Final Exam Psyc Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dispositional Attribution
mullerian duct
female system
ascending, descending; carry oxygenated blood systematically
repeated presentation of unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus nearly simultaneously
Nominal Vaiable
property of identity
naming scale
auditory info in the 
parietal lobe

Heading : "Pain Pathways"

After nociceptive input, pain travels from

Local spinal site (dorsal horn) --> Midbrain / brain stem --> ?
long tube extending from dendrites, transmits signals down neurons
• muscles and displays of strength
process of assigning arbitray sympols according to predetermines set of rules
Repressed Memories

• “If you thinControversy initially surrounded sex abuse victims and the idea:“If you think you were abused and your life shows the symptoms, then you were” — removed responsibility of establishing proof. May be false — “recovered” memories influenced by suggestionsk you were abused and your life shows the symptoms, then you were” — removed responsibility of establishing proof

nMay be false — “recovered” memories influenced by suggestions
chief excitatory NT in CNS; EPSP
Prefrontal cortex

Heading : "Ascending Pathways"

Part of the pain matrix

Coordinates long-term emotion associated with pain, deals with storing
Homeostatic Set point
The body's optimal state
located above the medulla; coordinates movement
Process by which sensory receptors and nervous center receive and represent stimulus energies
Fixed Interval
Time interval remains the same throughout.
Cocaine may _____ symptoms of schizophrenia by _____ dopamine levels.
increase; increasing
What is meant by the magic 7?
 Partial or complete loss of memory due to loss of consciousness, brain damage, or psychological cause
action potential
an electrical message sent down neurons axon to other neurons
Systematic Desensitization
process of reducing symptoms, anxiety, phobias: classical conditioning:
Sensory receptors -->Bipolar cells -->Ganglion cells

Hierarchical Processing

of the EYE
1. Muscarinic2. Nicotinic
2) receptors for Acetylcholine (Ach)
color constancies
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color despite changes in illumination affecting the wavelength
What is "meta-analysis"?
Def. A reserach and statistical technique for combining all reserach results on one question and drawing a conclusion.
Intense fear of an object or situation that's greatly out of proportion to its actual threat.
The task of raising children is typically associated with _____ marital satisfaction. The departure of mature children is typically associated with _____ marital satisfaction.
decreasing; increasing
Name-letter effect
a person's behavior may be influenced by his or her name
possitively associate with other things that begin with the same letter as their name
forming a phrase in which the first letter of each word serves as a memory cue
Autism Prevalence
More prevalent in females with lower IQs and males with higher IQs
Psychological Disorders Rarely Show Mendelian Inheritance
Huntington’s disease (dominant gene)Phenylketonuria PKU) (recessive genes; environment too)
Neural Encoding

Refers to the frequency of action potentials
3 classes of neuron
- sensory
- interneurons: carries messages b/w neurons
- motor neurons
Correlational Method
way of determining the degree of association between 2 variables.
deviation IQ
an IQ score that is derived from determining where your performance sits in an age-based distribution of test scores.
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
adolescence - basic challenges
erickson - identity vs. identity confusion/diffusionpuberty= hormone changes and sexual maturation, physiological changesthinking changes: questioning, formal operationalpiaget - formal operational
what is reciprocal determinism?
Bandura's model of two-way casual relations between ppl, behaviour and the environment
nucleus tractus solitarius
structure in medulla where nerves from tongue initially arrive
1. Auditory cortex --> MGN

Heading : "Top-Down Modulation"

ONE (1 of 3) Feedback
A form of reasoning in which we develop general rules after observing specific instances.
inductive reasoning
autonomic nervous system
a system of neurons that controls the internal organs such as the heart
What is a psychophysiological illness?
disorder in which psychological stress causes a real physical disorder or illness

Chapter 11 - Objective 2
...and identify the three clusters into which most personality disorders are grouped.
(Butcher, p. 376)
Categories of ____ ____
• Cluster A
• Cluster B
• Cluster C
A necessary condition to having a personality disorder
a chronic, meladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are integrated into personality. Condition is unchanging.
hopelessness theory: depression results from ?
a pattern of thinking about negative experiences that reduces/eliminates hope that life will get better ~ stable & global causes
need for achievement (nAch)
The desire to excel or meet some internalized standard of excellence.
what is shallow processing?
focus on letters or words (poem or spelling)
How does higher levels of education affect the gender difference in workforce involvement?
Gender difference disappears when workers have university degrees
to arrive @ predictions through induction even when events are actually random
predictable-world bias
- we are so strongly predisposed to find order in our world that we are inclined to anticipate order even when it doesn't exist
- most obvious in games of pure chance: gamblers throwing dice think that they see reliable patterns in the results
what is the philisophical position of empiricism?
that knowledge arises directly from experience 
2. Air pressure (external ear) -->oscillation of tympanic membrane (middle ear) -->oscillation of AUDITORY OSSICLES -->vibration of the membrane of the OVAL WINDOW -->movement of BASILAR MEMBRANE

