Eyes 2 Flashcards

corneal light reflex
Terms Definitions
retin/o
retina
corne/o, kerat/o
cornea
9
anterior chamber
optic
Pertaining to vision.
_______________ manifests with asymptomatic, thickened, yellow fibrous tissue in the conjunctiva, bilaterally; invariably on the nasal side
Pterygium
Papilledema cause
increased intracranial pressure
Phacoemulsification
phacoemulsification (phac/o = lens). involves use of an ultrasonic needle probe to break up the lens, which is then aspirated. to treat cataract
Eye
Complex & highly developed photosensitive organ. Accurately analyzes form, light intensity, and color reflected from objects.
decorum
dignified propriety of behavior, speech, dress, etc.
Define Anatomy
The study of body structure
strabismus
abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes caused by the visual axes not meeting at the same point
astigmatism
A defective curvature of the refractive surface of the eye
Puncta
Tiny openings through which tears drain away from the eyes. Four puncta are in the nasal corner of the eye — two in the upper inner eyelid and two in the lower inner eyelid.
Iris
pigmented expansion of the middle layer of the eye that is opaque and partially covers the anterior side of the lens.
Rhodopsin
-Receptor protein with a prebound chemical agonist.
-In rods, rhodopsin absorbs electromagnetic radiation in the membrane of the stacked disks in the rod outer segments.
-First step in hyperpolarization in response to light.
wry
produced by a distortion or lopsidedness of the facial features:
What is the "anotomical space" called at the neuromuscular junction?
Synapse
______: Ruptured blood vessel under conjunctiva with a definable/distinct border. Not dangerous, will go away on its own.
Subconjunctival hemorrhage
lacrimal glands and ducts
produce and drains tears
photoretinitis.
Inflammation of the retina caused by extreme light
Patient comes in with inflammation of the anterior part of the uveal tract. Their eye appears red, with a small pupil. They complain about the light. They mention decreased vision and moderate, aching pain. What does this patient have?
Iritis
Blindess in HIV patients are commonly cuased by
Cytomegalovirus
inequality of pupillary size is known as
anisocoria
Astigmatism
refractive error of vision due to differences in curvature in refractive surfaces of the eye (cornea and lens)
5 histological layers of cornea
Epitheilium,
anterior limiting membrane,
substantia propria,
posterior limiting membrane,
endothelium
retina
the innermost coat of the posterior part of the eyeball that receives the image produced by the lens, is continuous with the optic nerve, and consists of several layers, one of which contains the rods and cones that are sensitive to light.
Name the three coats of the eyeball
Sclera
Choroid
Retina
Consists of Iris, Ciliary Body, Choroid.
Uveal Track/Vascular Tunic
_____ – (new vessels) happens with diabetics as a part of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)
Neovascularization
pinguecula,
a yellow mass on the conjunctiva that seems to be caused by environmental irritants, such as ultraviolet light, dry air, or dust
_____ is the perception of 2 impages and may be monocular or binocular
diplopia
optic papilla
region where optic nerve enters the eyeball
Macula
The part of the retina for central vision. Located in the middle of the retina.
-No large blood vessels.
Macula
What type of vision?
Hypertensive retinopathy grade 4
Enter your back text here.
How thick is the cornea?
.5mm thick at its center
Usually only inspect Upper eyelid conjunctiva if _____ or _____ suspected
foreign body or pathology
peripheral iridotomy
laser surgery used to create hole to relieve pressure
What is a pterygium?
an abnormal growth of  conjunctiva that extend  over the cornea from the limbus
function of medial rectus
moves eye inward towards nose (adduction)
Confrontation positive findings / indication
1) scotoma, diminished peripheral vision 2) CN 2 or Retinal problem
__________ – the ability of the eyes to come to focus in the midline with constriction of pupils when focusing on an object up close
Convergence and Accomodation
how does horner syndrome occur?
by interruption of the sympathetic nerve supply to the eye usually at the cervical sympathetic trunk
aqueous humor movement
flows to lens. passing b/n lens and iris, reaching the anterior chamber-cornea and basal part of iris-penetrateslimbus tissue in labyrinthine spaces-reaches Schlemm's canal(lined w/ endothelial cells) which then communicates w/ small veins of the sclera where the aq. hum. escapes!
Name the primary action of each extraocular muscle
Superior Rectus = Elevation (up)
Inferior Rectus = Depression (down)
Medial Rectus = Adduction (in)
Lateral Rectus = Abduction (out)
Superior oblique = Depression (in & down)
Inferior Oblique = Elevation (out & up)
Name some contributing factors for adie pupil (tonic pupil)
Affected pupil dilated and reacts slowly or fails to react to light
 
responds to convergence; cuased by impariment of postganglioinc parasympathetic innervation to sphincter pupillae muslce or ciliary malfunction
 
often accompanied by diminished tendon relfexes
what is CN III oculomotor responsible for
levator palprebrae (elevates the eyelid), constriction of pupil, movement of eyemedial rectus, superior rectus, internal rectus, internal oblique
________ is nnervated by CN VI
lateral rectus (innervated by CN VI). LR6
3 parts of the eye's middle layer.
Choroid, ciliary body, and iris (collectively known as Uveal tract)
Group I of the KWB classification is characterized as
increased light reflex from the arteriorles
What is most likely to occur in the 3rd trimester?
Mild corneal edema and thickening associated with blurred vision
2
conjunctiva

Nuclear Sclerotic/Cortical/Sub-capsular Cataract
diplopia
seeing double
Myopia
Eye Defect
Nearsightedness
Image is in front of retina
legally blind
20/200 and up
During The Ophthalmoscopic Examination, put Right hand-right eye to view patient’s ___ eye; Left hand - left eye to view patient’s ___ eye
right left
Xanthelasma
Raised, yellowish  plaques. May accompany lipid disorders.
 
