Western Civilization II and Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Russian revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. Leader of the Bolsheviks and headed the Soviet state. He fought for control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and created a socialist government.
Hume was leading Ehlightenment advocate of
Calvin Coolidge
• Conservative Republican president
• Elected vice president, 1920
• Became president at Harding's death, 1923
• "The business of America is business"
• Reelected, 1924
• Popular; oversaw "Coolidge prosperity"
Viscount Palmerston
British foreign secretary that developed the nationalist appeal of an forceful policy. He was a colorful aristocrat, frequently at odds with his cabinet colleagues, but sensibly alert to public oppinion.
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice
Austria cooperated with Russia and Prussia in the division of
Abraham Lincoln
• Anti-slavery Republican, elected U.S. President, 1860
• Moderate stance on emancipation; not abolitionist, but against slavery's expansion
• His election triggered secession crisis, which led to Civil War
• Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater, Washington D.C, 1865
• Formal government acquisition of territory
• Usually achieved by military conquest or occupation
Ronald Reagan
actor, Governor of California, Republican President of the United States
during early Cold War, head of Screen Actor's Guild
served as informant against Communists for FBI
testified against Hollywood Ten before HUAC
• American policy built upon assumption that U.S.S.R. was by nature an expansionist but cautious power, and thus U.S. should meet every attempt to expand Soviet influence with appropriate "counterforce"
• Proposed by diplomat George F. Kennan, adopted as policy in Truman Doctrine
1865 Thirteenth Amendment
• Declared slavery unconstitutional
Yalta Conference
Roosavelt, Stalin, and Churchill put the Soviet Union in control of most of Eastern Europe.
Emerged to be leader even though Trosky was thought the leader. He was uncharismatic, ruthless, and he put Russia through purges that killed millions of people. Made the 5 year economic plan and social policies.
An Italian politician who led the National Facist Party and is accredited for being one of the key leaders in the creation of Facism.
The night of broken glass when millions of Germans attacked Jewsish homes, businesses, and synagogues. It was an orgainized assault by Hitler Youth, the Gastapo and the SS.
Name of the reforms instituted by Gorbachev.
social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
The United States
became the third-largest trading nation by 1914.
General Santa Ana
first fighting against independence from Spain then supporting it, president of Mexico on 7 different occasions
League of Nations
• International deliberative body originally proposed as part of the Fourteen Points, authored by President Woodrow Wilson
• Created by the Treaty of Versailles, which ended WWI
• U.S. Congress refused to ratify it, thus the U.S. didn't join
Frederick Winslow Taylor
• American inventor and engineer
• Father of scientific management or Taylorism
• Advocated industrial efficiency; wanted workers to be as effective as machines
• Hated by workmen, loved by industrialists
1901 McKinley Assassination
• President William McKinley murdered by crazed anarchist Leon Czolgosz
• Charismatic young Vice President Teddy Roosevelt became president
• A government policy or action meant to exert power over another nation or territory
• Usually involves military force; usually aimed at acquiring land
• Can also be result of extensions of economic, political, or religious power
Mao Zedong
• Leader of Chinese Communists, defeated Nationalists in Civil War in 1949; ruled Red China until his death in 1976
• Ordered Chinese troops to intervene against Americans in Korean War
• Called atom bomb "paper tiger" or meaningless threat in early 1950s
• Established friendly relations with Richard Nixon in 1970s
Klaus Fuchs
German-born physicist and spy
worked on Manhattan Project; sent nuclear secrets to Soviets
arrested by British, 1950, jailed then deported to East Germany
Andrew Mellon
• Wealthy Wall Street investor
• Secretary of the Treasury under Harding and Coolidge
• Pro-business policies led to economic boom of Roaring Twenties, but also to bust of 1929 Great Crash
George McClellan
• Ineffective Union general during Civil War
• Fired by President Lincoln in 1862
• Democratic presidential nominee in the 1864 election, running on a platform of peace and criticizing Lincoln's leadership
• Lost to Lincoln by only a small margin
Nuremburg Laws
Deprived Jews of citizenship and kept Jews from marrying non-Jews.
