Vocabulary 538 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Stage 2
Plateau
Duration STM
20-30 seconds
Broca
solidified localization
patient couldn't produce speech
opiates
relieve pain
 
opium, morphine, heroin, and synthetic drugs such as methadone
 
mimic endorphines
locke
tabula rasa- blank slate
Each hemisphere controls/communicates with what side of the body?
opposite
Causes of Specific Phobias
-Inherited vulnerability-traumatic/direct exposure-observational learning
Melancholic
Ancient Greek, Hippocrates-Galen. One is brooding, sad , depressive
Schema
Integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic
Bulimia
habitually engaging in out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts, such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics, and excessive exercise
Experimental group
group exposed to treatment
Controlled experiments allow the determination of
causation
Assumed Consensus Effect
inflate similarity belief
cultural and ethnic differences 476
see 476
Sleep Deprivation
Interferes with memory, more susceptible to illness, and physically exhausted.
Authoritative
parents set high yet reasonable expectations, normal parents
recognition
provides insight into how information is stored in memory
classical conditioning
learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stiumulus
WAIS
most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests.
Neurotransmitters
The chemicals that communicate between neurons.
Plasticity
The brain's special capacity for change
negatively
Although no causation has been established, socioeconomic status is ... correlated with mental illness
pituitary gland produces?
luteinizing hormone and progesterone
Personal Fable
Adolescent belief that their experiences and feelings are unique that no one has ever felt the way they do.
Papez
*mid 50s: "system concept"
each part has specialized function, but the part can only do its work when its working with other parts
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
psychoanalysis
Freud's thoery of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
Id
Psychic structure, present at birth, that represents physiological drives and is fully unconscious
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration--the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal--creates anger, which can generate aggression
sympathy
a relationship between persons in which the condition of one induces a parallel or reciprocal condition in another
psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 199)
Psychoactive Drug
A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
institutional dwarfism
children in orphanages who don't receive a mother's attention and touch are smaller than others of their age
Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each ahs a distinctive
B) personality
pituitary gland
controls endocrine system by sending out hormone signals
episodic memory
recollection of events in our lives
how is colorblindness detected?
 
what are the two colors that are the same?
 
most common type?
 
