z sk277 book Flashcards

Terms Definitions
structure containing nucleus,golgi,free ribosomes,RER,SER,mitochondrion,lysosomes cytoskeleton enclosed by a semipermeable membrane and, in plants chloroplasts within a cell wall ;
glomerular disease
glomerulonephritis, inflammation, glomerulosclerosis, scarring or hardening of blood vessels
A barbiturate-related substance,used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of grand mal epilepsy and in focal seizures.acts on voltage dep sodium channels, blocks calcium and release of neurotransmitters and enhances GABA
Constructive metabolism; the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones often requiring energy
tight junction
Intercellular junction between epithelial cells in which the outer layers of the cell membranes fuse,this makes a barrier preventing fluid passing in and out of the cell
diving response
head submerged,ventilation stops,vagus nerve initiates bradycardia,non essential arterioles constrict,blood flow to brain maintained
cardiac arrest
abrupt cessation of heartbeat.
epithelial cells inside bowmans capsule have unusual foot like capsules which leaves spaces or channels through which fluid can pass
t wave
reploarization of the ventricles
cytotoxic t cells
killer T cell.
humoral control
vasoconstriction from circulating adrenaline, noradrenaline, angiotensin 2 and ADH, vasodilation by bradykinin and histamine
photoreceptor responsible for night vision, found throughout the retina except the fovea
glial cell
astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, schwann cells and microglia
a clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid, containing white blood cells in a liquid resembling blood plasma, that is derived from the tissues of the body and conveyed to the bloodstream by the lymphatic vessels.
concentration gradient
the gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density.
golgi apparatus
organelle,consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum,either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the plasma mem
immunoglobulin E: a class of antibodies most abundant in tissue spaces, involved in the expulsion of intestinal parasites and causing allergic reactions by activating the release of histamines and leukotrienes in response to certain foreign antigens.
chordae tendinae
tendons connecting the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve in the heart
the muscular substance of the heart.
not intrinsic property of substance but of the hosts ability to recognise it as a pathogen, a molecule may be antigen in 1 host but not in another eg blood type antigens or pollen
produced by the liver,renin cleaves small polypeptide angiotensin 1 wich is converted in the lungs by angiotensin converting enzyme to angiotensin 2 which acts to change GFR
t cells
lymphocyte developed in the thymus,circulate in the blood and lymph and orchestrate the immune systems response to infected or malignant cells, either by lymphokine secretions or by direct contact
surface defence
skin impenetrable barrier, mucus membranes traps on sticky surface, hair cell filters, ciliated cells move particles out, one way flow of urine,saliva with antimicrobial secretion and acid
u wave
could correspond to slow reploarization of the papillary muscles which attach chordae tendinae to ventricle wall
detect increase in osmolarity of interstitial fluid and activate hypothalamic neurons that secrete ADH
of unknown cause, as a disease.
detects bitter taste on the tongue
spinothalamic tract
ascending fibres relay sensory information up to the brain and descending pathways relay motor information to control muscle response
responsible for forming lipid rich myelin sheath around neurons in CNS
not involved with initiation of movement but the smooth exertion once started, sensitive to alcohol,damage can cause ataxia
a receptor located in subcutaneous tissues, as muscles, tendons, and joints, that responds to stimuli produced within the body.
A single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm,genetic code specifies the sequence for protein synthesis. adenine to uracil 2 bonds, cytosine to guanine 3 bonds
vitamin a
obtained from carotene and occurring in green and yellow vegetables, egg yolk, etc.: essential to growth, the protection of epithelial tissue, and the prevention of night blindness.
The transport of solid matter or liquid into a cell by means of a coated vacuole or vesicle for use by cellular processes or to lysosomes via the golgi for breaking down
a viscid, watery fluid, secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands, that functions in the tasting, chewing, and swallowing of food, moistens the mouth, and starts the digestion of starches.
pertaining to a research design or survey in which the same subjects are observed repeatedly over a period of time.