European Community
Free trade was established in Europe and open trade between European nations. The hope was to build a strong European economy. They resisted the United States and outside influence.
Labor Party
The British party that replaced the Liberals in the early twentieth century and championed greater social equality for the working classes through the efforts of labor unions.
What marked the first stage of the agricultural revolution?
Which of the following regions was not part of the u.s. Imperial network?
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946).
1949 NATO Organized
• Western powers formed formal military alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, to coordinate defense against Soviet bloc
• Soviets soon responded by forming Warsaw Pact
1950 McCarthy's List
Sen. McCarthy burst into national prominence by displaying a list he said included the names of 205 State Department employees who were Communists
little evidence for charges
beginning of full-blown McCarthyism
1947 Hollywood Ten Hearings
HUAC launched investigation of Communism in film industry
so-called Hollywood Ten subpoenaed witnesses refused to testify
Hollywood Ten were charged with contempt of Congress, blacklisted from working in film industry
1941 Pearl Harbor
• Japanese bombers attacked U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 7 December
• Attack killed thousands and destroyed much of U.S. Pacific fleet
• One day after attack, U.S. declared war on Japan, then Germany and Italy (allied with Japan) declared war on U.S.
Benito Mussolini
• Fascist Prime Minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943
• Adopted the title "Il Duce," which meant "the noble leader"
• Promised to fight alongside Hitler in war against Allies, but his armies were poorly led and ill-prepared and were easily defeated
• Overthrown in 1943 by Italian insurgents and assassinated two years later
Jefferson Davis
• First and only President of Confederacy
• Also served as Secretary of War for the Confederacy
• His economic policies and military strategies failed to give the South what it needed to defeat the North
Charles Lindbergh
• Famous pilot
• First person to fly an airplane solo across the Atlantic
• Became one of America's first hugely popular celebrities
1865 Freedmen's Bureau Established
• Provided educational assistance and other opportunities for freed blacks
• Congress established Freedmen's Savings Bank in the same year
1919 Eighteenth Amendment
• Began nationwide Prohibition of alcohol
W.E.B. Du Bois
Black writer, historian, educator, and civil rights activist
Best known for his writings about the Jim Crow South in The Souls of Black Folk, 1903
Helped found the NAACP in 1909
A sharp critic of Booker T. Washington and his moderate stance on race relations
Less popular among African-Americans than Washington throughout the early 20th century
"Southern Strategy"
A Republican strategy shaped by Kevin Phillips
Identified disaffected, white southern ex-Democrats as the potential core for a new Republican majority
Helped Richard Nixon win the presidency in 1968
Helped turn the old Democratic South into a solidly Republican region
Reagan adopted the strategy through a more subtle approach to attracting white voters; he avoided using explicitly racist references and instead spoke of "welfare queens" and warned that government spending meant "free money for black people"
William Calley, Jr.
• U.S. Army lieutenant during Vietnam War
• Found guilty in 1971 of murder for ordering the killing of hundreds of South Vietnamese civilians at My Lai in 1968, sentenced to life in prison
• Appealed conviction and received reduced sentence; released in 1974
Bao Dai
• Reigning emperor of Vietnam until 1945
• After French colonial rule ended in Vietnam in 1945, France reinstated Bao Dai as emperor but kept him powerless
• Essentially a puppet of the French government
• Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh forced him to surrender leadership months later
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
• U.S. discovered Soviet installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba
• Americans "quarantined" (blockaded) island, demanded withdrawal of missiles
• After 13 days of intense negotiations, Soviet missiles were withdrawn in exchange for U.S. removal of missiles in Turkey and pledged never to invade Cuba again
• American people, not informed of agreement, believed that Kennedy had won through hard line and not negotiation
• Closest world ever came to nuclear annihilation
1902 Philippine-American War Officially Ends
• President Theodore Roosevelt declared the end of war in the Philippines
• By this time, 4,200 U.S. were dead, over 200,000 Filipino dead
• Despite President Roosevelt's announcement, Filipino nationalists and U.S. troops continued to fight for next 13 years
• U.S. troops remained in Philippines until 1946, when U.S. finally granted Philippine independence
"Search and Destroy"
• Military strategy employed by American ground forces throughout the Vietnam War
• Involved ambushing enemy forces and then withdrawing immediately, rather than fortifying and holding hostile territory
Pentagon Papers
• Secret documents leaked to New York Times by Daniel Ellsberg, a military analyst who had high-level security clearance at the Pentagon
• Contained top-secret information collected by the Department of Defense about U.S. involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967
• Revealed that military had been much more pessimistic about situation in Vietnam than it had revealed to the public
Franz Ferdinand
Archduke and air to the throne of Austria. He and his wife were shot on a visit to Sarajevo which started WWI
North German Confederation
Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs, North German Confederation made under rulership of Prussia. Major step towards German unification.
