Western Civilization II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sigmund Freud
Austrian Psychiatrist
Naturalism
a nineteenth-century literary movement that was an extension of realism and that claimed to portray life exactly as it was.
Conservationism
• Environmental movement driven forward by Thoreau, Roosevelt and John Muir
• Attempted to protect beauty and majesty of America's natural landscapes
• Angered industrialists and others who wanted to use natural resources for economic development rather than preserving them
Internment
• Confinement or imprisonment, without trial, of people thought to pose a threat to the country in some way
• Those interned were confined to one place, monitored, and prevented from communicating with others outside of the location
• During WWII, U.S. interned Japanese and Americans of Japanese descent
Trotsky
Second to Lenin. A Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. He led the October Revolution
Sociology
study of the evolution, development, and functioning of humans society
Catherine the great advocated the abolition of?
Torture
Opponents of factories and mass production were called
Luddites
"Jap"
• Derogatory term for Japanese
• Commonly used by Americans during World War II
• Came to be associated with animalistic, savage features and behavior
• Helped justify racist government policies such as Japanese internment and extreme violence on the Pacific front
Alexander Dubcek
• Reformist leader of Czechoslovakia's Communist Party during "Prague Spring"
• Desired "socialism with a human face," a type of Communism that allowed greater individual freedom
• Removed from power through Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968
Marcus Garvey
• Black nationalist leader
• Advocated black pride and resettlement of American blacks back to Africa
• "Africa for Africans, at home and abroad"
• Founded Black Star Line steamship company
• Convicted of mail fraud under dubious circumstances and deported to Jamaica
Al Capone
• Infamous Chicago gangster
• Made millions selling illegal liquor during Prohibition
• Convicted of income tax evasion and jailed at Alcatraz, 1931
Carpetbagger
• Disparaging southern term for northerners who moved into positions of authority in South during Reconstruction
• Often were Union officers trying to make profit
• Some had genuinely altruistic motives; some just wanted to get rich; most in between
Ronald Reagan
Hollywood actor who turned politician
Governor of California from 1967 to 1975
President of the U.S. from 1981 to 1989
Believed in the free market and small government, the dominant ideology of the late 20th century
Nicknamed "The Great Communicator" for his ability to explain complex conservative ideologies in a simple language
Remains the standard-bearer for the Republican Party today
Yelstin
Puppet of Putin who turned to capitalism which was a difficult transition. Prices skyrocketed and the economy declined dramatically.
Theodor Herzl
Father of the political Zionist movement among the Jews. Spurred on Jewish nationalism and non-intigration in Europe
Putin
Leader of Russia who instilled a strong central state and put restrictions on the freedom of the press. More state control.
The Schlieffen Plan
Created by Alfred Schlieffen. Germany's plan to attack France first and the attack Russia. They took to long in Belgium and Russia got ready faster than they had thought possible.
Thermodynamics
the branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energy
When Napoleon seized power he orginally took the title
First Consul
In 1848, revolutions occurred in all of the following countries except
Britain
Josephine Baker
African American singer in the twenties. Didn't make it in the US so went to Paris and got big.
Warren G. Harding
• Conservative Republican president, elected 1920
• Likable personality but plagued by corruption scandals
• Died in office, 1923
Thomas Edison
• American inventor, creator of electric light bulb
• Held nearly 11,000 different patents
• Fought for the adaptation of DC current as standard for U.S. electric system
• Founded General Electric, 1878
1963 Birmingham Strikes
• Series of non-violent anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, Alabama
• Launched by Martin Luther King, Jr.
