Western Civilization II 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Churchill
Leader of Britain during WWII.
Perestroika
Russian word for "restructuring"
Referred to one portion of Mikhail Gorbachev's plan to reform Soviet Communism
Promised to grant citizens great economic freedom
Andrew Carnegie
• Scottish-born American industrialist; imported European steel techniques to dominate American steel industry
• Attempted to reorganize entire steel industry under own company
• Became one of world's richest men and one of world's most generous philanthropists
Chamberlain
A British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Best known for his appeasment policy. Let Germany have Czechloslovakia by signing the Munich Agreement. Led Britain into the first eight months of WWII.
Russian-Japanese War
Russian/Japanese dispute over Korea. Teddy Roosevelt won Nobel Prize for negotiating. Japanese were victorious
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Enlightenment ideas were circulated in the
salons
Douglas MacArthur
American military officer
Commanded American forces in the Philippines during WWII
Commander in Chief of the Far East during the Cold War
Commanded all American forces in the Korean War until 1951
Nearly led the U.S. to victory in Korea in 1950, by conducting amphibious attacks at Inchon
His plan at Inchon failed because he underestimated the Chinese threat; forced to retreat during a Chinese attack
Sought major retaliation against the Chinese, but President Truman denied his request for fear it would lead to World War III
Involved in public dispute with President Truman, and Truman fired him on grounds of insubordination in 1951
Ran unsuccessfully for Republican presidential nomination in 1952
Black Hand
• Serbian nationalist group
• Included 19 year old Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Lend-Lease
• Government program that supplied weapons, military vessels, and other supplies to other Allied powers in the early years of World War II
• Authorized by President Roosevelt in the years before the U.S. entered the war
• Seemed to contradict FDR's promise of American neutrality and hinted at future U.S. military involvement
Manhattan Project
• Top-secret government research program run by J. Robert Oppenheimer during WWII
• Developed the world's first atomic bombs
Scalawag
• Disparaging southern term for supporters of Republican Party
• Often subjected to insults and violence from southern Democrats
• Some genuinely wanted to help blacks; many merely supported Republicans because they wanted to industrialize South
Glasnost
Russian word for "openness"
Referred to one portion of Mikhail Gorbachev's plan to reform Soviet Communism
Promised to grant citizens great political freedom
Gorbachev
Became premier. He instated the reform Perestroika which was meant to save communism but to change it. Political prisoners were released, free expression and free assembly was allowed, and other political parties were permitted. The result of this was the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union began to break up.
Zionism
Called for the existance a sovereign Jewish national homeland
Hitler
Raised in Vienna, Austira. He was anti-Semetic and wanted to be an artist. During WWI he found a purpose and was an excellent soldier. Thought that Germany betrayed the people when it surrendered. Leader of the National Socialist German Workers party. Arrested and sentenced five years for the Beer Hall Fest but he only served one year. Became the Chancellor in 1933. Believed that the Arians were the master race. Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison. Established a strong industry.
Communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state; an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
William II
This new German emperor opposed Bismarck, fired him, and ended up being less successful than Bismarck anyway
What development was responsible for improving trade between Europe and Asia?
Suez Canal
Dada
Anti-art art movement, a step further than surrealism. Claimed everything was art. Reiterated that nothing makes sense.
"Old Immigrants"
Term for immigrants from Northwestern Europe, especially Great Britain, Ireland, and Germany, before 1880
Triple Entente
• WWI alliance originally comprised of Britain, France, and Russia (a.k.a the Allies)
• Fought against the Central Powers in WWI
• Italy joined after the war began
• After Bolshevik Revolution, Russia pulled out
• U.S. joined in April 1917, just before Russia withdrew
Redemption
• Southern term for period when white southern Democrats regained control of local governments at conclusion of Radical Reconstruction
• Power gained and maintained through intimidation of blacks and Republicans
William McKinley
• Republican president elected in 1896 and reelected in 1900
• Asked U.S. Congress for declaration of war against Spain amidst public pressure, April 1898
• Historians still debate whether he had imperialism in mind when he chose to intervene in Cuban Revolution
• Assassinated in September 1901 by anarchist Leon Czolgosz
Détente
• Policy of relaxation of tensions between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
• Pursued by Kissinger, détente began with SALT I treaty, peaked in 1975
• Dominated "middle period" of Cold War, following tense early 1960s and preceding tense early 1980s
Ho Chi Minh
• Vietnamese revolutionary leader; Communist and Vietnamese nationalist
• Fought for Vietnamese independence against Japan, France, and the U.S.
• Died in 1969, six years before his government declared victory in the Vietnam War and completed Vietnam's reunification under Communist rule
Second Red Scare
Post-WWII fear of Communist infiltration into American society
included McCarthy hearings, Hollywood Ten, spy cases, etc.
