Exercise Physiology Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
health benefits
resistance training principles
195
Hydrolysis
adding water to another chemical
Where does calcitonin come from?
Thyroid
Lactate Changes
Aerobically trained athletes can improve lactate threshold
Homeostasis
Maintenance of a constant internal environment.  
With increased intensity, what fuel source do you use more of?
glucose
Golgi Tendon Organ
- Tension, relaxation, and MTJ
What effect does exercise training have on hormone release
Increased
Prolonged, moderate-to-heavy submaximal exercise
primarily aerobic until extremely heavy exercise demand
Type of Reaction:
Proteins to Amino Acids
Catabolic (Exergonic)
What fuel source do we preferentially use of high intensity/short duration activities?
Carbs
C Protein
Holds myosin thick filaments in regular array.
Sarcomere
the basic functional unit of a myofibril
Apporximately 99% of O2 transported in the blood is bound to __________.
hemoglobin
What is acetylcholine?
A specific type of neurotransmitter.
Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis
1. Continuous Endurance Exercise - slow utilization of glycogen but it can be depleated severly2. Intermittent, Short duration exercise - we can use a lot or a little
Steroids
not an energy fat source but increases sex hormones and increases with sprinting and lifting
Is NADH the oxidized or reduced form of NAD+?
Reduced.
What is afterload?
Pressure the ventricles have to overcome to create flow
Where does ADH have its action?
In the kidneys.
What happens to centroid frequency w/ fatigue?
It decreases.
Krebs Cycle
A series of chemical reactions that involve the complete oxidation of acetyl CoA and produce 2 mol of ATP, hydrogen and carbon which results in H2O and CO2
hyperplasma
this is a hypothetical increase in the # of M fibers b/c of exercise.not know if this exists but a study suggested that it occureed.
11.Which of the following hormones would most likely be released during a long distance activity (e.g. like running an ultra marathon> 3 hours) to help prevent dehydration? A. Cortisol B. antidiuretic hormone C. Glycerol D. Nor
B. antidiuretic hormone
Oxygen drift
After 30 mins at a comfortable pace your O2 consumption will go up a bit, even w/o an increase in workload
What is the RLE for the Krebs Cycle?
isocitrate dehydrogenase
Oxygen uptake increases in a linear fashion during incremental exercise until what?
VO2max is reached
VOCAB: Cori Cycle
Process in the liver which produces glucose.
What controls thyroid hormones?
Negative feedback to the hypothalamus to turn of anterior pituitary, to the thalamus which will decrease release of the hormones.
How does interval training (theoretically) increase lactate threshold?
By improving lactate mobility. (training anaerobic and waste removal systems.)
What are the factors affecting flexibility? (8)
Joint structure, muscle-tendon unit/ligaments, nervous system activity, activity level, age, gender, temperature changes, strength of antagonists.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
- Consist of the brain and spinal cord.
What is ventilation?
mechanical process of moving air into and out of the lungs
Sympathetic (SNS) influeces on CO
-increases HR-reaches heart via cardiac accelerator nerves which hits SA node and vetricles.-releases norepinephrine wich acts on beta receptors.-this ^ HR and contraction
What is a Sarcomere?
A sarcomere is several repeating units within the myofibril. These units contain actin and myocin.
35. Which of following 3 main energy systems supply the greatest potential amount of ATP? A. Immediate energy systems B. Non oxidative C. Oxidative
C. Oxidative
what test is used in physical education programs?
AAHPERD youth fitness test
What does resynthesis of phosphocreatine require? When does resynthesis occur?
Requires: ATP and O2 to resynthesize.Occurs: only after activity, in the recovery phase.
How does bld viscosity affect afterload?
indirecty incr by incr resistance
VOCAB: Ventilatory Threshold
Point at which Ve/VO2 is no longer linear.
When does adaptation occur? (progressin principle)
adaptation occurs in the recovery period.
Define:RadiationConduction ConvectionEvaporation
Radiation - (60% heat loss at rest) - transfer of heat via infrared rays, no physical contact between surfacesConduction - Heat loss due to contact with another surfaceConvection - Form of conductive heat loss. Heat transferred to air or water.Evaporation - (25% heat loss at rest) - heat transferred via water (sweat) on skin surface. Evaporation rate depends on 1)Temp and relative humidity 2)Convective currents around the body 3)amount of skin surface exposed. This is the Most important means during exercise!
Ventilatory regulation at rest
-contraction and relaxion of resp M controlled by somatic motor nuerons....--motor neurons controled by respiratory control center in medulla oblongata
What is the primary source for production of ATP?
