Film Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to fill
Lighting Fixture
(1929) King Vidor
1. muddy;not clear, opaque
slow motion
footage played slow
Whip pan
A sudden, fast pan
Realists avoid extreme angles, photographed from eye level, the way an actual observer might view a scene, usually these directors try to capture the clearest view of an object.• Realism used to describe a variety of styles ranging from poetic realism, documentary realism, to studio realism among others. Some realists use the natural beauty of the world while others avoid beauty and focus on the natural, imperfect nature of realism • Andre Bazin theorized that photography and film produce images of reality automatically. He thought that no other art can be as realistic in the most elementary sense of the world.• Realists favor available lighting in exterior scenes. The realist doesn’t use conspicuous lighting unless its source is dictated by the context• In realistic films the implied narrator is virtually invisible, the events speak for themselves like stage plays. The story seems to unfold automatically, usually in chronological sequence.• Movies are evaluated in terms of how accurately they reflect external reality. Camera is a recording instrument rather than an expressive medium in its own right. The Subject matter is paramount in the cinema of realism, technique is its discreetly transparent handmaiden. Most theories of realism have a moral and ethical bias and are often rooted in the values of Islamic, Christian and Marxist humanism. See page 499
implicit meaning
abstract interpretation of film
-chief creative presence or the primary manager in film production
-responsible for and overseeing all the work of making a movie
An aspect of Cinematography. Rotating the camera on a horizontal axis.
Tom is alone,remembering his family.
forced dispersal (moving from an original homeland to different parts of the world) many times involuntary because of economic circumstances, safety, etc.
movements are linked with corresponding or contrasting movements in one or mroe other shots
graphic editing
usually refers to exciting events occurring in the main characters' lives
performative development
-changes in a character described through an actor's performance
shows relative depth of shallowness of setting, character relationships, etc.
- Fritz Lang
- 1927
- Germany
- "The Vision of Moloch"
What the film's top layer that captures images?
continuity editing
concentrates on structuring on- and off- screen space and on establishing and maintaining the viewer's mental map.
A dark screen that gradually brightens as a shot appears.
A Doll's House
-Ibsen-Alienated from family and society-Considered home and children blackmail-Women as property-Box set for realism
block booking
a studio/distributor pressures a movie theater to accept and show smaller, less expensive films in order to gain the opportunity to show more popular movies
metonymy: a first meaning is that metonymy is a substitution of the name of an attribute for that of the thing meant, ex: crown for queen. and a second meaning is that a term stands as meaning the whole of that term. So in film metonymy is applied to an object that is visibly present but which represents another object or subject to which it is related but which is absent. EX: the toboggan in "Citizen Kane" named rosebud functions metonymically for the mystery that surrounds Kane-an enigma which the journalist tries desperately to unravel definition: This artistic device occurs when an object, image or phrase, is used to refer to another object and both are in close correlation with one another. For example a metonymy for a pirate might be an eyepatch, or, for Sherlock Holmes, a Deer-Stalker cap and magnifying glass.

Metaphor: in film, it applies when there are two consecutive shots and the second one functions in a comparative way with the first. EX: a lovers' embrace followed by a shot of a train running wildly through a tunnel! the second shot communicates the meaning of the embrace-which is unknown, because unseen, at least to the spectator-and transfers it into known terms: speed of the train equals rush of emotion, tunnel equals excitement of penetration and so on. metaphors, unlike metonyms, are visible. metonyms-encoded and metaphors-decoded. metaphors work paradigmatically (substitute) and metonyms work syntagmatically (a part in a sequence). definition of metaphor: In film a metaphoric device occurs when two different shots, with a direct comparable thread, are edited consecutively. The second image is a metaphor for the first and it is quite effective when audiences are delighted and surprised by the sudden immediacy of the relationship.
the act of defining or making definite, distinct, or clear.
