Final Exam Terms Civil Rights Movement Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to refuse
Separation of races
1964, Summer
Freedom Summer
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
Congress of Racial Equality
Lyndon Johnson
Congressmen in secretary
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
George Wallace
govn AL - segregationist
Unfair treatment towards a group.
a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
Watts Riots
1965, Los Angelos, watts=slums, reaction to police violence v. black people, 34 people dide, MLK spoke 2 days after riots ended, burned down most of slums, biggest riots until after MLK killed
National Organization for Women. The group pushed for women's rights
1963, September
Bomb in Birmingham, Alabama Church
An act of civil disobedience. Nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave.
Black Codes
Southern states adopted these laws restoring the restrictions of slavery. Prohibited blacks from carrying weapons, serving on juries, etc.
58. de facto
discrimination that was not segregation by law but by customs
Emmett Till
1955- from chicago, murdered while visiting family in MS
Malcolm X
urged African Americans to identify with Africa and to work with world organizations and even progressive white to attain equality
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
SCLC deff
run by MLK Jr
Mongomery bus boycott
wanted sit in veterans to join
united nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
By this year, 7,000 students supported sit-ins
A philosophy and strategy for social change, that rejects the use of violence
Kerner Commission
Nickname for the Nation Advisory Commission on civil Disorders, which blames the riots on an "explosive mixture" of poverty, slum housing, poor education, and police brutality caused by "white racism" and advised federal spending to create new jobs for urban blacks, construct additional public housing, and end de facto school segregation in the North
civil rights
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
Brown vs. Ferguson of Topeka ruled that separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites was acceptable.
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
elijah muhammad
leader of Black Muslims who campaigned for independence for Black Americans (1897-1975)
An act or practice of being prejudice toward a group of people based on outlook, action, or treatment.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
outlawed discriminatory voting practices including poll tax and literacy tests
15th Amendment
This amendment granted black men the right to vote.
Sit in
a form of protest that involves occupying seats or sitting down on the floor of an establishment
Greensboro Sit-Ins
These were a series of peaceful protests in which African-Americans sat down at serving counters in an attempt to reverse stores' policies of racial segregation in the South. They increased national sentiment to free blacks as Woolworth's department store chain reversed their policy of racial segregation.
John F. Kennedy
only Catholic, popular among youth; cold warrior- talked tough about getting rid of communism; spoke strongly in favor of civil rights but didn't do much
security council
a permanent council of the United Nations
the inclusion of people of all races on an equal basis into society
end of reconstruction
north realizes that rebuilding of south/resolving of issues would be slow and complex : caused corruption, depression, equality impeded, southern whites gain power
Montgomery Improvement Association
formed by black ministers and community leaders in Montgomery alabama under the leadership of Martin Luther King
Earl Warren
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
is the belief that changes occur, or ought to occur, slowly in the form of gradual steps
Black Nationalism
Belief in the seperate identity and racial unity of the African American community
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Rosa Parks
civil rights activist who refused to give up her seat on a bus
Freedom Rides
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
March on Washington
1963 demonstration in which more than 200,000 people rallied for economic equality and civil rights
Nation of Islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Ralph Abernathy
was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. He was a black minister who became a close friend and associate of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Following Martin Luther King's assassination he became the leader of the SCLC Poor People's Campaign. He led the March on Washington, D.C..
Selma March
three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement.
Equal employment Opportunity Commission
ensures that employers do not discriminate against employees because of age, race, color or national origin, religion, gender, or physical challenge.
Office of Economic Opportunity
(1964) oversaw many programs dealing w/ improving life in inner cities (ex: Job Corps: education and job training program for at-risk youth)
The Children's Marches
Kids march after the letter from Birmingham jail. On the first day 1,000 kids were jailed. On the second day all the jails were full so police officers brought out hoses and attack dogs. The streets were full of African Americans singing freedom songs to help raise their spirits.
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws enacted in the South after Reconstruction.
Why did CRM change?
Reasons why CRM turned violent:
• Segregation and inequality still exists
• Discrimination still exists
• Police Brutality still exists
• KKK still exist
• Impatient with passive resistance - no real results
• Murder of NAACP leader (1963 Medgar Evans)
• 1964 Alabama Church Bombing
Martin Luther King Jr.
Main Civil Rights Leader. Supported Peaceful protests and Love. Helped to Gain rights for blacks
James Meredith
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
Robert Kennedy
He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.P
Executive Order 8802
Order that FDR issues that bans hiring discrimination.
45. I Have a Dream
famous speech that outlined long-term goals of the civil rights movement that was by MLK Jr. at the Lincoln Memorial
March on Washington 1963
200,000 came to Washington D.C. to call for "jobs and freedom"
Martin Luther King Jr
A Baptist minister and Civil Rights activist who delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech at the March on Washington.
Brown v.Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
grass roots movement
a movement for change that starts with the people
Orval Faubus
He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School
Lyndon B. Johnson
often referred to as LBJ, served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969 after his service as the 37th Vice President of The United States from 1961 to 1963
The second Brown decision 1955
schools must integrate fast (with deliberate speed)
Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
Montgomery Bus Boycotts
Bus company was no longer funded when black boycotted the company, blacks were the main customers, blacks eventually won their case in 1956
6 African American girls
died in the 16th st. Baptist church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1957
was started by Martin Luther King Jr. and advocated the practice of nonviolent protest
Project "C"/ Protest in Birmingham
a strategic movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
civil disobedience
refusal to do what one is told by an authority
What act occured in 1965?
Voting Rights Act (stops those silly tests)
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
the emmett till murder
it occured on august 31, 1955 in money, mississippi. he was shot through the head by roy briant and j. w. milam, chocked by a 75 pound cottin gin that was tied around his neck by a barbewd wire, and thrown into the river. his right eye was on his cheeck and his nose was broken like someone used a meat chopper on it. he couldnt be recognized except for his ring. he was found in the talahatchie river. justice wasnt served at court because the jury said they had failed to identify the body, it was said that roy briant was not guilty. they said the NAACP probably dug up a random body and claimed it was Emmett. his murder impacted the US very hard. 50000 people saw emmett's body. before the insident, many people said that things like Emmett's situation happened only during slavery, not during their generation. this proved them wrong.
Project "C"/ Protests in Birmingham
a plan advised by Martin Luther King Jr.
what were plessy's, his lawyers, and the civil rights groups motivatins behind intentionally sitting in the white section of the train?
they wanted to challenge the law in the courts
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