• Police Chief Eugene "Bull" Connor ordered his department to use fire hoses, police dogs, and night sticks to break up demonstrations
• Images of the violent episodes broadcast worldwide, revealing severity of white resistance to black equality
Stokely Carmichael
• National chairman of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, 1966 to 1967
• Popularized the term "Black Power"
• Led SNCC away from nonviolent strategies and cooperation with white organizers
Napolean
revised French laws into a single unified code known as the Code of Napolean. Based on Justinian's 16th century codification of Roman Law
Malcolm X
• Black civil rights leader epitomized "Black Power" philosophy; did not support nonviolent, integrated struggle for civil rights because he worried blacks would ultimately lose control of their own movement
• Key spokesman for the Nation of Islam until breaking with organization; assassinated in 1965 by Black Muslims
• Teachings became key inspiration for other organizations including the Black Panther Party
1954 Army-McCarthy Hearings
McCarthy began investigation into Communist infiltration of U.S.
after McCarthy made groundless accusations during nationally televised hearings, Army attorney Joseph Welch asked, "Have you no sense of decency, sir?"
McCarthy was censured, disgraced
Fourteen Points
• President Wilson's ambitious plan for a just peace at war's end
• Most significant portions called for "self-determination" for all nations, formation of League of Nations to resolve disputes
• Wilson presented the Points at the Paris Peace talks in 1919, but other Allies insisted upon a more punitive final treaty
Balfour Declaration
A letter from the British government that was in favor for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. To build up American support for British policies and to keep the Russians in the war.
Peter Stolypin
Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants.
Dual Monarchy
After Austria's defeat by Prussia in 1866, Hungarians demanded more freedom. Austria responded in 1867 by forming the Dual Monarchy - also called Austria-Hungary - in which Hungarians shared power with Austrians.
Napoleon was born to a family that lived in
Switzerland
Hannah Hoch
Part of Dada movement. Created "Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany" (1919)
Cold War
Post World War II period of confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Lasted from the late 1940s until the early 1990s
Called "Cold" because the conflict never escalated to direct military confrontation between the two great powers
1946 Long Telegram
• Diplomat George Kennan proposed policy of firm containment of U.S.S.R.
• Truman enshrined containment as official policy in 1947 Truman Doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine
• U.S. formally extended policy of containment to cover Middle East
• Announced by Eisenhower (obviously)
Works Progress Administration
• Established by Congress, 1935
• Received $5 billion in funding, employed eight million workers on public-works projects around the country
• Included artists and writers in ranks
• Built much infrastructure still used today
1945 Yalta Conference
• Final meeting of Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill
• Attempted to negotiate plans for post-WWII order
• Stalin signed statement promising to uphold democratic principles, but Roosevelt and Churchill tacitly accepted Soviet domination of Eastern Europe
• Confusion over true meaning of the agreements led to later charges of betrayal
1920 Presidential Election
• Republican Warren G. Harding elected president
• Democrat James Cox crushed
• Harding promised "return to normalcy"
Lost Generation
• American writers living in Europe (especially Paris) after World War I
• F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein important figures in Lost Generation
Upton Sinclair
• Muckraking novelist, author of The Jungle, 1906
• Intended book to spread socialist message about mistreatment of workers in Chicago' meatpacking industry
• Readers instead horrified by mistreatment of meat
Jane Addams
Progressive reformer in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Advocate for the settlement house movement
Founder of Hull House in Chicago
First American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize
Theodore Judah
• Civil engineer, "father of the Central Pacific Railroad"
• Surveyed route through Sierra Nevada
• Won financial backing from the "Big 4," later had much friction with them
Grenville Dodge
• Chief engineer of Union Pacific Railroad
• General in Union Army during Civil War
• Led military campaign against Plains Indians prior to becoming chief engineer
• Elected to Congress from Iowa in 1866, where he lobbied for UP
Proposition 14
• Amendment to the California state constitution, passed by voters in 1964
• Proposed by citizens who wanted to nullify the 1963 Rumford Fair Housing Act
1875 Mississippi Redemption
• Democrats returned to power, re-establishing white power in state government
• First Southern state government to expel blacks and Republicans from power
"White Death"
Term coined by black writer Richard Wright to describe white-on-black crime, especially lynching
Most common in the years between the end of Radical Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Movement
ical Reconstruction
Period from 1867 and 1877 when Congress mandated reforms in the South
Legislation passed at this time served mainly to protect the rights of former slaves
Ended with Compromise of 1877 and withdrawal of federal troops from the South
Legacy of the era fueled white southern resentment of blacks
The Black Hand
A military secret society that was founded in Serbia. They wanted Bosnia and Serbia together and assassinated Franz Ferndinand and his wife Sophie.