The ability of a population to maintain or increase its numbers in succeeding generations, lifetime reproductive success
biological determinism
ultimate explanation for all the characteristics of a human lies not in behaviour or structure of cells and structures but lies in the organisms genes
vitamin c
citrus fruits, green vegetables, etc., and often produced synthetically, essential for normal metabolism: used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, and in wound-healing
vascular endothelium
blood vessel wall integrity maintained by platelets
carotid sinus
specialized nerve end organs producing a slight dilatation of the carotid artery where it branches into the external and internal carotid arteries, responding to changes in blood pressure by mediating changes in the heartbeat rate.
the clumping of bacteria, red blood cells, or other cells, due to the introduction of an antibody.
cholinergic nerve fibres
parasympathetic nerve fibres using acetylcholine which relaxes smooth muscle originating in the cardio inhibitory center in the medulla descending to heart via vagus nerve
alternative pathway
the activation of complement by contact with polysaccharides on bacteria, protozoa, or yeast cells: a nonspecific immune response.
noradrenergic nerve fibre
sympathetic nerves using noradrenalin, contracting smooth muscle originating in vasomotor center in medulla
bowman capsule
hollow cup like structure surrounding the closed end of the tubule
capillary pores
spaces between endothelial cells which can enlarge so blood cells and plasma can pass through to affected tissue
mast cell
Large granular cell, common in connective tissue, that produces heparin, histamine, and serotonin, stain with alkaline dye, part of inflammatory response
qrs complex
atrial repolarization as well as ventricle depolarization prior to ventricle contraction
metabolic autoregulation
decreased O2 and increased CO concentrations from increased metabolic rates act as local vasodilators increasing blood flow in proportion to the increase in metabolism
the separation of large molecules, as proteins, from small molecules and ions in a solution by allowing the latter to pass through a semipermeable membrane.
a blood condition in which the bicarbonate concentration is below normal.
The three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Dura, arachnoid and pia mater
any of several chemical substances, as epinephrine or acetylcholine, that transmit nerve impulses across a synapse to a postsynaptic element, as another nerve, muscle, or gland.
star shaped cell helps to maintain blood brain barrier by promoting tight junctions between endothelial cells
receptors in vestibule which respond to pull of gravity giving information regarding position of the head maintaining static equilibrium
a disorder of the nervous system, characterized either by mild, episodic loss of attention or sleepiness
medulla of the brain aka medulla oblongata contains swallowing and vomiting centers, regulates breathing and blood circulation
abnormally high fluid pressure in the eye, most commonly caused either by blockage of the channel through which aqueous humor drains
receptor in semicircular canal of the ear which repond to angular and rotational movement of the body maintaining dynamic equilibruim
non corticospinal pathway
brainstem to interneurons associated with motor neurons and is responsible for control of whole limbs rather than individual digits,maintains balance as the neurons are branched for coordination
a globulin that is present in muscle plasma and that in connection with myosin plays an important role in muscle contraction.
vitamin b
found in fresh meat, yeast, etc., produced by the oxidation of nicotine, and used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra.
a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to the bladder or cloaca.
postural hypotension
a fall in blood pressure associated with an upright position, usually occurring as a result of standing still for a long time or rising from a prolonged stay in bed and often causing faintness, dizziness, and vision disturbances.
any disturbance in the rhythm of the heartbeat.
secondary adaptive response
secondary infection by same invader promotes faster and more aggressive response lasting longer which may eliminate invader before symptoms develop
circulatory system
the system of organs and tissues, including the heart, blood, blood vessels, lymph, lymphatic vessels, and lymph glands, involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body.
classical pathway
the activation of complement by an antigen-antibody reaction.
hypovolaemic shock
sudden loss of blood producing sudden fall in blood volume from injury to vessel or loss of plasma from burns or diarrhoea
adaptive immune system
directed against specific invader and formation of immunological memory for faster response to secondary infection by same invader
parietal lobe
the middle part of each cerebral hemisphere behind the central sulcus.
Bringing to or leading toward an organ or part, as a nerve or arteriole
tensor tympani
attached to ossicles that contract in response to loud sound
ruffini corpuscle
An end organ of certain sensory neurons that branches out parallel to the skin and responds to steady pressure and skin stretching
scala media
contains organ of corti and endolymph, bending of hair cells triggers electrical current and release of glutamate which activates dendrites of neuron thats part of auditory nerve, louder the sound grater the release of glutamate
One or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body, to CNS afferent, away from CNS efferent
found in white and grey matter and defend nervous system from infection or injury
a region of the brain, between the thalamus and the midbrain, that functions as the main control center for the autonomic nervous system by regulating sleep cycles, body temperature, appetite, etc., and that acts as an endocrine gland by producing hormone
intercranial pressure
raised pressure within the skull from swelling or bleeding, aneurysm or odema, , signs include enlargement of pupils, slowing of pulse and abnormal respiration,limiting water and salts limit fluid flowing to brain and increasing O2
frontal lobe
the anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus.