Diopter
-Refractive Power
-The reciprocal of the focal distance (in meters) is this unit of measurement.
-Cornea = 42 diopters
Diopter
Unit of measurement. Measures what?
Presbyopia
diminished neaf focus with age
______ is also called "drooping eyelid." It is caused by weakness of the muscle responsible for raising the eyelid, damage to the nerves that control those muscles, or looseness of the skin of the upper eyelids
Ptosis
ophthalmoscope
instrument used to examine the interior of the eye
retinoblastoma
most common intraocular malignancy in KIDS1 in 20,00090% diag by age 5FATAL if 2-4 yrs untreated30% bilateral, 30% multifocal---presentation: NO RED reflex REFER,leukocoria: white pupil -60%-22% strabismus
Orbits
Where eyes are located, protective bony structures.
iris
muscle, determines amount of light coming in
ostentatiously
characterized by or given to pretentious or conspicuous show in an attempt to impress others:
Name the vessel that carries blood TOWARDS the capillaries.
Arteries
Right visual field is seen by left/right temporal view and left/right nasal view.
rightleft
iridectomy
an excision of part of the iris
Enucleation
the surgical removal of any entire organ that comes out clean and whole—in this case, the eye.
IOL
.An artificial lens made of plastic, silicone, acrylic or other material that is implanted inside the eye during cataract surgery. Abbreviated IOL.
Vision not correctable to better than _____ is considered legal blindness
20/200
Subcapsular Epithelium
Simple cuboidal. only on anterior surface. exhibit interdigitations w/ the lens fibers. Lens fibers grow throughout life thus the liens size incr.
Bleaching
-The absorption of light causes a change in the conformation of retinal so that it activates the opsin.
-Changes the wavelengths absorbed by the rhodopsin.
-Stimulates a g-protein in the disk membrane which activates an effector enzyme.
-This breaks down cGMP that is normally present in the cytoplasm of the rod in the dark.
chasten
to inflict suffering upon for purposes of moral improvement; chastise.
List the four main types of body tissue.
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nerve
Describe the course of the conjuctiuval membrane starting at the mucocutaneous junctions and ending at the limbus.
Palpebral conjunctiva
Fornix
Bulba conjuctiva
_____ a type of conjunctivitis that is characterised by giant papillae (projections) and follicles on the inner upper eyelid.
Cobblestoning
nyctalopia
poor vision at night or in faint light
Temporal Arteritis
inflam of head and neck BV-very SEVERE-assume, txsymptoms: amaurosis fugax, jaw pain, headache esp in temporal region, fever, wt loss, sweating, fatigue, sometimes visible swollen temporal artery-pain
Corneal light reflex can distinguish between what two conditions?
Pseudostrabismus and Strabismus
retinas inverted structure
light crosses ganglion the bipolar cells to reach rods and cones.
CN II responsible for?
transmitting visual information from the retina to the brain
of lens, vitreous body, and cornea, which is the major refractive structure?
the cornea
What are the four major groups of organic compounds in the human body?
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
______ is an infection of the tissues surrounding the eye.Can move eye without problems.
Periorbital cellulitis
defined as no light perceived (NLP) is called
Total blindness
How is the lens supported?
supported circumferentially by fibers arising form the cilary body.
Cataract
poacity of the lens of the eye that develops slowly with aging and gradually obstructs vision
muller cell histology
stretch from inner nuclear layer to outer limiting membrane!
What is a hordeolum?
An acute inflammation of an eyelid gland, usually caused by staphyloccoci.
Non proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
first stage, bv leak fluid into retina-blurred vision -confined to retina vs. prolif
-vein turns bc kinks when art is compressing on it -sluge after edema is gone (ie: bathtub empties) -dot and blot intraretinal hemorrh. -dilation and beading of BV
"other" cells of nucleus
1. horizontal cells, est contact b/n diff photoreceptors. 2. Amacrine cells, neurons est contact b/n ganglion cells.3.Supporting cells, Mueller cells like neuroglia, support, nourish and insulate retinal neurons.
2 layers of ciliary epithelium
outer : simple columnar, light staining

inner: simple cuboidal, heavily pigmented
____________ Tests for eye balance, specifically strabismus (eyes do not focus on same point in space)Light shone into eyes from distanceShould reflect at same spot on each pupil
Corneal Light Reflex – a.k.a. Hirschberg Test
Non paralytic strabismus can be the presenting sign of
intraocular pathology producing poor vision such as an infantile cataract or a retinoblastoma
List four main functions of the eyelids
Spread tears
Protect globe of eye
Help to drain tears
Contains structures that produce tears
When CN 3 is damaged what happens?
pupil dilated and fixed
eye deviated laterally and downward
ptosis
What is the main function of carbohydrates?
They serve as a source of energy
What is part of the general inspection of the eye?
1) periorbital 2) conjunctiva 3) anterior eye 4) confrontation 5) pupillary reflexes 6) cardinal fields of gaze
The study of light rays and their interactions
Optics
The study of light rays and their interactions
Also a type of nerve in the eye.
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