Second Republic
provided for a president and a single chamber assembly which would be elected on the basis of universal manhood suffrage. (The president would serve for a four-year term in office).
Motesquieu was a political thinker who promoted
checks and balances
French New Deal
Advocated for by the Popular Front Government; modeled after US New Deal
Lyndon B. Johnson
• Democratic President of the United States, 1963-1969
• John F. Kennedy's Vice President, took office after assassination, then won full term of his own in 1964 elections
• Escalated American involvement in Vietnam War
• Enacted sweeping domestic reforms, but presidency ruined by disaster in Vietnam
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
House committee that investigated first Nazi, then Communist activity within the United States
one of the most important anticommunist institutions of McCarthy era
McCarthy himself not a member of HUAC
1968 Tet Offensive
• Occurred on 31 January, beginning of Vietnamese Tet holiday
• Viet Cong forces, supported by North Vietnamese troops, shocked U.S. troops with wave of attacks deep in South Vietnamese territory
• Fighting continued for months following the first attack
• American and South Vietnamese forces defeated the Tet Offensive militarily
• But public support for the war in the United States plummeted
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
• Early civil rights organization, comprised originally of young activists, white and black
• Stokely Carmichael was its leader in 1966 and 1967
• When Carmichael took the helm, the organization moved away from its nonviolent and integrationist philosophy and began expelling white members
• Some women in the organization left in the mid-60s due to frustrations over unequal treatment
Grandfather Clause"
Loophole to voting laws put in place during the Jim Crow era
Exempted from voting requirements any citizen whose grandfather had been eligible to vote before 1867
Since only whites could vote before 1867, unfairly disadvantaged black voters
Protected illiterate and poor whites from disenfranchisement
1882 Immigration Act
Imposed a "head tax" upon all immigrants
Deemed Chinese, criminals, "lunatics," "idiots," and "LPC"s ineligible for citizenship
1865 Ku Klux Klan Founded
• White supremacist terror organization founded by group of Confederate Army veterans
• Served as paramilitary wing of Democratic Party in South, ensuring white power through violence and intimidation
Freedman's Bureau
• Tried to advance cause of blacks in South through education and social services
• Ultimately undermined by southern hostility, northern fatigue
Knights of Labor
Union founded in the 1880s
Had 700,000 members at its height
Mainly concerned with fighting for better wages and working conditions for workers
Axis Powers
• During World War II, the alliance of fascist nations that fought against the Allied powers
• Included Germany, Italy, and Japan
1919 Treaty of Versailles
• Officially ended WWI
• Treaty terms included the creation of new League of Nations
• U.S. Congress refused to ratify treaty and thus didn't join League of Nations
Gallipoli (Turkish Land)
Land the British and French tried to take so they could attack Germany from the south. Attacked Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire with an amphibious attack. They failed and 25,000 died.
Crimean War
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. Russia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
Following the abdication of the Tsar, the two centers of power in Russia were the Provisional Government and the
Soviets - workers councils.
Triumph of the Will
An example of films used for propaganda, this movie blatantly promotes Hitler.
1968 MLK Assassination
• Martin Luther King shot and killed while in Memphis, Tennessee to organize a sanitation workers strike
• White assassin James Earl Ray pled guilty, later tried to recant plea
• Sparked riots in cities all over the country, including Chicago and Baltimore
Appamattox Courthouse, Virginia
• Site of Robert E. Lee's surrender to Ulysses S. Grant, which ended the Civil War, 1865
1890 Sherman Antitrust Act
• New law designed to restore competition to markets by splitting apart monopolies
• Thought designed to target big business, the law was only used against unions and agricultural co-ops until Roosevelt's presidency
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
Banned new immigration from China for ten years
Marked first systematic federal law to restrict immigration into the U.S.