corpus callosum
A great band of deeply situated transverse myelinated white fibers uniting the two halves of the cerebrum in humans and other mammals.
high density lipoprotein
A blood constituent involved in the transport of cholesterol and associated with a decreased risk of atherosclerosis and heart attack. 50 protein 50 lipid, unsaturated fatty acids increase HDL
a specific response by the body to a stimulus, as fear or pain, that disturbs or interferes with the normal physiological equilibrium of an organism.
amino acid
Any of a class of organic compounds that contains at least one amino group, and one carboxyl group: the alpha-amino acids are the building blocks from which proteins are constructed.
non milk extrinsic sugar
any sugar excluding lactose not contained within a structure
beta adrenoreceptor antagonist
beta blockers, decrease blood pressure and cardiac output by blocking noradrenic input to the heart
cardiogenic shock
a type of shock caused by decreased cardiac output despite adequate blood volume, owing to a disease of the heart itself, as myocardial infarction, or any other factor that interferes with the filling or emptying of the heart.
stress incontinence
trauma to the muscles of the pelvic floor can lead to loss of contractility of external sphincter and surrounding muscles
clonal expansion
ability to scale up number of immune cells to combat infection,binding of lymphocyte to invader signals other cells to produce daughter cell clones,mature and differentiate most involved with defence, a few become memory cells
non respiratory functions
allows speech via vocal cords,air in nose sampled for pheromones,means of water loss and heat elimination,facilitates blood flow round body as resistance reduced in chest durin inspiration,defence against inhaled matter
respiratory system
the system by which oxygen is taken into the body and an exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place; in mammals the system includes the nasal passages, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
bohr shift
if blood more acidic or at higher temperatures the oxygen dissociation curve sigmoid curve on graph shifts laterally to the right showing a decrease in O2 affinity
auditory nerve
either one of the eighth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the organs of hearing and from the semicircular canals to the brain.
neuropathic pain
neuralgia occurs as a result of injury or disease to nerve tissues disrupting correct transmission of information
grey matter
area of the spinal cord that contains densly packed cell bodies some of which belong to the motor neurons in the ventral root
sympathetic nervous system
Pertaining to that part of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerves that function in opposition to the parasympathetic system, as in stimulating heartbeat, dilating the pupils, autonomic ganglia part of the neuronal pathway situated close to spin
olfactory nerve
either one of the first pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct to the brain the impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose.
motor neuron
A nerve cell that conducts impulses to a muscle, gland, or other effector away from the CNS also called efferent neuron
magnetic resonance imaging
magnetic field detects areas of brain activity
dorsal column medial lemniscal tract
tactile sensation,joint position and vibration signals travel up to the medulla in the brainstem before crossing over to be relayed to the thalamus then the somatosensory cortex
a refractive error of the eye in which parallel rays of light from an external source do not converge on a single focal point on the retina.
basal metabolic rate
The rate at which energy is expended in a basal condition, calculated as calories per hour per square meter of body surface and compared with a normal standard expressed as the percentage above or below the amount of oxygen normally used at rest
loop of henle
the part of a nephron between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules that extends, in a loop, from the cortex into the medulla of the kidney.
starlings law
if venous return is large large vol of blood enters right atrium,atrial muscles stretch and systolic contraction is greater increasing stroke volume
localization of function
different areas of the brain carry out different functions
organ of corti
a structure in the cochlea of a mammal, consisting of hair cells that serve as receptors for auditory stimuli.
menieres disease
a disease of the labyrinth of the ear, characterized by deafness, ringing in the ears, dizziness, and nausea.
autonomic nervous system
the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands and controls their involuntary functions, consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions.
primary motor cortex
part of the frontal lobe that sends commands to the skeletal muscles
MHC class 2 pathway
uses MHC class 2 molecule to display phagocytosed fragments, cleft is open taking peptides 12-14 am acs long, 2 MHC polypepyides in 2 domains each
MHC disease susceptiblity
B cells use MHC 2 molecules, these are structurally variable dependant on the binding amino acids in the cleft which affects ability of the B cell to stimulate an immune response and susceptibility.
sensoneurinal loss of hearing
caused by damage to inner ear sensory or neuronal parts such as cochlear hair cells or parts or vestibulocochlea nerve
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