Iran
• Site of CIA-sponsored coup against democratically elected but left-leaning government of Mohammed Mosaddegh, 1953
• Coup gave rise to strong anti-American sentiment in Iran
1957 Sputnik
• Soviets launched Sputnik, first man-made satellite to orbit Earth
• Shocked Americans, spurring huge increase in government spending on science and defense
• Began the Space Age
New Deal
• Set of experimental government programs enacted in response to Great Depression
• Instituted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s
• Did transform the nation in significant ways
• Did not succeed in ending the Great Depression
Sykes-Picot Agreement
A secret aggrement between Britain and France to divide up the Middle East after the Ottoman Empire fell
Results of Gallipoli
Russia was alone because British didn't back them up. Ottomans got closer to Germany. Turks made the Armenians go on a death march to Serbia. 1.5 million died.
The Marshall Plan
Secretary of State, George Marshall proposed that the US should send billions of dollars in aid to Europe to stop the spread of communism.
David Lloyd George
the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
The enclosure system resulted in the loss of
the commons
Popular Front
French government of all left wing parties. Enacted the French New Deal.
Berlin, Germany
• Capital of Germany until 1945
• Divided into four separate zones of occupation after WWII
• American, British, and French zones a virtual island, surrounded by Soviet-controlled zone of eastern Germany
• Soviets attempted to blockade the city in 1948; thwarted by American airlift of supplies
1956 Hungarian Revolution
• Students demanded changes in Communist government, backed reformist government of Imre Nagy
• Rebellion crushed by invasion of Soviet Red Army; Nagy executed in 1958
• U.S. did not intervene
Franklin Roosevelt
• Democratic president from 1933 to 1945
• Best known for authoring New Deal programs, which helped Americans regain some confidence during the Great Depression
• Oversaw creation of the Homeowners Loan Corporation to help Americans purchase homes and to protect them from foreclosure
• Also created the Federal Housing Administration, which helped Americans invest safely in real estate
• Housing policies instituted by Roosevelt structured patterns of postwar suburban development
Harlem Renaissance
• Literary and cultural movement of African Americans concentrated in New York's Harlem neighborhood
• Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay important figures in Harlem Renaissance
1938 Kristallnacht Pogrom
• "Night of Broken Glass"
• Two-day outbreak of anti-Semitic violence and persecution throughout Germany
• Encouraged by the Nazi government
• Many historians now view Kristallnacht as the beginning of the Holocaust
Civilian Conservation Corps
• Established by Congress, 1933
• Employed 250,000 young people to work in reforestation in National Parks and Forests
"Greenbacks"
• Term for paper money printed by the Union when the government was in need of money to fund the war
• Originally backed by gold, then by government bonds
• Value of this money varied according to vitality of the Union Army, at times depreciating far below face value
New Immigrants"
Term for immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe between 1880 and 1930
Rough Riders
• Founded in 1898 by Republican political leader Theodore Roosevelt
• Included Ivy Leaguers, miners, cowboys, Native Americans, sons of Confederate veterans, African Americans
• Fought for just a few months in Cuba during the tail end of the war
• Revered as heroes upon return to U.S.
Gilded Age
• Term, coined sarcastically by Mark Twain, for last quarter of 19th century
• Described an era marked by great wealth but also great corruption
• "Gilded" = golden on the outside, not golden inside
Homer Plessy
Member of Comité des Citoyens, who volunteered to challenge the Louisiana's Separate Car Law, 1891
Labeled an "octoroon," 1/8 black, under Louisiana law
Hoped the courts would declare the Louisiana law unconstitutional
Plessy was convicted and defeated in each and every appeal, including the U.S. Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson
1907 Financial Panic
• Stock-market panic threatened to throw economy into severe recession
• Economy stabilized by private actions of J.P. Morgan and other financiers
Black Power
• Emphasizes race pride and black autonomy rather than integration with white society
• Term originally coined by SNCC chairman Stokely Carmichael
• Popularized by military civil rights organizations such as the Black Panther Party
• Now used to refer to later wave of the Civil Rights Movement
Winston Churchill
• Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1940-45, again from 1951-55
• Led Britain through period of lonely resistance to Hitler's expansion before U.S. and U.S.S.R. entered war in 1941
• Frequently met with U.S. President Roosevelt and Soviet Premier Stalin to plan Allied war strategy
Berlin Airlift
Communism in Greece popped up so the US went to put it down. Britain, France and the US made an economic union. Stalin wanted to cut Berlin off of all supplies so the US airlifted 8,000 tons of material a day for 342 days. It was very tense.
Revolution of 1905
Nicholas II failed to fix the politcal, economic and social problems in Russia; result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empire's minorities.
According to Marx and Engels in The Commnist Manifesto, history is associated with
class struggles
Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S.
"Double V" Campaign
• Term coined by black leaders during World War II
• Described two-front battle blacks would have to fight for "victory over our enemies at home"—racism—"and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad"—fascism.