Glycogen and Fatty Acids
Carbohydrate MetabolismStage 4: Electron transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
A. Directly utilizes O2 as the final electron acceptorB. Occurs in the Cristae(inner membrane) of the mitochondriaC. Produces 3 ATP for each NADH+H(pos) and 2 ATP for each FADH2D. 2H(pos) + 2e(neg) + 1/2 O2 --> H2O
If you have a myocardial infarction, which enzyme would be found in the blood?
lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase
Energy investment phase (glycolysis) (3 Steps)
1. Glucose is phosphorylated from ATP to activate the molecule C6-P
2.  Rearrangement and 2nd phosphorylation from another ATP P-C6-P
3. The 6 carbon molecule is split into two 3 carbon molecules G3P
Where is pyruvate used?
In Krebb's cycle, it gets turned into Acetyl Co-A
At low intensity exercise (25% of VO2Max) from where does energy predominanty come?
FFAs from adipose tissue. (85%)
What is the relationship between Ve and VO2 during intense exercise?
Ve increases exponentially, to 35-40:1.
How do you know when to progress a program?
when adaptation occurs.
Describe the difference between a stretch relaxation and a creep stretch.
Stretch relaxation: the muscle is stretched to 10% longer than original length, then immediately released. Creep: Stretch muscle to specific tension and hold for 10 seconds.
Factors that affect cardiac rate include?Factors that affect stroke volume include?
Cardiac rate = decrease in parasympathetic nerves, increase in sympathetic nervesStroke volume - Decrease in arterial pressure, increase in contraction strength, increase in EDV
What does the conducting zone of the respiratory system do?
filters air
humidifies it
warms it 
How does more mitochondria and capillaries help to increase the a-VO2 difference?
Mitochondria needs more oxygen and will take the oxygen it needs. More capillaries means oxygen delivery is closer.
What is a motor neuron?
Neurons makeup the tissue in the brain and spinal cord. A motor neuron transmits a nerve impulse to a working muscle.
40. Who will have a higher relative V02 max? A. Endurance trained individual B. Untrained individual
A. Endurance trained individual
What three components compromise O2 requirement for cycling?
1. Resting VO2
2. VO2 for unloading cycling
3. VO2 against load
Can substances other than carb catabolism products go through Krebb's Cycle?
Yes, Glycerol, amino acids and fatty acids from lipid catabolism can also go through Krebb's.
What do we use for energy in the inital phase of activity?
phosphagen system and carbs
What is the main effect of insulin?
Stimulates uptake of glucose and inhibits lipolysis
What things are primarily responsible for decreased muscle power with increased age? (4)
Decrease in muscle mass, decrease in spinal cord axons, decrease in nerve conduction velocity, decreased reaction and movement times.
What are most likely the main culprits, currently identified, to skeletal muscle fatigue?
H and phosphate accumulation, along with CNS effects.
How do joint structure, nervous system activity and activity level each impact flexibility?
JOINTS:Some are more constrained than others. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Biasing of sensitivity of muscle spindle; increased tolerance to the feeling of stretch results in increased flexibility. ACTIVITY LEVEL: Increased activity leads to increased flexibility.
What is a neuromuscular junction and list 2 very important parts of it:
A neuromuscular junction is where motor neuron meets muscle fiber1) Motor end plate - pocket formed around motor neuron by the sarcolemma2) Neuromuscular cleft - short gap where ACH travels across. In between the axon and the sarcolemma of a muscle.
What is dead-space ventilation? What is alveolar ventilation?
Dead-space ventilation is unusable. "unused ventilation". Does not participate in gas exchange. Anatomical dead space: conducting zone. Physiological dead space = disease.Alveolar ventilation - Usable. Volume of inspire gas that reaches the respiratory zone.V = Va + Vd
As Ex begins metabolic rate increases. These changes follow:
1) decreases O2 tension (b/c of increase O2 extraction)2) Nitric Oxide (NO) [produced in arterioles and promotes relaxtion and vasodilation of arterioles in working M]3) Adenosine (promotes vasodilation)4) decrease pH (casued by ^ CO2 and increased lactic acid break down)
What is a neuromuscular junction?
The junction where a motor neuron and a myofibril meet.
2. Which of the above represents the motor end plate? A.A B.B C.C D.D
A. (See Dia A-axon chart)
Energy Generation Phase (steps 4-8) of glycolysis
4. the two G3P's get oxidized (removing H+). (NAD+ takes the electron to become NADH). Followed by another phosphorylation to make high energy BPG (two of them!)
5. ADP takes the high energized p bond to make ATP and 3PG (two of them each!) 
6. Water is removed, oxidizing, making 2 high energy PEP molecules
7. ADP takes the energy to make 2 ATPs
8. 2 Pyruvates is the end product.....if Oxygen is available...it will continue further breakdown in the mitochondria!!!
Which is faster? Carb or lipid metabolism? By how much?
Carb metabolization is 2xs faster than lipid.
What are some cardiovascular adjustment to UE exercise?