Can create an atmosphere or mood and create codes of meaning
what was fox's speciality 
westerns- particularly those John Ford- and musicals 
Sound Mixing
- Combining sounds into an audio "stream," juxtaposition as well as forming a pattern
A style of filmmaking that attempts to duplicate the look of objective reality as it’s commonly perceived, with emphasis on authentic locations and details, minimum of distortion techniques, lots of long cuts and long shots.
sound quality that makes you feel as though you are close to the sound source
Off-Screen Space
cinematic space that exists outside of the frame
a system where the free market is controlled by private owners for profit; one's place in the hierarchy is determined by effort
PersonaRio BravoSingin' in the Rain
Ingmar BergmanHoward HawksStanley Donan/Gene Kelly
one more more shots that describe a continuous space time and action
High-angle Shot
taken from a camera positioned above the subject, looking down at it
Flashback/Flash forward :
a convention designed to give the viewer important information about past events; conventions often include verbal signals "I remember when...", shot dissolving, etc.
upon arriving to the submarine base what disguise does indy use
a nazi uniform
Overlapping editing
An aspect of editing. The duration of the action on screen is prolonged through noticeably overlapping the movements from shot to shot.
Jump Cut
An elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot; the figures of the background seem to change while the others remain constant
Thesis 4 parts
the sentence that provides a roadmap for the reader-indicates the subject ofthe essay-suggests, indicates, or shows theorganizational layout of the argument/treatment-makes a claim that is disputable;and is persuasive in tone.
The contents of the frame and the way that they are organized. Includes setting, costume and makeup, lighting, performance
Sound Perspective
The sense of a sound's position in space, yielded by volume, timbre and pitch.
Focal Plane
A plane perpendicular to the axis of an optical system and passing through the focal point of the system.
wir sind ins Kino gegangen
we went to the cinema
Focalization :
A concept similar to point of view in literature, focalization refers to perspective in a film setting. This can be expressed through many film techniques (music/sound, framing, camera angle, camera movement, etc.), and breaks down into three types:
Mise-en-Scene (5 diff pts)
everything in front of the camera.
Set design
costume/make up
blocking of actors
aesthetic motion paradox
an object can be in motion and perceived at rest, or can be at rest and perceived to be in motion
Traits of a News Writer
- work fast/ under pressure
-be accurate
-use language that communicates clearly & effectively
-write as you talk
-know where the story is & write a lead that captures the crux of the story
What is the main idea with montage?
things collide- synthesis of ideas
extreme long shot
A framing in which the scale of the object shown is very small; a building, landscape, or crowd of people will fill the screen.
How do we calculate the f-stop?
dividing the focal lens with lens diameter
what was the first film lucas and speilberg teamed up 
Indiana Jones raiders of the lost ark
der Trickfilm
not obvious
Plans Dance sequences
Shakespeare born
1564 May 23
What is SOC?
standard outcue
ordo, ordinis
order, series, row, line
Touch of Evil
(1958) Orson Welles
Condenser Mic
Expensive, high quality, delicate
Signifies a meaning totally different than the object (red=passion or danger, heart=love)
Who directed Mother in 1926?
Vsedvolod Pudovkin
volume duality
inperplay between positive and negative volumes 
eye level
same level as the subject
art directors
responsible for supervising the conception and construction of moive sets in collaboration with set designers
describes the sum of unpleasant physiological effects following heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. The most common reported characteristics of a hangdog are headache, nausea, lethargy, sensitivity to light and noise, and thirst
media convergence
-process by which formerly distinct media and viewing platforms become commercially, technologically, and culturally independent.
used to portray moods and different times of day
Joining of 2 filmstrips together with a splice
What describes in numbers how sensitive the film stock is to light?
Film Speed
dramatic agent
an element that intensifies a scene
Screen Direction
The right-left relationship in a scene, set up in an establishing shot and determined by the position of characters and objects in the frame; by the directions of movement and by the characters eyeline.
Moliere - The Plays
• Character Comedies• Middle Class Subjects• Influence of Commedia• Example: Tartuffe
an initial long shot that establishes the setting and prients the viewer in space to a clear view of the action
refers to narration, the content of the narrative, the fictional world as described inside the story. In film, it refers to all that is really going on on-screen, that is, to fictional reality. Characters' world and gestures, all action as enacted w/in the screen constitute as diegesis. Diegetic sound is a sound that 'naturally' occurs w/in the screen space (like an actor speaking, signing, or playing an instrument on screen) NOT voiceovers or added music. diegetic audiences often used to draw attention to the star of the film. intra-diegetic sound is like a voiceover. definition: The narrative elements of a film that are shown or immediately inferred from the content of a film. Though implication is not the primary focus, diegesis is a methodological analysis for discerning the exact nature of the film including all of the action and dialogue. Diegesis is related to semiotics.