The two factors that characterized the new science were
materialism and mathematics
Most 18th century demands for liberty called for
equality of opportunity
A big loser at the Congress of Vienna was
Lawrence Of Arabia
British soldier known for his writings in 1916-1918
Nellie Melba
One of the first celebrities of radio. was Nellie Melba. Opera singer, soprano. June 16, 1920: went on a radio show (in NY) and sang. Added to her notoriety and celebrity, but this was the only time she did it because she wanted people to pay to hear her.
Rosa Parks
• Most familiar female icon of the Civil Rights Movement
• Arrested and jailed for refusing to give up her seat to white man on Montgomery city bus, 1955
• Member of NAACP at time of arrest; not the first black citizen to resist segregation laws in the South
• Inspired one-day bus boycott that led to year-long Montgomery Bus Boycott
Eugene "Bull" Connor
• Police chief in Alabama during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, 1963
• Ordered police to use dogs, night sticks, fire hoses to break up demonstrations
• Images of violence symbolized brutal aspects of white resistance to black equality
1948 Executive Order 9981
Desegregated the U.S. Armed Forces
Also established the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services
1862 Pacific Railroad Bill
• Federal law authorized Central Pacific to build east from Sacramento
• Established Union Pacific with mandate to build west from Missouri River
• Did not establish meeting point for UP and CP, which led to later (very profitable) inefficiencies
• Funded construction by giving land grants to railroads adjacent to rail lines
1890 Woman Suffrage in Wyoming
• Wyoming gained statehood, continued pre-statehood practice of allowing women to vote
• First state to allow women to vote
• Ten more states granted women the vote by 1914
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
• Democratic President of the United States, 1933-45
• Implemented New Deal domestic reforms in response to Great Depression
• One of most influential presidents in history
• First and last president to serve four terms in office
• Died in office, 1945
1945 German Surrender
• Hitler committed suicide as Allied troops approached Berlin, 1 May
• Germany officially surrendered one day later
• Officially ended European war, but did not end World War II, as Japan kept fighting
Central Powers
• WWI alliance of the German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Ottoman Empire
• Bulgaria joined later in the war
• Became enemy of U.S. after 1917
1948 Berlin Airlift
• U.S.S.R. blockaded city of Berlin, located in Soviet zone of occupation in eastern Germany
• Americans organized yearlong airlift to provide city with food and supplies
• Soviets abandoned blockade in defeat in 1949
• First major confrontation of Cold War
This was a thaw in the Cold War. Nixon went to China and talked to Russia. They recognized the Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) between them and made a middle ground as a goal. It included the Strategic Arms Limitaiton Talks (SALT) and ended with the Soviet invation of Afgahnistan.
The act that led to the outbreak of World War I was simply one of a series of crises involving what region of Europe?
The Balkans
The Flapper
Idealized woman of the 20s. Had a job, smoked cigarettes, always was ready to go out and dance. Came along because of all the women in the workplace who went in to work during the war when the men were away.