Rescinded in 1943, when the U.S. allied with China during World War II
1944 D-Day
• On 6 June, some 3 million Allied troops with thousands of planes and ships attacked Nazi positions on Normandy beaches in northern France
• Largest amphibious invasion in history
• After fierce fighting, Allied forces succeeded in establishing beachhead, began pushing toward Germany
• Major turning point in the war, marked beginning of end for Nazi Germany
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case that cleared the way for state lawmakers to enforce racial segregation
Court upheld Louisiana law that required "separate but equal" facilities for blacks
1917 U.S. Enters WWI
• Declaration came after series of events that convinced the American public and the government that Germany was a significant threat to the U.S.
• Shortly thereafter, Congress passed the Selective Service Act to draft soldiers
1950 Blair House Meeting
President Truman convened 2 days of meetings at his temporary home
Truman and top officials decided to give military aid to South Korea
U.S. ground troops entered battle in July, expecting a quick and easy victory
Treaty of Versailles
One of the peace treaties to end WWI. Ended the war between Germany and the Allied powers.
The three estates in pre-revolutionary France consisted of
nobility, clergy, and all the rest
1885 Alien Contract Labor Law
Made it illegal for American employers to import workers for service of any kind
Passed in response to demands from the Knights of Labor union
1863 Battle of Gettysburg
• One of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, fought in southern Pennsylvania over first 4 days in July
• Union troops defeated Confederate army led by Robert E. Lee, forcing southerners to retreat
• Marked the farthest advance of the Confederate Army into northern territory
• Turning point of the Civil War
1959 Castro's Revolution in Cuba
• Leftist guerillas led by young Fidel Castro toppled autocratic, pro-American government in Cuba• Castro did not take power as a Communist, but as relations with U.S. soured, he soon established alliance with U.S.S.R.
Which of the following statements best explains why the Great War has been accurately termed history's first TOTAL war?
The productive capacities of entire populations, not just armies, had to be directed to a single goal: military victory.
What happened to Galileo after he published the results of his research in 1633?
He was tried by the Inquistion
1941 U.S. Enters World War II
• Following Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. declared war against Axis powers and joined the Allies in the war
• Employment created by war mobilization ended the Great Depression
• Sparked an economic boom
Which of the following statements concerning Enlightenment thinkers is most accurate?
Most of the great thinkers of the enlightenment were not so much philosophers as savants
1861 Attack on Fort Sumter
• First shots fired in Civil War, 12 April 1861, at Union-controlled Fort Sumter in South Carolina
• Jefferson Davis, president of Confederacy, ordered strikes against Union forces
• At time of attack, neither North nor South had an official army
• Attack spurred President Lincoln to ask Congress to authorize a military draft to build an army
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Nationalism
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe
Xenophobia
Fear or hatred of foreigners
NATO
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization
• Military alliance of U.S. and Western European formed to unite defense against U.S.S.R.
The Triple Entente
Britain, France, and Russia
Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state
Enlightenment reforms added greatly to
religious toleration
Giuseppe Garibaldi
independence of Uruguay, leading Italian Legion in Uruguayan Civil War
"Hoovervilles"
• Nickname for makeshift shantytowns erected by those rendered homeless by the Great Depression
• Name derived from President Herbert Hoover, who led the nation during the first years of the Depression and failed to bring aid to millions left homeless and jobless
• Characterized by cardboard, tin, and tar-paper structures
Theodore Roosevelt
• Progressive Republican President of the United States, 1901-1909
• Most popular political leader of early 20th century
• Promised to regulate big business and bust trusts
• Stepped down voluntarily in 1909, then ran again for presidency in 1912 on Progressive Party ticket but lost to Woodrow Wilson
Joseph McCarthy
Wisconsin Senator and prominent anticommunist
namesake of McCarthyism
recklessly accused thousands of government employees of being Communist agents, usually with little evidence
disgraced in televised Army-McCarthy hearings, 1954
Nativists
Those who opposed immigration
Feared that an influx of foreigners would undermine American culture, weaken the status of American workers, and destabilize American politics
Andrew Johnson
• Democratic Tennessee Governor, then Vice President and President of U.S.