Dialogue spoken by an off-screen narrator. This narrator may be a character reflecting in voice-over on story events from some later point in the narrative or, as sometimes occurs in documentary films, the narrator may exist independently of characters in
Voice-Over Narration
myelin sheath
white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. speeds impulse conduction along axons.
Étienne-Jules Marey:
invented rifle camera which took 12 shots in rapid succession using 1 camera.
Normal lens
- Middle focal length = 35-50mm
- Avoids perspective distortion
- Lines remain straight, areas not streched
an actor who, after many years, has such an effect on the public that he/she becomes a model or ideal actor for good
open set
set whose background scenery is not continuous. the open set consists of sections of interiors not connected by a common background
race or gender is defined at the intersection of how one performs these categories and how the people interacting with that person interpret these categories
moving shot done on a mobile platform supporting the camera, cameraman, and asst cameraman, pushed by the grip
any number of shots that are unified as a coherent action regardles of changes in space and time
device worn by a camera operator that holds the motion picture camera, allowing it to glide smoothly through spaces unreachable by cameras mounted on a crane or other apparatus
Bottom/Side Lighting :
light only illuminates part of a subject, often a face; indicates characters who may be evil, deceptive, ambiguous, or conflicted
what is it that jones finds on the tomb floor that he doesnt like
bird’s-eye view (aerial shot)
An aspect of Cinematography. Referring to the angle of framing, this framing positions us looking directly down at the framed materials, as if we were hoving above them.
soft light usually comes from a source near the camera that is used to soften shadows of lignes
fill light
Film Stock
2 basic types; black and white and color. 8mm, 16mm, 35mm, 70mm
a visible event or character in a film with other more significant or abstract levels of meaning outside of the film; an extended metaphor
Incident light
The direct light that falls on a surface.
the three stages of movie making are
1)Pre-production 2)production 3)postproduction
wide angle lens
A lens of short focal length that affects a scene's perspective by distorting straight lines near the edges of the frame and by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background planes.
Dolly or Tracking shot
An aspect of Cinematography. The whole camera changes position, traveling in any direction along the ground.
stereoscopic projection
the z axis extends both ways from the back into the picture and from the screen out into the crowd
What is the name of ethics due to duty?
deontological ethics
a gown or dress worn by a girl or woman.
Who directed Un Chien Andalou in 1929?
Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel
Re-establishing Shot
A return to a view of an entire space after a series of closer shots following the establishing shot.
Tracking (Dolly) Shot
a shot in which the camera is moved on a wheeled dolly that follows the determined course
What proactive measures did Europe take?
European governments invest in film industry
Create cash prizes
European co-productions ("Runaway productions")
Film Festivals
Juror #6
die Regie
the director
-"The System"-Directing Chekov
theme that is reoccurring 
Dynamic Mic
cheap and rugged
Name the 1st narrative film?
converging vectors
point toward each other
(read pg. 358)
soundtrack definition according to That portion of the sound film medium to which are recorded the dialogue, music, narration and sound effects. The sound head and film gate on a film projector are physically separated from one another. This gap is covered during the recording of a sound-film by keeping the soundtrack recording a few frames head of the photographic image. The sound passes over the projector head at the same time the photographic image passes before the projector's light aperture/lens (the film gate).
The most common transition between shots made by splicing or joining the end of one sot to the beginning of the following shot.
Soviet Montage
- Characterized by deliberate juxtaposition or combining of shots
- Sergei Eisenstein like juxatpositions to jolt the spectator
    - Potemkin (1925)
- 1924-1930
a process in which the three-dimensional lens-generated screen image is deliberately rendered in a two-dimensional, graphic- or picturelike format
Symbols for a pause
... or ---
actor's use of languwage, physical expression and gesture to bring a character to life and to communicate important dimensions of that character to the audience
negative ----not subtle, again might refer to humour
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to recieve the nervous system.