2nd (of 2) step of transduction
Jill has a biting, sarcastic manner. According to Freud, she is:
fixated in the oral stage of development.
4 reasons for the existence of traits/behaviors that do not serve survival & reproductive functions
- vestigial: once served a function but no longer do
- side effects of other traits that arose through natural selection
- products just of chance: result from 1 or 2 mutations ex. different shape noses
- evolved mechanisms cannot deal effectively w/ every situation: our basic drives, emotions, & other behavioral tendencies promote survival & reproduction but not ever instance does so
What are the 2 main treatments for anxiety disorders? How effective are they?
1. Medications (best for short term; medication alone increases chance of relapse)
2. Psychotherapy: may have greatest role in relapse prevention
What is the difference between the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Thematic Aperception Test?
The test is one that takes a card with a non-descript smudge on it and describes what they see
The test is one that takes a card with a discrete picture on it and requires the testee to describe what is happening.
toward stomach
 Removing unpleasant memories from one’s consciousness, so that one is no longer aware that a painful event occurred
Prevent neurotransmitters from having an effect by blocking receptors' ability to accept specific neurotransmitters
Tests used with Ordinal variables
DID is very similar to?
Dizygotic Twins
Twins tat are fraternal
conversion of physical energy into neural signal
unconscious mind
contains thoughts, memories, desires that are below surface of awareness and that we don't have easy access to
identifying reasons for the occurence of a behavior
The sudden realization of the relationship between elements in a problem situation, which makes the solution apparent
Side of brain for face recognition
Vestibular System

Information on head position
Reproductive success / success in passing along genes
Single-Blind effect
Participants don't know the hypothesis.
Maintaining body systems at a normal level. reacting to environmental conditions to stay consistent.
Biological Theories
-dreams are the byproduct of neurological activity-Activation-Syntheses Theory
(and his socioculteral theory of cognitive development)
focus on influence of child's social and cultural worlds on cognitive development
cognitive development is mostly a result of interations and experiences
mediators are critical psychological tools for learning success
first menstrual period in girls; avg. age in US when this occurs is 12-13 yrs. old
social schemas
organized clusters of ideas about social events and people; allow us to process info and react quickly
amygdala function
the control of motivational and emotional behaviors
Family Therapy
Therapy with your family, stresses that although one person may have problems, but it becomes all of their issue
Fusiform Face Area

Heading : 'Functional Specialization of Perception'

- Involved in recognition of individual faces
Folds that make up the cerebral cortex
depressant; causes a rush of euphoria and relives pain; agonizing withdrawal
What are "dendrites"?
Def. Fingerlike projections from the soma that receive incoming messages from other neurons.
Partial Schedule
Behavior is reinforced some of the time.
The Oedipus and Electra complexes have their roots in the:
phallic stage.
What is appraisal and why is it important?
tendency for stimuli similar to the CS to evoke the CR
technique used to monitor overall activity
an electroencephalogram EEG
Actor-Observer effect
The overall tendency to attribute our own behavior to external sources, but the behavior of others to internal forces
1. afferent2. ventral posterolateral nucleus3. thalamus

Heading: "Somatosensory Pathways--Non-nociceptive Information"

- Synapse at medulla with ____ type of projections to ____ _____ ______ of the _____
Operant Conditioning
our behavior changes as function of what follows the behavior (e.g., if tantrum doesn't get what child wants, he stops tantrums)
The exam you are currently taking would be considered what a(n)?
Achievement Scale
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
antidepressant drugs that work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin by presynaptic neurons
Which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity?
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
What is narcissistic personality disorder?
disorder characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorption
Sexual desire is a factor, but not the only motive to _____
Four subtypes of rapists
motivated by undiffereniated anger and gratuitous aggression (rather than sexual motiv'n)
motivated by displaying hostility and power
motivated by displaying hostility and power (more senstive apologetic)
motivated by sexually sadistic fantasies
what is reciprocal socialization?
bidirectional. i socialize with you. you socialize with me.
Psychological component of taste

The component of taste that deals with its subjective perception
a subject is rewarded after a specific amount of time and the time is variable
variable interval
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a disorder that follows a distressing event outside the range of normal human experience and that is characterized by features such as intense fear, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, and reliving of the event
Heredity Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type 5, Congenital Insensitivity to Pain
rare genetic disorders that cause people to feel no pain
what is a memory
being able to retain and retrieve information. Gives us a sense of personal identity, gives us our past
What are the 3 criterion for schizophrenia?
Criterion A: Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, negative symptoms
Criterion B: Significant impairment in daily life
Criterion C: Duration of symptoms greater than 6 months
Humanistic theory: Unconditional the regard
no value judgment; understand person for who he is; positive acceptance no matter what
antisocial personality disorder
the diagnosis given a person who is in frequent conflict with society, yet who is undeterred by punishment and experiences little or no guilt and anxiety
Clusters of Symptoms for ADHD
Cluster I - InattentionCluster II - Hyperactivity / Impulsivity
What are age-adjusted mortality rates?
1. Used to compare relative mortality risk across groups and over time taking into account the fact that death rates are higher in increasingly older groups
2. The lower this rate, the healthier the population
F-ratio high
then we can say that there is a mean difference between the factors (groups); how large the value must be is determined by a critical F-value and comparing the Critical F-value to the Observed ratio
Variable interval sched. of rein.
sched. of rein. in which the interval time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event 
Programmed Cell Death (PCD) OR Apoptosis
Term that refers to when cells spontaneously kills themselves
What does the sympathetic nervous system do?
part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal
What evidence shows that practice @ a skill alters neural connections so that more neurons become devoted to that skill?
skill learning causes larger portions of the brain to become involved in performing that particular skill
What is the dfference between a single and double
Single blind -- subjects not told which treatment
Grief process of parents with a child with a developmental disability
Seen as a normal process; see grief of parents as a step-wise process, eventually leading to acceptanceIf acceptance is not reached, 'failure to get over' disability -> leads to chronic sorrow
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