDH in cytoplasm----Blood pH affected by blood lactate concentration
How do sympathetic and parasympathetic systems differ?
Parasympathetic---rest and recoverySympathetic---Action. (Swing or sprint) fight or flight
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
universal energy source for all organisms.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Immediate source of energy for muscular contraction.  A high energy phosphate compound.
What enzymes help regulate glycolysis? (3major)
PFK, Hexase, Phosphorylase
What do the alpha cells in the pancreas release?
Glucagon.
When predicting performance in a group of athletes with similar VO2 Maxes, what is a better predictor than VO2Max?
Lactate Threshold.
Which muscle connective tissues does stretching affect?
Collagen and Elastin
What is tetanus?
A smooth, sustained muscle contraction resulting from high - frequency stimulation
What is autoregulation?
Tissues controlling the amount of blood flow they recieve based on their needs.
32. True or False. Resting PCr concentration can he significantly increased with supplementation in conjunction with exercise training, and may increase performance. A. True B. False
A. True
Caloric Cost
how many calories it takes to do activity. 100 calories - walk 1 mile on flat terrain for the average person (154 lbs).
pres kennedy wrote and article on physical fitness called what
the soft american
What is the most plentiful source of potential energy?
Stored lipids.
What are 3 factors of contractility?
Inotrophic capacityIncr CO 15-20%Sympathectic control - Ince contractility
What is troponin?
Binds Ca2+ and transforms the calcium signal into a molecular signat to induce crossbridge cycling.
Define Cross training.
The transfer of benefits gained via one mode of training, to another mode of training.
CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
- A heart disease defect present at birth that occurs from abnormal parental development of the heart or associated vessels.
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
- The process of bringing air into the lungs and the resulting exchange of gas between alveoli
On a graph, what effect does arterial PCO2 have on ventilation?
Linear Increase
Basics on Hickson Study
on intereactinos b/t strenght and endurance training --E had increased vo2 first weeks but then it plataus. by adding S to E the S increased 30%, time to exhaustion increased 14 minutes but vo2 stayed the same -cross-training may be counterproductive
What is the cardiovascular system composed of?
Heart, lungs blood vessels
Caloric Equivalent
how many liters of O2 you would need to consume to work at a certain pace at a given activity.
Components of biological control (4)
 
1. Stimulus: alteration in homeostatic level of some physiologic variable
2. Recepter: Capable of detecting changes.
3.Integrating center: Assesses input and initiates response
4. Effector:  Corrects changes to internal environment.
 
How does Hexase regulate glycolysis?
It facilitates movement of glucose into the cell, and the breakdown of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, which can either go through glycolysis or be turned into glycogen.
What is the relationship between epinephrine, insulin and blood glucose as exercise duration increases?
Epi increases, insulin decreases, blood glucose increases.
If you have poor movement economy, what do you need to have in order to compete with someone who has good movement economy?
A higher VO2 max.
How does flexibility improve movement economy?
Contributes to smooth, coordinated movement.
What is oxyhemoglobin?What is Deoxyhemoglobin?
Oxyhemoglobin - Hemoglobin with bound O2Deoxyhemoglobin - Hemoglobin without bound O2
Loading and unloading
loading = O2 combining w/ Hb in lung.....unloading = opposite of loading in tissuesdeoxyHb + O2 OxyHb
Name benefits of aerobic exercise?
1) Decreased appetite; 2) body composition benefits; 3) Lower blood sugars; 4) Reduce risk of osteoporosis; 5; Increase calorie intake;
The O2 cost of Breathing
uses 3-13% of VO2 during heavy exercise
How is the myonuclear domain stabilized?
new nuclei are incorporated into skeletal muscle during growth
3 ways muscle cells can produce ATP (by one or in combo)
1.PC- Phosphocreatine breakdown (anaerobic)
2.Glycolysis- degradation of glucose or glycogen (anaerobic)
3.Oxidative formation- use of oxygen (aerobic metabolism)
How does vessel diameter affect afterload?