• Selected as Lincoln's Vice President despite belonging to opposite party
• After Lincoln's assassination, oversaw failed Presidential Reconstruction, offering lenient terms to defeated southerners
• Impeached by House of Representatives, 1868
D-Day
June 6th, 1944 - paratroopers were sent to land on Omaha Beach. On August 25th, Paris was liberated.
Pasteurization
partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food
What played a crucial role in nurturing 19th century nationalism?
Newspapers
Radio
Was originally run by the government. Took off in the 20s. BBC started in '26. First radio station is in Pittsburgh.
Versailles, France
• Location of sprawling palace complex built by French royalty
• Site of peace talks that ended World War I
Emilio Aguinaldo
• Filipino general during Philippine Revolution against Spain
• Appointed himself leader of the Philippines when his forces expelled Spain
• Declared war on U.S. after Americans refused to recognize his authority and sent troops to occupy the country
Jim Crow
Term first coined in 1830s
Originally referred to a comedic slave character played by white minstrel performer Thomas "Daddy" Rice
By early 20th century, term came to describe system of segregation that kept blacks and whites separate in public spaces
Henry Kissinger
• Powerful National Security Advisor and then Secretary of State under Presidents Nixon and Ford
• Shaped virtually all of Nixon's foreign policy decisions, including strategy of détente
• Organized Nixon's groundbreaking visit to China, helped reduce Cold War tensions in 1970s
Viet Cong
• Ho Chi Minh-supporting guerilla fighters within South Vietnam
• Did much of the fighting against American troops during war
Louis IXV
King of France from 1643-1715, absolute monarch. Famous phrase "I am the State."
1945 Nagasaki
• U.S. bomber Bockscar dropped atomic bomb on Nagasaki in southern Japan, 9 August
• Unlike Hiroshima, Nagasaki was old city with wooden buildings packed closely together
• Total destruction more far-reaching than in Hiroshima; instantly killed one-third of total population in Nagasaki
• Post-attack landscape described by Japanese report as "a graveyard with not a tombstone standing"
• Second of two nuclear attacks that effectively ended World War II
Americanization
• Process by which immigrants were made into Americans
• Pushed heavily by Henry Ford and others who wanted to strip immigrants of ethnic identity
Henry Ford
• Famous automaker
• Developer of Model T, first popular car
• Pioneered assembly-line process of mass production in industry
• Wanted Americanization of foreign-born workers; had anti-immigrant and anti-Semitic beliefs
1919 18th Amendment
• Enacted Prohibition
• Banned sale or manufacture of alcohol in United States
• Repealed in 1933
Blitzkrieg
• German word that means "Lightning Warfare"
• Military strategy used by Hitler's armies to overwhelm enemies; bombardment by air, followed immediately by rapid ground attacks
Brinksmanship
• Practice of pushing conflict to brink of disaster in order to force opponent to relent
• Practiced by Cold War leaders in Washington and Moscow in Cuban Missile Crisis, Berlin Airlift
Pickett's Charge
• A failed Confederate assault against Union lines during the Battle of Gettysburg
• Named for Confederate General George Pickett, who led the attack
• Ended in defeat and death of 10,000 Confederate soldiers
• Marked "high-water mark" of Confederacy; southern troops never advanced farther north than Pickett's Charge
Mein Kampf
Book that Hitler wrote while in prison. Means "my struggle". Explains his vision for Germany and how to seize power.
