What is a Vascular Plant? Flashcards

Vascular Plants
Terms Definitions
Isotonic
noting or pertaining to solutions characterized by equal osmotic pressure
Hypotonic
water comes in the cell due to a higher concentration gradient of solutes in the cell
Hypertonic
water comes out of the cell due to a higher concentration gradient of solutes out of cell
xylem and phloem
designed to solve the problem of water and food conduction throughout the plant
synthesis of lignin
used to reinforce walls of water conducting cells
conducting cells of xylem
tracheids and vessel elements
Phloem
Sugars are loaded by companion tube members for transport.
plant tissues
vascular tissue, Meristems, Dermal tissues, Ground tissues
Meristems
regions of cell division
Dermal tissues
plant skin tissues (e.g. waxy cuticle protecting plants from drying out)
Ground tissues
(parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma) that make up the bulk of non-woody plants
parenchyma
the fundamental tissue of plants, composed of thin-walled cells able to divide
collenchyma
layer of modified tissue consisting of cells that are thickened at the angles and usually elongated
sclerenchyma
supporting or protective tissue composed of thickened, dry, and hardened cells
Apical meristems
meristem at the apex of a root or shoot; contribute to increases in the length of the plant, or primary growth
Vascular cambium and cork cambium
present in plants that have secondary growth, an increase in the girth of the plant body
Roots
anchor plant and absorb water and nutrients
Stems
support structure and transport water and organic materials
Leaves
the principle energy transformers
Monocot stems
vascular bundles scattered in the stem
Dicot stems
have bundles arranged in a ring
dendrochronology
the science dealing with the study of the annual rings of trees in determining the dates and chronological order of past events
Two major root types
taproots with one large main root and highly branched fibrous roots
root cap
Protects meristems on roots
Casparian strip
directs passage of water and minerals into the xylem
Veins parallel in
monocots
net-veined in
dicots
mesophyll
the parenchyma, usually containing chlorophyll, that forms the interior parts of a leaf; where most of chloroplasts reside
Plants that trap animals
Frequently in nutrient-poor soils
Venus flytrap
Plants that trap animals; has trigger hairs and guard hairs
Sundews
any of several small, carnivorous bog plants of the genus Drosera, having sticky hairs that trap insects; possess the “superglue of the plant kingdom"
Pitcher plants
any of various insectivorous New World bog plants of the genera Sarracenia, Darlingtonia, and Heliamphora, having tubular or trumpet-shaped leaves containing a liquid in which insects are trapped; act as a “pitfall trap”
Stephen Hales
discovered that plants consume far more water than animals; sunflower 17X more than a human
active accumulation of solutes
(usually K+) raises turgor pressure in guard cells, opening stomata
stomatal behavior affected by environmental factors
dehydration, CO2 concentration, light and temperature
sunflecks
are brief increases in solar irradiance that occur in forest understories when sunlight is able to directly reach the ground. They are caused by either wind moving branches in the canopy or as the sun moves during the day
Eucalyptus regnans
world's tallest tree: Australian mountain ash; over 300 feet high; tallest recorded=435 feet
embolism
the closing off of a blood vessel
driving force for fluid movement into the root
difference in water potential between the root surface and the xylem; can increase root pressure by increasing xylem [ion]
auxiliary
means of moving water into the shoot; most effective at night
hydraulic lift
plants move soil water upward at night
Transpiration stream
once minerals reach xylem, rapidly transported throughout the plant
assimilate stream
translocation stream
translocation stream
upon reaching leaves, mineral ions may enter the phloem along with sucrose
sources
leaves, storage tissues
sinks
growing shoot and root tips, storage tissues
aphids
can be used to study exudates, showing that of the 10-25% dry matter, 90% is sugar
pressure flow hypothesis
sucrose actively loaded into phloem at the source, passively carried along the concentration gradient between source and sink
Translocation
so long as sucrose is removed at the sink, concentration gradient is maintained
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