Reaction Shot
two cameras capturing both sides showing a reaction to an action
A general term for all the manipulations of the filmstrip by the camera in the shooting phase and by the labritory in the developing phase
Burkean Cultural Reality
system of symbols(Christian, Buddhist, Jew, Muslim,Capitalist, Socialist, Mystic, Materialist, etc.).
sound continuity
the sound maintains its intended volume and quality over a series of edits
Illumination from a point below the figures in the scene.
- 1947, first screenplay (Crisis or Torment)- Smiles of a Summer Night- dark, psychological films- Summer with Monica- The Seventh Seal
film gauge
the width of the film stock
Double Exposures
technique of exposing film frames, then rewinding the film and exposing it again, which results in an image that combines two shots in a single frame
a film which does extremely well at the box office
Parallel editing:
Editing that alternates between two or more events often suggesting that the events are related to each other or are occurring simultaneously. Also might be used to represent events form different times or era.
Establishing shot
An aspect of continuity editing. A shot that delineating the overall space of the action.
Direct Address
Talking to the audience (Asides or Commercials)
Startes work with Sennet at Keystone
(1914) Charlie Chaplin
clock/objective time
the time we measure by the clock
fill light
Illumination from a source less bright than the key light, used to soften deep shadows in a scene. See also three-point lighting.
A scene or sequence that departs from the diegetic present to show events that take place in the future, and then returns to the diegetic present.
(Orientable) Viewfinder
In photography a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and in many cases to focus, the picture.
aspect ratio
the width-to-height ratio of the film frame as it appears on a movie screen or telelvision monitor
the technique of combining in a single composition pictorial elements from various sources, as parts of different photographs or fragments of printing, either to give the illusion that the elements belonged together originally or to allow each element to
Implicit ideological characters
The deeper meaning represented in the characters lives are beneath the surface of the story and in the characters' interactions (i.e. - Pretty Woman)
who took the supply wagon to delemire near lake matron
karin did
What is Film Noir?
-term developed by French film critics after WWII
-noticed a prevailing sense of cynicism, pessimism, and darkness
-many of the films are based on pulp detective novels of the 1920s and 1930s
-the closest mainstream HW cinemas has to an “art cinema”
Shallow Focus
only a narrow range of field in focused, but here too, the choice of a depth of field indicates what is significant in the image.
first-order space
primary space as defined by the video screen's borders
medium close up (MCU)
shows someone from the shoulders up
Long Take
A continuous shot of a scene that takes the place of editing within the scene (of longer than 'normal' duration).
editing a scene in the service of narrative continuity and clarity
disjunctive editing
Any image in which the aspect ratio is greater than television's 1.33:1. In widescreen video and DVD, the original theatrical aspect ratio is presented as originally intended, conserving the full horizontal width of the image. The aspect ratio of the typical widescreen image is 1.85:1, 2.35:1 (2.40:1) and 1.66:1
anamorphic widescreen: A method of improving vertical resolution in which the horizontal dimension of the image is squeezed so that more of the vertical space can be used. Essentially, a widescreen image is squeezed into a 1.33:1 (or 4:3) image area when shot, and later unsqueezed for presentation, resulting in 33 percent more vertical detail in the widescreen image.
saturated booking
-screened in as many places in the US, or abroad, as possible
Optical Sound came in two varieties 

variable density optical and variable area optical 
Crane shot
A shot taken from a camera mounted on a crane that can vary distance, height and angle
Circle of Confusion
Any point that is nearer or farther from the camera than the plane of critical focus registers as a circle on film instead of a point.
Three German inventors patented the first optical system 
Tri-Ergon process in 1921 later selling the American rights to the Fox Corporation in 1927
Sound editing and mixing
Sound is edited in either analog or digital form, assembling and recording sounds in preparation for the final sound.
Film Noir stylistics include all of the following except....
an unusually or innapropriately up beat soundtrack
how old was speilberg when he started directing at universal 
21, tv series, and 24 Duel, 28 Jaws
/ 155

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