1942 Executive Order 9066
• Issued by President Roosevelt two months after Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
• Allowed forced internment of thousands of Japanese-Americans
• Gave U.S. military power to decide who should be removed from areas deemed vulnerable to enemy attack
• By summer of 1942, whole communities were forced to move to internment camps
1933 First Hundred Days
• FDR called special session of Congress to enact a flurry of legislation at start of his presidency
• Arguably most significant burst of legislative activity in American history
• Instituted bank holiday, stabilizing U.S. financial system
• Legalized the sale of beer after 14 years of Prohibition
• Created Civilian Conservation Corps, providing jobs in forest conservation
• Took U.S. off gold standard
• Passed Federal Emergency Relief Act, providing unemployment benefits
• Passed Agricultural Adjustment Act, reducing farm overproduction in hopes of raising prices for crops
• Created Tennessee Valley Authority, which built dams to provide hydroelectric power to rural South
• Passed Federal Securities Act, committing federal government to regulation of Wall Street
• Passed National Industrial Recovery Act, signature piece of legislation, which made several major economic changes
1941 Pearl Harbor Attack
• Japanese attack on American naval base in Hawaii forced U.S. to enter World War II
• Demands of war economy finally did what New Deal could not do, lifting U.S. out of Great Depression
Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice
White minstrel actor in the pre-Civil War years
Gained fame for his "Jim Crow" song and dance, a parody of a crippled black man
His blackface "Jim Crow" show was hugely popular with white audiences in the North
1968 My Lai Massacre
• Occurred in hamlet in South Vietnam, thought by American soldiers to have harbored Viet Cong or Viet Cong sympathizers
• American soldiers, led by Lieutenant William Calley, killed hundreds of unarmed civilians
• Those killed were mostly women, children, and elderly men
1983 Strategic Defense Initiative
Reagan revealed this proposal in a nationally televised address
Planned to build space-based lasers capable of shooting down incoming nuclear missiles
Press later labeled the plan "Star Wars"
1894 Immigration Restriction League
Founded by members of Boston's social elite
Advocated for exclusion of "undesirable" new immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe
Central Intelligence Agency
• Organized in 1947 to oversee all foreign intelligence and counterintelligence operations for United States
• During Eisenhower administration, staged anticommunist coups in Iran and Guatemala
54th Massachusetts Infantry
• All-black unit that fought for the Union during the Civil War
• Led by white colonel Robert Gould Shaw
• Led charge against Confederate forces at Fort Wagner, suffering overwhelming casualties
• Story dramatized in the 1989 film Glory
1972 Nixon Goes to China
• Ends 23-year-old policy of American non-recognition of Red China
• Establishment of relations with U.S. drove wedge further between U.S.S.R. and China, dividing Communist world into two camps
Which of the following statements concerning the technological innovations of the industrial revolution is correct?
Practical rather than pure science marked the time
1865 Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse
• Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in western Virginia, 9 April 1865
• Marked the end of the Civil War
Share the Wealth Clubs
• Organized by Huey Long to advocate for redistribution of wealth from rich to poor
• Long likened economy to a barbecue: "We've got to call Mr. Morgan and Mr. Mellon and Mr. Rockefeller back and say, come back here, put that stuff back on this table here that you took away from here that you don't need."
• Share the Wealth movement collapsed following Long's assassination in 1935
1934 Federal Housing Admin. Created
• Provided loans for housing repair and construction; helped struggling housing industry
• Controversial; many policies have since been attacked as racist
1863 Draft Riots
• 4 days of rioting in New York City occurred in response to federal conscription laws passed in July
• Working class whites, especially Irish, rebelled because they worried that if they left for war, free blacks would take their jobs
• Also fueled by anger over the decision to allow wealthy men to buy their way out of military service
Poll Tax
Tax that had to be paid in order to be eligible to vote
Many southern states passed poll taxes during Jim Crow era as a tool to disenfranchise black voters
Disproportionately affected black southerners, who were more likely to be poor
Nullified by Voting Rights Act of 1965
Metternich's overall goal at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was to
restore the European world to the way it had been prior to the French Revolution
National Socialist German Workers Party
• Better known as Nazi Party; led by Adolf Hitler from 1920s until his suicide in 1945
• Controlled Germany from 1933 to 1945
• Its government is referred to as the Third Reich
1953 Armistice to End the Korean War
After almost 2 years of peace talks
U.S., North Korea, and China agreed to end military action in Korea
Not a formal peace treaty
Korea remained divided
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