FLow = chnage in pressure/resistance R= 8ln/r4creates afterflow
When cortisol stimulates protein catobolism, it affects only one type of muscle fiber. Which type?
Type 2. It leaves type 1 alone.
There are only two parameters that decrease in the lung during exercise. What are they?
Alveolar ventilation and dead space.
What's the difference between central and peripheral fatigue?
Central fatigue = CNS involvement. Peripheral fatigue = fatigue as a result of actual physiological changes in nerves, muscles, and neuromuscular junctions.
ACSM recommendactions for aerobic activity
every U.S. adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week.Expend 150-200 kcal daily
During submaximal exercise, what happens to ventilatory control? What is this due to?What about during Heavy Exercise?
Linear increase due to 1) central command (brain, brain stem)2) humoral chemoreceptors (biochemical factors)3) neural FeedbackDuring heavy exercise, there is an exponentail rise above the ventilatory threshold. Increasing blood H+
T/F: blood is more viscous than H2O
true-results in increase difficulty for blood pumping-# of RBCs affects this
What is the lactate threshold?
The point where lactate starts to build up at a faster rate.
What is hypertrophy and hyperplasia?
Hypertrophy is the increase in size of the muscle fiber (the number and size of the myobibrils). Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of muscle fibers.
The key component for athletic performance isA) SpeedB) StrengthC) AgilityD) Power
The key component for athletic performance is*Answer: Power
what muscle type does a non athlete have?
50 % slow
50 % fast
How does pyruvate get from muscle sarcoplasm to mitochondria?
It couples with carnitine, which facilitates transport into the mitochondria.
How does periferal input help control HR during exercise?
Joints and musclesIn the vessesl baroreceptors and mechanoreceptors detect movement. Inhibit sympathectic tone which decr HR and incr vasodilation
What are the major effects of aldosterone? (2)
It controls BP, and plasma volume.
What is the relationship of work and VO2?
they have a linear relationship.
How does inhibition of PFK (by increased H ion) affect fatigue?
Inhibition of PFK (rate limiting enzyme) decreases the speed of glycolysis --> decreased speed of blood glucose regeneration.
intensity
55 to 90% of max HR40 to 85% of max HR reserve and vo2 max
What is the optimal length of a muscle for optimal contraction?
2.25 micrometersMaximal cross-bridge interaction = maximal tension development.
What is physiological dead space?
The portion of the aveolar volume with poor tissue regional perfusion or inadequate ventilation
What are the four reasons for lactate threshold?
Lack of oxygen.
Hydrogen shuttle: NADH+H+ Ratio
Use of fast twitch fibers.
Decreased rate of lactate removal.
Differentiate between a hormone and a neurotransmitter.
Hormone is a chemical messenger released into the blood designed "to set in motion" a process. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. Produced within the presynaptic neuron
Economy of Walking and Running
can you do the same thing and burn less calories?
Does the use of the phosphagen system require oxygen?
No, but resynthesis of phosphocreatine does.
VOCAB: Respiratory Quotient, AKA Respiratory Exchange Ratio
CO2 produced = O2 the body takes up. This can ONLY be calculated if the subject is in steady state of activity!
What are the effects of training on the neuroendocrine system? (3major) Why do these happen?
1.1. decreased hormone release at a given workload (because exercise has become less stressful, so lower leevels or hormones are triggered). 2. Plasma glucose is more stable (due to increased lactate threshold, decreased O2 deficit). 3. Increased epi release at extreme exercise which leads to increased hepatic glucose production.
Why does expiration take longer than inspiration when at rest?
Because it's a passive process, so flow is slower and it takes longer.
What are the first adaptations that are lost?
The first ones that were gained. Cardio and enzyme adaptations.
Describe the role substance P may play in DOMS.
Substance P is released with inflammation. Although inflammation itself isn't suspected of causing DOMS, the release of substance P at this stage may be a cause. Substance P is not affected by NSAIDS, so it makes sense that NSAIDS would not affect this pain factor.