VO2 and HR are higher for any given workload. Lower mechanical efficencey, trunk stabilization. HR effect may be due to greater input from peripheral receptors- Increase sympathetci stimBP is higher for a given % VO2 max, smaller muscle mass & vasculature offer greater resistance to flow
What happens to BMR in the hypothyroid patient?
It decreases, which decreases energy and increases weight.
Movement economy explanation. (not a question. just flip the card :)
Two people running at the same speed may have very different VO2 maxes, even though the work load is the same between the two people. This is because of the biomechanics each person employs to complete the activity. Experienced runners will have a lower VO2 at the same movement than someone who is not, because they have a good pattern of movement --> better movement economy --> higher VO2max than the person who is flopping their arms all over the place and using their body for momentum.
Is the story stronger for the contribution of H ion accumulation, or O2 depletion to fatigue?
H ion accumulation has more supporting evidence.
How do ballistic, static and PNF stretching techniques rate in terms of time/assistance?
Ballistic is good, static is excellent and PNF is poor.
With regards to fiber types and performance what are power athletes (sprinters) more like to possess?
Possess high percentage of fast fibers (about 75%)
What 5 things factor in to heat acclimatization?
1) Increased plasma volume2) Earlier onset of sweating3) Higher sweat rate4) Reduced sodium chloride loss in sweat5) Reduced skin blood flow
What is the main benefit of more mitochondria and what three good things come from that?
More mitochondira means less lactic acid created. Because of this, oxygen use is more efficient, you are able to use fat as fuel more, and there is an increased chance that H+ will enter the ETC.
Name 4 rules to maximize overload principle.
1) Correct type; 2) Duration; 3) Frequency; 4) Intensity
46. Which of the following statements is true concerning kcals? A. Represents the sum of all metabolic activity at rest B. Represents maximal oxygen consumption during exercise C. The amount used is linearly related to the amount of oxy
C. The amount used is linearly related to the amount of oxygen consumed during exercise
What is the primary function of the Krebs Cycle?
to oxidize proteins, fats, and carbs using FAD/NAD as H+ energy carriers
Is there more epi or norepi in circulation? How?
There is more norepi in circulation, because there is only ¼ the norepi released from the adrenal medulla, as there is epi, more norepi leaks out of neural synapses to the blood stream.
After 20 days of bed rest/immobilization, a group of subjects was shown to have decreased VO2max, SV and CO by what percentage?
all of these areas declined by 25% in 20 days.
Where are the muscle spindle receptors found and what are the effects of stimulation on this receptor?
Located in a group of skeletal muscle fibers.Intrafusal fiber contains actin and myosin, and therefore has the ability to shorten. Gamma motor neuron stimulates muscle spindle to shorten. Changes in muscle length. Causes the muscle to contract and resist being stretched.
With regards to the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, what characterizes the slower O2 delivery portion and what characterizes the rapid O2 delivery poriton?
Slower O2 delivery = > 40mmHgPO2. Due to high altitude, agedRapid O2 delivery =
What is contactility and what are its effects during exercise?
This refers to how forcefully the heart muscle contracts. The heart beats harder with more force with exercise. The sympathetic nervous system sends a signal directly to the ventricular myocardium. It is one factor affecting stroke volume.
What is the function of FAD and NAD in e- Transport Chain?
e- from NADH are transferred down the e- chain giving enough energy to produce ATP
What is the Frank-Starling law of the heart?
The more bld in the ventricle themore bld is expelled from the ventricle-- the more venous return the more pumped out
If patient A has a lower VO2 when running at the same velocity as patient B, what can you assume about their movement economies?
Patient A has a better movement economy than patient B.
What is the plasma part of the blood?What is the cells part of the blood?
Plasma is the liquid portion of blood and consists of ions, proteins, and hormonesCells consists of red blood cells which consists of hemoglobin which carries oxygen. Cells also consists of white blood cells which help fight infection and platelets which aid in blood clotting.
What is the HR theory for CV drift?
This theory explains that the heart at a high HR is not getting enough fill time before contracting, resulting in little blood flow, therefore not getting enough preload.
Growth hormone has the ability to play a role in recovery. Why can GH do this and other hormones can’t?
It has a long halflife. It lasts 7 times longer than cortisol, so this prolonged effect allows it to take part in the recovery process.
What is afterload and what are its effects during exercise?
This refers to the pressure in the SL valves that the heart must overcome in order to eject blood (pressure the heart must push against). During exercise, afterload pressure decreases.
As one begins to exercise, the demand for ATP is instantaneous. Explain how the body is able to provide for this deman immediately, then how it is able to maintain ATP production as the body continues to exercise.
There is a reserve of ATP in each cell (1 billion). Then the body must continue to make ATP by ATP-CP, Glycolysis, and Aerobic Respiration.
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