Fallacy Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ambivalous (syntax)
reducing the relationship between causes and effects
randomly determined sequence of observations
prejudging an individual based on ideas one has about a group
"Drug abusers get life in prison."
An inference which depends upon ambiguous grammar.
Red Herring
introducing an irrelevant issue to distract from relevant ones
ad populum
lacking a solid argument and incorrectly appealing to the prejudice of the audience
False Generalizations
Part of oversimplification, making a generalization before enough information is gathered. (Stereotypes are made because of false generalization, hasty generalization)
Writing or images that seek to persuade through emotional rather than logical proof
Slippery Slope
Arguing, without good reason, that taking a particular step will inevitably lead to a further, undesirable step (or steps).
ad misericordia
lacking a solid argument and appealing to the pity of the audience
Non Sequitur
a statement that does not follow logically from evidence
Either/or reasoning
Acid rain, close factories, or forget about it.
Red Harring
Raising an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the primary issue, appealing to fear and pity
Ad Populum (Bandwagon)
A misconception that a widespread occurrence of something is assumed to make the idea true or right
Applying a general rule to a case which is clearly an exception.
Changing the argument to make it stronger
ex. "He said 20 seconds!" 'He said 15' "Who says 15 is enough, anyways.."
Ad Hoc
Appeal to Flattery
Sucking Up, (plain folks is a subcategory) Apple Polishing: whenever a person attempts to compliment or flatter another in order to get her to accept the truth of a proposition. In some instances, it may be implied that the person deserves the flattery because they accept the position in question.
Hasty Generalization
To generalize based only on a few examples
Over Simplification
Concluding that an effect has only one cause when it is really the result of mutiple causes
  Red herring:
an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to "win" an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic. Example: Yeah I can’t believe my son did that, but did you watch the news this morning on president Obama’s speech?
Suppressed evidence
The premises are true but leave out relevant information which should be known to anyone offering the premises
If today you can making teaching evolution in public schools a crime, then tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in private schools. Then you can ban books and other educational materials that mention evolution. And then you can ban the very word f
Begging the Question
False Authority
citing the views of a non expert as expert opinion
Lifting words or statements
Ex. drama review,then changing to make it sound good.
Not claim too much
n writing will ever completely solve or even fully address all problems ivovled in a complex topic
Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
building an argument on a hypothesis or assumption to prove a fact
Having the conclusion reaffirm what the premise is saying.
ex. Why are you an idiot? Cuz you don't do your homework. Why don't you do your homework? Cuz you're an idiot.
Circular Reasoning (Circulus In Demonstrando)
Appeal to Ignorance
p has not been proven false or nonexistent; therefore........
p is true or exists

Appeal to pity
When an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
Ex:I know the exam is graded based on performance, but you should give me an A. My cat has been sick, my car broke down, and I've had a cold, so it was really hard for me to study!
What is a Slippery Slope?
When there is an incorrect correlation of events that will connect, many times there are many steps in between. They are widely separated points.
Appeal to Consequences of a Belief
This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because the consequences of a belief have no bearing on whether the belief is true or false. For example, if someone were to say "If sixteen-headed purple unicorns don't exist, then I would be miserable, so they must exist" it would be clear that this would not be a good line of reasoning.
To justify something just because it's new.
ex. Buying a new car just because it's new.
Change for change's sake (Argumentum ad Novitatem)
     Faulty causation: an attempt to prove that one thing causes another.
Post hoc: One event occurs and then later another, therefore the first event must have caused the second event. Example: Maria was stung by a bee, two days later she became ill, Maria concludes that the bee sting made her ill.
Slippery Slope: a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question. Example: You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they'll walk all over you.
  Statistical conclusion: two phenomena’s are related statistically, the more one thing happens the more the other happens. Example: people who live near lakes are more likely to drown, therefore lakes kill people.
My sweater is blue. Therefore, the atoms that make up the sweater are blue.
The prime minister is lying about his intelligence briefings since almost everyone surveyed in national polls thinks he's lying.
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