List the 6 steps in excitation-contraction coupling (Na+ and Ca2+):
1. Net entry of Na+ initiates an aciton potential which is propagated along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules2. Action potential in T tubule activates voltage-sensitive receptors, which in turn trigger Ca2+ release from terminal cisternae of SR into cytosol3. Calcium ions bind to troponin4. Contraction!5. Removal of Ca2+ by active transport into the SR after the action potential ends.6. Tropomyosin blockaged restored, blocking myosin biding sites on actin.
What is residual lung volume?
the amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal exhalation
Explain how the lactate threshold is affected by reduced lactate removal and how it improves in a trained individual.
During exercise there may be an increase in lactic acid production and a decrease in its removal by the liver. Trained individuals are able to make more ATP with a given amount of blood flow than untrained individuals, which means that they don't require as much blood flow to the working muscles and more blood is able to flow to the liver to help clear out lactic acid.
What 2 factors determine the amount of force generated during contraction in the whole muscle?
1) Size of individual muscle fibers; and 2) The number of muscle fibers contracted together
Energy released from the breakdown of food is converted by the body and stored as A) FatB) ProteinC) GlucoseD) ATP
Energy released from the breakdown of food is converted by the body and stored as*Answer: ATP
How is lactate used as an energy source? (2 major ways)
In the recovery phase, NAD scavenges electrons from lactate to make NADH to go to the ETC. The pyruvate is then used to produce glucose via the Cori cycle in the liver. Lactate is also produced in fast twitch cells and is shuttled to other muscle cells, where it can be converted into pyruvate for krebb's cycle.
What are the effects of epi/norpi in liver tissue?
Rapid glycogenolysis to put glucose in the bloodstream ofor muscles to use and to maintain stablization of blood glucose as tissues use it for energy.
Increased H ion interferes w/ lipase (release of FFAs). How does this impact fatigue?
It forces a shift in energy dependence from lipids to glycolysis, which has a decreased effectiveness because of PFK inhibition.
With regards to blood flow, what 3 things does resistance depend upon?
1) The length of the vessel2) Viscosity of the blood3) Radius of the vessel-A small change in vessel diameter can have a dramatic impact on resistance!
How can some people have high vo2 but don't work out?
Genetic basis40-66% of VO2 probably genetically predisposed
What is a met? How do you determine the Vo2Max of a met value?
Metabolic Equivalent. Resting Vo2 Max of 3.5mL/Kg/min.To determine the Vo2Max, multiply 3.5 x the met value.
What is the basic 3 step process of aerobic ATP production?
1. generation of 2-C molecule Acetyl CoA
2. oxidation of Acetyl CoA in the Krebs cycle
3. oxidative phosphorlation in the e- transport chain
What effect does type one muscle use have on lipid breakdown? Why?
Type 1 has a high oxidative capacity, which helps w/ fat breakdown.
Why would you use interval training to improve aerobic performance?
It gives a high volume of high intensity work.
What is the effect of training on ventilation?
Ventilation is lower at the same work rate following training.May be due to lower blood lactic acid levels-Results in less feedback to stimulate breathing.
28. Which of the following is true concerning the Krebs cycle? A. It produces an equivalent of ATP (which is (GTP), NADH. and FADH B. Acetyl CoA produces LDH C. It is regulated by PFK D. None of the products formed are shuttled to
A. It produces an equivalent of ATP (which is (GTP), NADH. and FADH
Do we have evidence to support the statement that flexibility improves elderly ADLs?
No. It is stated all the time, but there is no research to back it up.
What speeds up the RLE in ATP production?
The rise of ADP levels, or decrease in ATP levels.
Is it likely that creatine kinase is a causal factor for DOMS? Why or why not?
No, it isn't. the CK peaks at 4-6 days post activity. Pain peaks at 2-3 days. Not only that, but muscular dystrophy patients have a lot of CK in their blood as a result of destroyed muscle fibers, but experience no pain. Therefore, CK isn't likely to be the cause of pain in DOMS.
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