Volcanoes 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Volcano Terms
MX. Cinder cone.
No longer active
yungest volcano in CA
steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent (top of volcano)
What is lahar?
Hot mud flow.
a liquid's resistence to flow
Hard, dense, dark volcanic rock composed of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase. Often has a glassy appearance.
Most volcanoes form at what boundary?
mixture of molten rock, suspended minerals, and gases
is an opening in Earth's crust
The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano
not active but capable of becoming active
when magma pushes up the earth's surface and cools forming a dome
a slow-moving lava that hardens to form rough chunks; cooler than pahoehoe.
violent shaking or shifting motion of the ground caused by the sudden movement of rock far beneath Earth's surface
name 3 types of volcanoes
cone, cinder, shield
Cylindrical Hollows
tree trunks engulfed and incinerated by lava, where lava solidified around them
hot spot
a stationary location in earth's mantle where magma melts through a tectonic plate
Flood Basalt
Extremely fluid lavas, flowing long distancesS
pahoehoe flow
A lava flow with a smooth-to-ropy surface
hydrothermal activity
the circulation of water through hot volcanic rocks and magmas, producing hot springs and geysers on the surface
Dormant volcanoes
Volcanoes that have not erupted in hundreds to thousands of years but do have the potential to erupt again in the future
composite volcano
a tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava and ash alternate.(take turns.)
pillow lava
lava oozes into water and immediately cools off
A fountain of water and steam that erupts from the ground
magma chamber
the pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects
Dormant Volcano
A sleeping volcano that may become active at some point. Many exixt in the North Pacific coast of North America.
Ring of Fire
Volcanic belt formed by many volcanoes that rim the pacific coast.
(true or false) There is a moon of Jupiter that is dotted with over 100 active and inactive volcanoes.
Blocky lava
Cool, stiff lava that does not travel far from erupting vent. High viscosity. Flows very slow.
cinder-cone volcano
a volcano with steep sides that forms when pieces of lava fall around the vent
mantle plume
a column of solid, hot material from the deep mantle
Cinder Cone
A volcano built of cinders and other pyroclastics piled up around the volcanic vent.
The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano's magma chamber collapses.
What can hot springs contain?
dissolved gases and other substances within the earth
Crater Lake, Oregon
A lake of southwest Oregon in a volcanic crater of the Cascade Range. Iis the second-deepest lake in North America and the deepest in the United States.
What is the largest mountain on earth?
the Big Island of Hawaii
Where is a hot spot in the middle of North America?
Yellow National Park
compound, what are three elements that are familiar in compounds?
a substance made of two or more elements that have been chemically combined, water/carbon dioxide/table salt
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