Third Republic
French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
Zionism
a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
Victor Emmanuel
First King of Italy, who was originally king of Sardinia. King of a united Italy. Takes the Piedmont from Austria
All the reforms of Frederick William I were initiated in attempt to subordinate the state to the demands of the
Military
In 1789 women from Paris decided to march to
Versailles
British military powers in the 18th century was matched by its
Economic pre-eminence
Marcel Duchamp
Part of the Dada movement. Entered "Fountain" into an art competition. It was an upside-down urinal.
Robert E. Lee
• Confederate general; son of Revolutionary War hero from wealthy Virginia family
• First asked by Lincoln to command Union Army, but instead declared allegiance to the Confederacy
• Strong leader, but failed at the Battle of Gettysburg, the war's pivotal battle
• Surrendered to Grant's Union Army in April 1865, ending the Civil War
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
• Government agency established before World War II
• Practiced racial and ethnic discrimination by devaluing homes and neighborhoods inhabited by ethnic and racial minorities
• Aided white homebuyers but made it difficult, sometimes impossible, for many minorities to own property
Syngman Rhee
Became first president of South Korea, 1948
Staunch anticommunist
Participated in Korean rebellion against Japanese occupation, 1919
Fled Korea until Japanese were defeated, 1945
An authoritarian and unpopular president who called for the murder of his political opponents
Dwight D. Eisenhower
• Republican elected President of the U.S. in 1952 and again in 1956
• Served as Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe during WWII
• Oversaw successful D-Day invasion of Normandy, France, 1944
Charles Coughlin
• Roman Catholic priest and radio celebrity
• Attracted 30-45 million listeners a week
• Started as a supporter of New Deal, then turned into bitter critic of it
• Eventually became fascist sympathizer
1945 Potsdam Conference
• Follow-up to Yalta Conference featured further negotiations among Stalin, Truman (who replaced dead FDR), and Churchill (until he was replaced by Clement Attlee after losing British election halfway through conference)
• Allies agreed to establish separate zones of military administration of Germany
• Tone of conference was more contentious than Yalta as Cold War tensions already began to surface
Moynihan Report
• Report released by Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan, 1965
• Very controversial for its discussion of supposed "total breakdown" of black society
• Concluded that roots of problems faced by blacks lay in legacy of slavery, tradition of matriarchy, urbanization, and racial discrimination
Ku Klux Klan
• Secret white supremacist terrorist organization
• Attacked blacks, Republicans, northerners, foreigners, Catholics, Jews in South
• Blacks especially targeted for success or for trying to vote
• Destroyed after Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871; recreated in twentieth century
1868 Fourteenth Amendment
• Guaranteed "equal protection of the laws" to all citizens, regardless of race
"Hell on Wheels"
• Makeshift towns that followed Union Pacific Railroad construction
• Workers would storm into tiny towns; saloons would be erected immediately
• Workers would proceed to gamble and drink away savings
• Famously violent
1918 Sedition Act
• Criminalized production of antiwar materials and the delivery of any speech deemed unpatriotic or detrimental to the war effort
• Imposed fine and imprisonment on anyone who discouraged military recruiting or criticized the government, the flag, or the military uniform
1975 Fall of Saigon
• Following American withdrawal, North Vietnamese forces conquered the capital of South Vietnam
• Thousands of South Vietnamese tried to flee, many becoming refugees abroad
• Ended the Vietnam War with total victory for North Vietnamese Communists
• Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City to honor recently deceased North Vietnamese leader
John Hay
• U.S. Secretary of State under President William McKinley
• After McKinley's assassination, continued to serve under Theodore Roosevelt
• Helped author the Treaty of Paris, which ended Spanish-American War
• Announced Open Door policy, 1899, which called for equal American access to China
The Triple Alliance
Italy, Austria, and Germany - Created by Bismark against the French
Otto von Bismarck
The chief minister of Prussia's king, he masterminded the unification of Germany through military aggression and nationalist appeals
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx may be considered a reaction against
capitalism and industrialization
After the first six weeks of battle, the Great War evolved into
trench warfare
Which of the following charcterizes the traditional attitude of chinese society toward the West?