1961 Bay of Pigs Disaster
• President Kennedy authorized invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro exiles
• Invasion ended in disastrous failure, undermining Kennedy at home and abroad
• Made Soviet leader Khrushchev believe Kennedy was weak and inexperienced and could be bullied
1948 Republic of Korea Declared
President Syngman Rhee proclaimed South Korea an independent republic
Denied North Korea as a legitimate republic and claimed authority over the entire Korean Peninsula
John J. Pershing
• Commanding general of U.S. Army during WWI
• Had nearly 2 million men under his command by the end of the war
• Refused to allow his soldiers to enter the line before they were properly trained, thus credited with saving many American lives
South Korea
During the Korean War, referred to as the Republic of Korea
Created in 1948
Led by staunch anticommunist President Syngman Rhee
Region of the Korean peninsula south of the 38th parallel
North Korea
During the Korean War, referred to as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Created in 1948
Led by Communist Kim Il Sung
Region of the Korean peninsula north of the 38th parallel
Susan B. Anthony
• Major leader of American suffrage movement
• Advocate of abolition and temperance
• Opposed giving suffrage to freedmen without also giving it to women
• Arrested for trying to vote, 1872
William Howard Taft
• Republican President of the United States, 1909-1913
• Administration had both Progressive and conservative tendencies
• Roosevelt's hand-picked successor, but not as charismatic or effective
• Won Republication nomination for re-election in 1912 but finished behind both Democrat Woodrow Wilson and Roosevelt (running on Progressive Party ticket) in general election
1918 Sedition Act
• Federal law passed in May 1918
• More repressive than the Espionage Act
• Criminalized production of antiwar materials and the delivery of any speech deemed unpatriotic or detrimental to the war effort
• Imposed fine and imprisonment on anyone who discouraged military recruiting or criticized the government, the flag, or the military uniform
Central Pacific Railroad
• company given charter to build western part of Transcontinental Railroad by Congress
• Built challenging line through Sierra Mountains using Chinese labor force
1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff
• Raised tariffs to protect American industry during Depression
• Didn't help American economy much but made things much worse in Europe
1863 Emancipation Proclamation
• Issued by President Lincoln during the Civil War, motivated less by abolitionist sentiment than by strategic desire to weaken the Confederacy
• Freed slaves in the Confederacy, but did not free slaves in states than had declared loyalty to the Union
1949 Fall of China
• Mao Zedong's Communists defeated Chiang Kai-Shek's Nationalists to end long Chinese Civil War
• Nationalists fled to Taiwan
• Many Americans blamed Truman Administration for "loss of China"
Ulysses S. Grant
• Union general who commanded the eastern front from 1864 to 1865
• Nicknamed "The Butcher" for his determination to destroy southern armies any way he could, regardless of human cost
Robert Gould Shaw
• White Union colonel who commanded the all-black 54th Massachusetts Infantry
• Originally displeased with his assignment to lead an all-black regiment
• Killed with his troops while storming a Confederate position at Fort Wagner in July 1863
1925 Scopes Monkey Trial
• Tested Tennessee law banning teaching of evolution
• Celebrity attorneys (Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan) represented both sides
• Teacher John Scopes convicted
• Trial was a publicity stunt
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The US dropped atomic bombs on these Japaneese cities to end the war with Japan.
The Louvre
an art museum that is a famous tourist attraction in Paris
Although Napoleon failed in lasting imperial conquests, he likely helped spread
Revolutionary ideals concerncing the will of people and political pwer
1913 Seventeenth Amendment
• Allowed for U.S. Senators to be elected directly by popular vote
Horizontal Integration
• When a company forces out or takes over its competitors, building a monopoly over an entire industry
• Many companies endured temporary cuts in prices to drive competitors out of business, creating monopoly conditions and generating high profits
1929 Stock Market Crash
• event that caused financial panic that struck Wall Street, causing collapse in prices of stocks
• Stock market lost nearly 90% of its value between 1929 and 1932
• Signaled onset of Great Depression
1865 Chinese Labor on CP
• Crocker experimented with Chinese labor to mitigate turnover among Irish workers
• Eventually switched almost entirely to cheap and effective Chinese labor
• Never treated Chinese workers well
War of Attrition
• Type of military strategy based on wearing down the enemy through continuous warfare
• In these conflicts, the power with the greatest resources usually prevails
What was the distinguishing trait of the new imperialism over the old?
Industrial powers totally dominated the nonindustrial world.
1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and
Reconstruction
• Lincoln issued standards by which rebel states could be readmitted to the Union following the Civil War
• So-called 10 Percent Plan required 10% of population to take "ironclad oath" of loyalty before state could re-enter the Union
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
• Oil cartel, originally composed of Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
• Attempted to coordinate oil production and pricing
• Imposed oil boycott on U.S. In wake of 1973 Yom Kippur War in Israel
• Demonstrated American reliance on foreign oil, potential problems dealing with Third World
Which of the following was passed by the British Parliament to regulate child working hours
The factory act of 1833
1895 Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Address"
Speech delivered at the Cotton States and International Exposition
Heard by an audience comprised mostly of whites
Proposed a compromise between the two races; asked that whites allow blacks to advance economically in exchange for black deference
Urged blacks and whites to be "as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand," 1895
Which of the following did not contribute to England's early industrialization
High food prices due to inadequate crops
1861 Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
• First official battle of the Civil War; occurred west of Washington, D.C., 21 July 1861
• Smaller Confederate army stood strong against Union assaults
• Fierce battle disproved both sides' hopes of easy victory in Civil War
One of the major features of the agricultural revolution was
farming for the market rather than for subsistence
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