Vocabulary of the Industrial Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Michael
Thonet / Chair, n.14 (“Bistro Chair”) / 1859 

VIctoria & Albert
...
petite bourgeosie
lower-middle class
suffrage
the right to vote
immigration
the act of immigrating.
union
organization dedicated to improving working conditions and wages of workers
Bernstein
Evolutionary socialist who found orthodox Marxism to be irrelevant.
smelt
seperate iron from its ore
Spinning Jenny
new machine that revolutionized textiles.
Cockerill
Brought British inventions and workers to Belgium to begin Europe's textile industry
Chartism
Agitation against poor laws- working class discontent
marxism
abolition of private property, wanted to abolish the class system
26,000
earth is about ? miles wide
John Stuart Mill
British; Philosopher; Economist; Believed women should vote; Led Utilitarianism movement in 1840s; Believed in was wrong that workers lead bad lives
communism
political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government and sees class struggle between employers and employees as unavoidable
acculturation
process of holding onto older traditions while adapting to a new culture
recession
the act of receding or withdrawing.
John Wesley-
found the Methodist movement along with his brother Charles Wesley.
Separate Spheres
- Middle-class
- women stay at home
- men go to work
Child Labor
Children working in factories and mines. Conditions were terrible--incredibly long hours, given dangerous jobs, not paid much.
coal
mineral that replaced charcoal as fuel thereby providing the stimulus for growth in the Industrial Revolution
mechanical reaper
harvested grain faster allowing for more food with less manual labor, more harvest, and a greater profit
United States
surpassed all of Europe industrially in this period
Thomas Malthus
(1766-1834) population increases at a geometric rate while food supply increases at an arithmetic rate, first person to say that one day their would be more humans than the earth could sustain.
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Primogeniture
System in which firstborn son inherits all of the family land and farm.
1833
The Year that the "Royal Wililam" crossed the Atlantic Ocean in twenty days.
John Wesley
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
The movement of people from rural areas to cities.
Urbanization
social darwinism
a 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is accounted as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions and in accord with which a position of laissez-faire is advocated.
Jethro Tull
invented the seed drill, a machine that put evenly spaced, deep holes in the ground for seeds, doing the work of 3 men, that was more efficient than people, replaced hand work
Great Britain
first country to start the Industrial Revolution.
Combination Acts
passed in 1799 which outlawed unions and strikes
canal
long and narrow strip of water made for boats or for irrigation
Corn Laws
1815 tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. Never worked well
Gustave Flaubert
French writer of novels and short stories (1821-1880)
Steam Engine
Invented by James Watt in 1777. Provided mechanized power for manufacturing and mining, and made factories and mass production possible.
Blast Furnace
This produced purer and stronger iron in the Second Industrial Revolution
Flying shuttle
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
Andrew Carnegie
small iron mills, sold bonds to foreign investors *libraries
Robert Fulton
built the first steam shape, named the clermont
economies of scale
as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost of each of these products goes down
Factory Act of 1833
created factory workday for children between 9-13 to 8 hrs a day; not applicable to home; outlawed child labor under 9- factory owners establish schools; destroyed family unit
Belle Epoque
name for positive view of the 1870s (no major wars, industry/wealth, middle class is dominating, galleries/music halls/theartres, education, universal male suffrage)
Factors of Production
Resources needed to produce foods and services
John D. Rockefeller
formed the standard oil trust in 1882
Ned Ludd
Led a group of people who would storm factories and destroy the machines as a form of retaliation
National System of Political Economy
written by Friedrich List. Believed industrialization would relieve ppl of poverty & help achieve happiness. SUpported railroad building, tarrifs & Zollverein
What led to the spread of transformation of society?
1. Industrialization affected every aspect of society. The workers suffered. The workers suffered hardships but in the long term most peoples lives improved.
2. The rise of a prosperous middle class led to better education and greater democratic participation
What were the two effects of scientific farming?
1. more food
2. increase in population
3. cities grow
Equal Franchise Act of 1928
gave women the right to vote, and disregarded the prerequisite of owning property
Who was Elizabeth Gaskell and what impact did he have on the Industrial Revolution?
Wrote Mary Barton; wrote about the urban life experienced at this time.
Who was I.M. Singer and what impact did he have on the Industrial Revolution?
Foot peddle on sewing machine; made sewing faster and easier
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