which sex is most common in?
Ishihara test
 
green and red
 
type 1
 
men
industry vs inferiority
6-puberty, learning to function socially extended beyond family, if successful-should develop sense of competence
syntax
the rules and procedures for combining words to form sentences.
Through the _____ week of development, the external sex organs of embryos are identical.
sixth
Repression
when a person cannot remember a traumatic or disturbing memory/thought and it has been pushed into their subconscious because it is too hard to think about.
Public policies
laws and governmental programs aimed at improving current conditions
dendrites
fibers that receive signals from the axon of other neurons
psychiatrist
a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
"Experience is the key to all knowledge" is associated with ______.
empiricism
Experimental design
o is the design of all information-gathering exercises where variation is present, whether under the full control of the experimenter or not
cyclothymia
milder, more chronic for of bipolar disorder, mood swings from hypomania(mild) to dysthymia, experience highs and lows for at least a 2 yr period, have increased risk of developing bipolar disorder
Mental Age
Measure of intelligence derived by comparing an individual's score on an intelligence test with the average performance of individuals of the same age.
The acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response
Humanistic Therapy
aims to increase self-awareness and self-acceptance
Sociocultural Perspective
study of cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior.
interference
The forgetting process in which the recall of some particular memory is blocked or prevented by new information that overwrites or interferes with it. See also proactive interference and retroactive interference.
introversion
the state of being concerned primarily with one's own thoughts and feelings rather than with the external environment
Cocaine Teratogenic Agent
premature size/weight, tremulus, high pitched crying, respiratory and regurgitation problems, rigidity, withdrawal symptoms, deformities
correlational studies
attempt to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events, characteristics, or variables
Alter
Shorthand term for ALTER EGO, one of the different personalities or identities in dissociative identity disorder.
MORAL COURAGE
Part of O'Byrne, Lopez, and Petersen's classification of courage; the authentic expression of one's beliefs or values in pursuit of justice or the common good despite power differentials, dissent, disapproval, or rejection.
stress
the process by which we precieve and respond to certain events
limbic system
a group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along the inner edge of the cerebrum
Drug Rebound Effect
withdrawal symptoms that are the opposite of a physically additive drug's action.
phallic stage
3-5yrs old, the genitals become the focus of the child's erotic energy, largely thru self-stimulation, oedipal complex occurs
action potential
A neural impulse generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane. A brief electrical charge that flows along the surface of the axon to the terminal buttons, initiating the release of neurotransmitters. See also resting potential, graded potential.
define false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate others agreement with us
Self- fulfilling prophecy
phenomenon where observers bring about what they expect to perceive.
Sleep Talking
also referred to as somniloquy, the production of speech or speech sounds associated with sleep without subjective awakeness.
stage theory
ppl go through stages and change stages rapidly (steps)
Context-dependent memory
improved ability to remember if tested in the same envirnonment as the initial learning environment
Neurotransmitter Release (exocytosis)
AP reaches terminals- activates Ca++ channels- Influx of Ca++- causes synaptic vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane- vesicles open onto membrane and release their content into the synapse- neurotransmitters work(send signal) by bind to post-synaptic receptors
perceptual constancy
the ability to perceive constancy no matter what the angle of the object, or lighting.
positive transfer
old information can help our learning of new information.
A mental representation of objects or events tha are not physically present.
mental image
Absolute Threshold
The smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is present
Latent learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate.
Progressive relaxation
A stress reduction technique in which people learn to relax by alternately flexing and relaxing their muscles in a particular muscle group and then progressively to other muscle throught the body.
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
Blind Spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating THIS b/c no receptor cells are located here
motor behaviours
bodily motions that occur as a result of self-initiated force that moves the bones and muscles
fetal period
this period begins the 9th week after conception with the first signs of the hardening of the bones and continues until birth
Cognitive restructuring
A type of stress management. Changing how you deal with stress. Change the way you think about the stuff you deal with in your life ultimately effects how you react to it.
slow pathway
From the thalamus to the cortex, and then to the amygdala. �
Nature vs. Nurture
the argument on whether reactions are pre-programmed or learned
favorable prognosis of schizophenia
-onset of disorder has been sudden-onset has occurred at later age-social and work adjustment were relatively good priorto onset of the disorder-proportion of nengative symptoms is relatively low-patient is healthy, and has a supportive family
synapse
the tiny gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another
How Neurons Communicate
Neuron is stimulated- Usually by a neurotransmitter. (change from resting potential)
If stimulated sufficently- reaches "Action Potential Threshold"
Generates an "action potential"- an electrical current conducted down the axon.
"All or none Law"- neuron either reaches threshold and fires or not

Refractory period- brief period during which not likely to fire
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
reaction formation
when love for parents is replaced with hate and disrespect - is abnormal for this not to happen- attempt to transfer sexual feelings from parents to peers
Ideal measure of all of the relevant aspects of job performance.
Ultimate Criterion
During which stage of non-REM sleep do some delta waves begin to appear?
Stage 3
dark adaptation
process of adjustment to seeing in the dark.
CT (computed tomography) scan
An amplified scan of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by a computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
tolerance
reduction in the effect of a drug as a result of repeated use, requiring users to use a greater amount
List reorganization in free recall
uses exsisting knowledge to group together iteams that are similar or related to each other
Primary reinforcer
a reinforcer such as food or sex that has an innate basis because of its biological value to an organism
Mechanoreceptors (Sensitive to mechanical forces)
- the skin – sensitive to pressurethe muscles and joints – sensitive to stretching and rotationthe vestibular system in the ear – sensitive to the position and motion of the head the cochlea in the ear – sensitive to sound
Sensory register
The first stage of memory, in which an exact image ofeach sensory experience is helf briefly until it can be processed.
what can you feel with touch
pressure, warm cold and pain
the law of large numbers
observations that a large sample will probably be more representative than a small sample. also, the values are more likely to be similar to the actual values for the population.
Schacter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Trigger > Bodily Changes > Cognitive label
What makes a marriage work?



The most important factor in a lasting marriage is friendship.Obstacles to a happy marriage are: criticism, contempt, defensiveness, stonewalling
Parallel distributed processing model(PDP)
a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections
Lepper and colleagues "magic maker study" demonstrated that children who had been offered a "good player" award for playing with markers_____ than the other children.
later spent less time playing with markers
asked to tell what each symbol means to him and to arrange the symbols several times according to different sets of direction
Kahn Test of Symbol Arrangement
Once we collect data, what do we do with it?
Use Statistics to interpret descriptive data
How does Ernest Hilgard explain pain reduction through hypnosis?
deny pain and imagined being in a place which allowed them to dissociate from pain
Sides of the brain are absolute in that just because you primairy use the left brain in language, you dont only use the left brain.
where in the brain is just as important if not more important
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