Considerable disinterest in Europe
Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism
argued for human happiness through the greatest happiness of the greatest number
Weimar Republic (1919-1933)
System of government that Germany had after WWI. Took lots of criticism for all of the economic woes that Germany suffered in having make payouts after the war. Citizens were angry at its ineffectiveness, so they longed for the old days of socialism.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
• Civil-rights organization founded in the early 20th century by prominent black leaders and white allies
• Its success in Gaines v. Canada provided momentum for later court battles against segregation laws
Richard M. Nixon
• Republican President of the United States, 1969-74
• Resigned in disgrace in wake of Watergate scandal, 1974
• Strong anticommunist throughout his career, but adopted more flexible approach as President
• At Kissinger's urging, pursued détente with U.S.S.R. and opened diplomatic relations with China
Mutual Assured Destruction
• Concept that the best deterrent against nuclear war was the guarantee that a nation that launched a first strike would be destroyed by enemy's nuclear retaliation; thus any launch was completely irrational
• Concept developed by McNamara
• Weakness was that policymaking during international crises wasn't always rational
Ngo Dinh Diem
• President of South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963
• Staunch anti-Communist, but unpopular and paranoid leader who expelled, imprisoned, and sometimes executed those who opposed his regime
• Refused to ally with Ho Chi Minh after the Franco-Vietnamese War
• Long supported by U.S., but ineffectual leadership led to his assassination in a military coup supported by the U.S.
Ethel Rosenberg
wife of member of Communist Party USA; possibly a member herself
accused of participating in Soviet spy ring with husband Julius
many liberals thought both she and husband were innocent
executed, with husband, 1953; first woman to suffer death penalty in U.S. since 1865
1865 Lincoln assassinated
• Actor John Wilkes Booth, a southern sympathizer, shot Lincoln in the head while the President and his wife were watching a play at Ford's Theater, Washington, D.C.
• Lincoln died the next day
• Assassination occurred five days after Confederate Army surrendered
Black Codes
Set of laws passed by southern states after the Civil War
In effect until 1866, when Civil Rights Act nullified them
Gave freed slaves some new rights such as right to marry
Mainly restricted rights of freed slaves to move, own property, and choose employer
Often confused with Jim Crow laws, which dealt mainly with social segregation
1920 Nineteenth Amendment
• Granted women the right to vote
"The Good War"
• Romanticized phrase used to refer to World War II
• Calls to mind the meaning of Allied victory: defeat of fascism, new inclusion of blacks and women in American economy, new powerful role for U.S. in world
• Tainted by extreme destruction, particularly in Nagasaki and Hiroshima
1941 Executive Order 8802
• Issued by President Franklin Roosevelt before U.S. entered WWII
• Result of pressure from black civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph
• Banned racial discrimination in defense industries; increased job opportunities for minorities, especially blacks
Eleanor Roosevelt
• First Lady of the United States; wife (and distant cousin!) of Franklin Roosevelt
• Advocate of liberal causes and early Civil Rights hero
1948 Hiss Hearings
diplomat Alger Hiss accused of being Communist agent
Hiss denied charge before Congress
eventually convicted of perjury, served four years in prison
1932 Presidential Election
• Franklin D. Roosevelt pledged a "new deal" for America at Democratic Party convention
• Roosevelt ran an incoherent campaign but easily defeated unpopular President Hoover, winning 57% of the popular vote and 89% of electoral votes
Mutually Assured Destruction
A doctrine of military strategy and a national security policy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would result in the total destruction of both the attacker and the defender. This happened during the Cold War between Russia and the US.
Franco-Prussian War
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.
The Industrial development of continental Europe was delayed by
The French Revoloution and Napoleonic wars
Berlin in the 20s
Becomes a very popular cultural center and represents the decadence of the twenties and early thirties. Famous for its nightlife.
1965 Voting Rights Act
• Signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in August
• Bill pushed through Congress in response to MLK's voting rights march in Selma, Alabama
• Ensured blacks right to vote by prohibiting use of literacy tests in voter registration, giving federal government power to register voters, forbidding states from changing voting procedures without federal approval
Viet Minh
• Organized by Ho Chi Minh and other Vietnamese nationalists in 1941
• Seeking Vietnamese self-rule, fought a guerilla campaign against Japanese occupation; after World War II, fought French and then Americans
• Its members formed the Viet Cong in the 1950s
1929 Stock Market Crash
• Marked the beginning the Great Depression
• Set into motion a major economic recession, severe unemployment, and a sharp rise in homelessness
Manfred von Richthofen
• Most successful flying ace of WWI, popularly known as the "Red Baron"
• German fighter pilot instrumental in developing techniques of aerial combat
• Painted his plane red to help fellow Germans identify him
• Killed in action in April 1918
Kim Il Sung
Dictator of North Korea from the end of WWII until 1994
Sought to reunify Korea under his Communist leadership
Didn't have the support in the South to successfully overthrow Syngman Rhee, South Korea's leader
Led North Korea throughout the Korean War and then for 40 years after the armistice of 1953
1898 De Lôme Letter
• Letter written by Spanish diplomat criticizing President McKinley as "weak"
• leaked to American press and New York Journal published it in full, 9 February
• fueled popular cries in U.S. for war against Spain
1969 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
(SALT) Negotiations Begin
• Nuclear arms reduction treaty signed by U.S. and U.S.S.R. in 1972
• Limited number of ballistic missiles held by either side at current levels
• Marked formal beginning of détente
Irish home rule
A desire of some people in Ireland to not be ruled by England
Leopold II of Belgium
founder and sole owner of the Congo free state
1901 President William McKinley Assassinated
Shot at close range by Polish-American Leon Czolgosz, an aspiring anarchist
Stoked fears about radical foreigners, even though Czolgosz was born in the U.S.
In response, Congress passed the Anarchist Exclusion Act of 1901
1875 United States v. Cruikshank
• Ruled that U.S. Constitution did not "confer right of suffrage upon anyone," despite Fifteenth Amendment
• First of series of Supreme Court decisions that undermined Reconstruction
1965 Watts Riots
• Six days of riots, triggered by a traffic stop and three arrests, raged in African-American Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles
• Occurred just a few days after President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act
• Left dozens dead, over 1000 injured, thousands arrested, and millions in property damage; required deployment of National Guard
• Violence broadcast nationally, contributing to white backlash against Civil Rights Movement
Birth of a Nation
Movie: The story of how the KKK saves the South after the Civil War
1949 CIO Purge of Red Unions
CIO began expelling 11 unions that refused to denounce Communist leadership from ranks of labor federation
expelled unions included some of CIO's largest and most successful
weakened CIO as dynamic force in labor movement
1948 Democratic People's Republic of Korea Created
Communist leader Kim Il Sung declared North Korea an independent republic
Denied South Korea as a legitimate republic and claimed authority over the entire Korean Peninsula
What statement concerning capital formation in England is most accurate?
By the middle of the 18th century, the number of provincial banks in England had increased dramatically.
1895 Cuban Revolution Against Spain
• Led by José Martí and the Cuban Revolutionary Party
• Coverage of bloody conflict in U.S. fueled popular cries for American intervention to help Cubans fight Spain
• Officially ended by Treaty of Paris, which left Cuba free of Spain but dependent upon U.S.
By the middle of the 19th century, the most advanced economies
were capable of producing vast surpluses of basic commodities
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